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University Presentation 2012

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Alicia Chod

on 27 March 2015

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Transcript of University Presentation 2012

What is the issue? Low Self-Concept and Self-Esteem Low Motivation / Engagement Anxiety Attribution Style What is being done in schools? Teachers are concentrating on teaching kids the skills they need to improve in maths BUT teachers are NOT combating the array of cognitive and emotional problems that are influencing math performance. What needs to be done? Programs need to be implemented to target these cognitive and emotional problems in children struggling in academic areas. One such program: Attribution Retraining An attribution is how we explain why things happen







They have three components:

CONTROL --> Controllable or Uncontrollable

LOCUS OF CONTROL --> External or Internal

STABLE --> Stable or Unstable ATTRIBUTIONS THAT ARE ADAPTIVE: Bandura says: Attribution styles should be somewhat realistic. Underestimation of one’s abilities (ie believing success is related to external, unstable and uncontrollable factors) can be maladaptive Overestimating your abilities too much (i.e believing success is related to internal, stable and controllable factors) can be maladaptive Optimal
Attribution Style: SUCESS is due to:

Internal
Stable
Controllable

FACTORS FAILURE is due to:

External
Unstable
Controllable

FACTORS Why is this more
adaptive? When Success is attributed to ability High Self Esteem High Self Concept Low Anxiety High Motivation High Self Esteem High Self Concept High Motivation Low Anxiety When Failure is attributed to effort ttribution etraining  The link between
thoughts, feelings and actions STEP 1: I'm dumb Feel? Do? STEP 2: Evaluating Negative and Positive Thoughts Feel? STEP 3:  How positive and negative thoughts impact on learning I can't do maths I can do maths if
I try hard STEP 4: Our Super Powers to fight against
Negative Thoughts SUPER POWER 1:
THOUGHT DISRUPTING I can't do maths SUPER POWER 2:
POSITIVE SELF TALK If I try harder
I will do better
next time It's OK to ask for help
if I'm having trouble
Everyone needs help sometimes SUPER POWER 3:
REALITY CHECK EFFORT ABILITY MOTIVATION STEP 4: Introducing an adaptive
attribution style Low effort
OR
Lots of effort using the wrong strategies LOW ACHIEVEMENT High effort
AND
The correct strategies HIGH ACHIEVEMENT STEP 5: Increasing Positive Thoughts I will do
better I have done well
in the past STEP 6: Putting it all into practice What does the
Research Say? Toland & Boyle 2008
Reading Grade 6 - 7
12 sessions
√Improved the reading ACHIEVEMENT, MOTIVATION and SELF_ESTEEM THEY SAW IMPROVEMENTS: Horner & Gaither 2004
Grade 2
√Increased math ACHIEVEMENT and ATTRIBUTION STYLE Haynes, Clifton, Daniels, Perry, Chipperfield, Ruthig 2011
Math Undergrads
√Increases ACHIEVEMENT and SELF-ESTEEM
√Inoculation against NEGATIVE OUTCOMES, such as course failure and drop out Shelton et al, 1985
Reading Grade 4-5 6 sessions
√Did increase PERSISTANCE and ATTRIBUTION STYLE THEIR FINDINGS WERE MIXED Meyer & Dyck 1986
Reading Grade 4 - 58 days
Did increase PERSISTENCE
X Did not improve ATTRIBUTION STYLE Thomas & Pashley 1982
Puzzles Ages 8 -12 5 weeks
√ Did increase PERSISTENCE
X Did not improve ATTRIBUTION STYLE Thollefson et al. 1984
Spelling & Math Grade 7 - 9 7 weeks
√ Did increase goal setting STRATEGIES and EFFORT ATTRIBUTIONS Yasutake et al. 1996
Math, spelling & Vocab. Grades 3 - 8 5 - 10 weeks
√ Did increased PERCIEVED COMPETENCE THEY SAW NO IMPROVEMENTS Kennely et al. 1985
Math Age 11 - 15 15 day
X did not change PERSISTENCE or HELPLESSNESS Pflaum & Pascarella, 1982
12 weeks
X no improvement Compared to other treatments: There are not many treatments out there dealing with the issue.

Reinforcement only – creating situations where students never fail. This causes small gains, but is not resilient to future failure.

Strategies training alone – dealing with academic skills

Strategies training AND attribution training - combining academic and cognitive intervention Found combined stratagies and
attribution retrainig
MOST EFFECTIVE

Berkeley, Mastropieri & Scruggs 2011
Turner et al. 1994
Borkowski, Weyhing, Carr 1988 Found strategies program
to be JUST AS EFFECTIVE
without attribution
retrainig

Fulk et a. 1992
Miranda et al. 1997 Possible explanation for
disagreement in the research: WHAT WE STILL DON"T KNOW -How subjects are selected. ie LD or just low achievement

-Optimal age for program

-What is measured/ and how they are measured

-The programs themselves are all different!!!!

-Optimal length of program

-Who is conducting the program/ in what setting it is happening

- Does attribution training in targeting one academic area generalize to other academic areas? How can we use this treatment in the classroom: - We propose that schools are already implementing programs to teach skills and strategies to kids struggling academically

- What needs to be implemented is Attribution Retraining Programs or elements of this program introduced into the classroom

- Therefore we propose that students are getting both strategy and attribution training, giving them the best chance of improving academically ? ? ? ?
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