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Africa: A History Denied

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on 8 November 2013

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Transcript of Africa: A History Denied

Africa: A History Denied (Axum to 1500s)
AFRICA: A HISTORY DENIED
Trade and Cultural Syncretism
THE 4C's
Communities
- Africa, Europe, Arab World, Asia and East Indian Ocean.
Commodities
: Agricultural produce,slaves and precious items
Communions
: Industrialization, Urbanization, Intermarriages, Spread of Islam, Spread of Christianity
Crisis
: Axum vs Islam, Benin vs Europe
Outline
Food for Thought
Africa at a glance
African History Denied: Why?
African History Revived: How?
Politics of West Africa
Arts: Benin and Ife Arts
Women: Amazons of Africa
Trade and Cultural Syncretism
Africa and Modernity
"Africa is no historical part of the world, it has no movement or development to exhibit" - G.W.F Hegel
"Civilization is a movement not a condition, a voyage not a harbor" - Arnold Toynbee
Food For Thought
Trans-Sahara Trade
Contact of Azum and Christianity
Architecture of Great Zimbabwe
Trade in Gold of Ghana In the 11th century
Spread of Islam through Trans-Sahara Trade
West African Monarchies
REALLY???????
African History Denied: Why?
Map of Africa
- Nationalist agitations in the 1950s and 1960s
- Use of Oral histories and traditions
- Use of ethnographic data such as artifacts, customs , belief, etc.
- Historical Linguistics
- Deriving Chronologies through dynastic generations, king lists, etc.
-Literary Imaging
African History Revived: How?
IFE
Traditions of Origins of Yoruba kingdoms is shrouded in creationism
Ife is the cradle of civilization
Headed by the Ooni of Ife
Considered the Holy land
Has more religious than political prominence
YORUBA KINGDOMS
Oyo Kingdom existed between the 14th and 15th century
Descedents of Oduduwa from Ile Ife
Some say they are migrants from Axum or Arabia
Monarchical system- Alaafin (king), Aremo (son), Oyomesi (the council of chiefs), Ogboni (seccret society and judiciary), Ilari (district rulers)
System of checks and balances by the Oyomesi
The Alaafin could be impeached
Impeachment meant death
YORUBA KINGDOMS
Oyo
Ife and Benin Arts
Yoruba artist were sculptors and artists in terra cota and brass works around 1300
Ife heads made by a special waxing system
Life size portraits were made for kings and commoners
Naturalism and scarification
Benin did brass works for royalty and palace interior decorations
Many of the artworks were stolen by Europeans during the conquest of Benin in the 1600s.
Ife Head
Benin Royal Art
Matriarchy as well
Nana Asmau in Sokoto- Renowned scholar of Islam and poetry
Asante Queen Mothers- Research shows women sat on Asante stools that is assumed to be meant for men
Amina of Zau Zau- Warrior and ruled Zaria for 34 years
Moremi of Ife- saved Ife from aggressive neighbors
Amazons of Africa
Absence of written evidences
Colonialism
Eurocentrism
Hamitic vs Semitic Hypothesis
Absence of what modernity refers to as governance
Biases
AMINA OF ZAU ZAU
Africa and Modernity
Full transcript