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Environmental Problems in the Philippines

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Mightie Nimrod Climaco

on 16 July 2014

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Transcript of Environmental Problems in the Philippines

Environmental Problems
in the Philippines

soil erosion
land slides
silting of rivers and dams
greenhouse effect denuded upland
degraded watershed
destruction of corals along the coast
Soil Erosion
unproductive use of farmland
difficulty in raising of livestock
silting of artificial lakes
loss of soil and vegetation which causes climate change
Soil Pollution
Water Pollution
Noise Pollution
Environmental Law: Pollution Control
is the destruction of big areas of forests
the Philippines is among the countries with the fastest loss of forest cover
4th among the world's top 10 most threatened forest hotspots
if the 157,400 ha/year rate of deforestation continues, our remaining forest cover will be wiped out in less than 40 years
Coral Reef Degradation
is a significant problem throughout the world
it has been acknowledged that 27% of the world's reefs have been affected. Gardner (2003) pointed out that:
11% has been completely lost
16% has been damaged
Categorization of Coral Reefs according to Area Covered
Category 1
- Poor (coral reef w/ > 0 to 10% coral cover)
Category 2
- Fair (coral reef w/ > 11 to 30% coral cover)
Category 3
- Good (coral reef w/ > 31 to 50% coral cover)
Category 4
- Very Good (coral reef w/ 51 to 75% coral cover)
Category 5
- Excellent (coral reef w/ > 76 to 100% coral cover)
Soil Erosion
happens when soil and rock are moved from one place to another by wind, water and gravity
building of roads
from oil tankers w/ equipment faults
from nature and human activities on land
from water sports
from drilling works carried out in the sea

Flash Flood
a sudden flood of great volume, usually caused by a heavy rain
may also be a result of deforestation, because the lesser the trees in an area, the greater the chance of flooding
Illegal Mining
is defined as the extraction of valuable materials or other geological materials from the earth from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which forms the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner in the absence of land rights, mining license, exploration or mineral transportation permit or of any document that could legitimate the on-going operations
Illegal logging is believed to have contributed to the staggering death toll in the cities of Iligan and Cagayan de Oro during Sendong 2011. Many victims were swept away by huge logs that rolled down denuded mountains facing the two cities.
is any alteration of the physical, chemical and biological properties of water, air and/or land resources
Air Pollution
means any alteration of the physical, chemical and biological properties of the atmospheric air
means any alteration of the physical, chemical, biological, or radiological properties of a body of water resulting in the impairment of its purity or quality
is the excessive sound that causes hearing loss, stress, fatigue, irritability, tension, headaches, and high blood pressure
is chiefly caused by the chemicals in pesticides, such as poisons that are used to kill agricultural pests and herbicides that are used to get rid of weeds
Coral bleaching
Effects of Environmental Problems
Flash Floods
spread of water-borne diseases e.g. cholera
contamination of drinking water
destruction of sewage systems, dams and levees
Oil Spill
suffocation of marine animals
death of trees from oil in roots
Coral Reef Degradation
loss of edible reef fish
decrease in species diversity and richness
alteration in the size structure of target species
Illegal Mining
water poisoning which affects marine creatures
destruction of coral reefs and other habitat
barenness of land
P.D. 389 (P.D. 705) The Forestry Reform Code
- codifies, updates and raises forestry laws in the country; emphasizes the sustainable utilization of forest resources
P.D. 704
- Preservation of optimum productivity of fishery resources through conservation and protection
P.D. 1219
- Providing for the protection of coral systems
P.D. 1067 Water Code of the Philippines
- adopts adequate measure to conserve and regulate the use of water in commercial, industrial and residential areas; also provides other policy guidelines on water quality and management of water resources
P.D. 463 Amended Mining Act of 1936
- requires all mining leaseholders to comply with Pollution Control Laws and regulations and provide for penalties for noncompliance

P.D. 1251
- Imposes fines on tailing and mine wastes and the fund generated is used to pay for the damages to land, agricultural crops, forest products, aquatic resources and infrastructures caused by pollution for mining operations
P.D. 984 The Pollution Control Law
P.D. 825
- Prohibits the improper disposal of garbage
P.D. 856 Sanitation Code
- Places the responsibility on the local government units fot the solid waste management in their area of production
R.A. 8749 Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999
- provides for a comprehensive air pollution control policy
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