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Senior Project

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Aysha Buchiri

on 11 December 2013

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Transcript of Senior Project



BY :
Aysha A.Rahman Ali 20092049
Noora Ahmed Al-Khaja 20092778
Rawan A.Rahman Ahmed 20092336

Conclusion and
Recommendation
Adding Fibers Cost
How to solve
the Problem?
Economical Considerations


Through doing several tests it was proved that the best two mixes were 31A20 and 35A10.
After adding the polypropylene fibers with different ratios this led to some negative results due to
adding an excessive amount of it.
So after comparing all the results; it was obvious that the best mix is considered to be the 31A20 Mix.

Pervious concrete has to be considered as a great paving material since:
It has the ability to eliminate the use of drainage system due to the large absorption of rain fall water.
Recharging the ground water; and that is why it is considered as a sustainable material.

So it is highly recommended that the Ministry of Works in Bahrain should start using the pervious concrete
paving as many advanced countries had been using it from a long time ago.
Since by using such paving in Bahrain this could solve the problems resulted after the rainfall seasons
especially in the residential areas, which has problems in the existing road slopes and as well as
in the drainage systems.

Fiber doesn’t increase the cost a lot, so it is valuable to add it carefully with small amounts to the standard mix if an improvement of the properties are ensured.
THE PROBLEM
During Rainy seasons, most roads
in Bahrain tends to flood up the rainfall, due to
the impervious material used for paving plus the inappropriate design for the road slope or the drainage system under the road.

Results; Accidents and Traffic Jams.
LOOKING FOR
>>
More
Efficiency
Less
Cost
Researches around the world proved that



is one of the convenient solutions to decrease the run-off from paved surfaces.
What is
Pervious Concrete
?
Pervious Concrete is a special type of concrete with a high porosity used for concrete flatwork applications that allows water to pass through it, thereby reducing the runoff from a site and recharging ground water levels.
Why to use
Pervious Concrete
?
Decrease the run-off
from the paved surface.
Recharge the ground
water table.
Reduce the need for storm
sewer systems.
Acts like a filter to remove
pollutants from rain run-off.
Absorbs much less
heat than asphalt.
Materials Used in
Pervious Concrete
Cementitious Materials
Water
Admixtures
Procedure
Experimental Work
At National Concrete Company
1.
Six Standard Mixes (without Admixtures)
of the Pervious concrete have been prepared
in the company laboratory;
three mixes with 10 mm aggregate size and the
other three are with 20 mm aggregate size.
2.
Slump Test was done for each mix.

3.
Wet Densities were Recorded.
4.
Six cube of each mix have been prepared
and tested in 3 days, 7 days and 28 days
curing period.

5.
Three samples of each mix have been
prepared for the permeability Test using the
Falling Head Method in the University
Soil Mechanics laboratory.

6.
Two Beams Sample of each Mix have been
prepared for the Flexural Strength Test in
the University Materials laboratory.

7.
The Best Mix of the 10 mm mixes has been
chosen, as well as the 20 mm mixes based on the
compressive strength and permeability
obtained results.
8.
Finally, Polypropylene fibers has been
added to the Best Two standard mixes
chosen earlier.

9.
All the previous tests have been
applied again for the mixes
reinforced with fibers.
Mixes Definitions
31A20
310 Kg/m3 cement with 20 mm aggregate size
35A10
350 Kg/m3 cement with 10 mm aggregate size

35A20
350 Kg/m3 cement with 20 mm aggregate size

38A20
380 Kg/m3 cement with
20 mm aggregate size
31A10
310 Kg/m3 cement with
10 mm aggregate size

35A10
350 Kg/m3 cement with
10 mm aggregate size

38A10
380 Kg/m3 cement
with 10 mm aggregate size
Bag of Polypropylene Fibers
0.6 kg/m3 = 0.025 of the total mass of the mix

Bags of Polypropylene Fibers
1.2 kg/m3 = 0.05 of the total mass of the mix

Bags of Polypropylene Fibers
Results
Standard
Mixes
Slump
Density
Compressive
Strength
Permeability
Flexural
Strength
Through doing the slump test of the six mixes, all of them had zero slumps so this indicates a very low workability for pervious concrete comparing with the regular concrete and asphalt.
Mixes
Reinforced with Fibers
Slump
Density
Compressive
Strength
Permeability
Flexural
Strength
Through doing the slump test of the six mixes, all of them had zero slumps so this indicates a very low workability for pervious concrete comparing with the regular concrete and asphalt.
Final Results
 
The density results shows that adding the fibers to the standard mixes can lower its density; however, they are still in the acceptable range of pervious concrete density (1600 – 2000) kg/m3.


Adding fibers can improve the compressive strength of the previous concrete unless the fiber volume is so high that may lead the air voids content to become excessively high which tends to have a negative effect on the compressive strength. Unfortunately, this project results shows that the fibers content was high which leads to lower the compressive strength.


Effects on Permeability results were not really clear, for the 35A10 – Standard mix , the permeability has been increased by adding 0.025% and 0.05 % of fibers; but 0.07% of fibers was a high amount which gives a negative effect and decreased the permeability comparing with the standard mix.
However, adding the fibers to the 31A20 mix gave negative permeability results with the all the three amounts of fibers (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.07%).

As the fibers content added were very high and more than the requirements, results were negative and the flexural strength of the (mixes reinforced with fibers) were less than the standard ones due to the less bonding between the aggregate particles.


- Pervious concrete is a sustainable paving material, with a life expectancy equal to that of regular concrete.

- Grading requirements for the pavement are also reduced because there is no need to slope the area to storm drains.

- Because a pervious concrete pavement doubles as a stormwater management system, there is no need to purchase additional land for installing large drainage system.
Best Two
Standard Mixes

Presentation Outline
Further Work
References
Pleased to Answer your Questions
- Tyson, S.(2012).Pervious concrete. Retrieved January 29, 2013, from http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/concrete/pubs/hif13006/index.cfm

- Orlando, F.(2007).Compressive Strength of Pervious Concrete Pavements. Retrieved February 12,2013,from
http://www.dot.state.fl.us/rddesign/Hydraulics/Research/SA/FinalReport-3of4-Pervious-Concrete-Strength.pdf

- South Coventry Township.(2012).Storm water. Retrieved February 20, 2013, from southcoventry.org/departments/stormwater/

- Neptune,A.(2008).Investigation of the effects of aggregate properties and gradation on pervious concrete mixtures. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from
http://etd.lib.clemson.edu/documents/1220474418/umi-clemson-1819.pdf

- Yang, J., & Guoliang, J. (2003).Experimental Study on Properties of Pervious Concrete Pavement Materials. Cement and Concrete Research., pp. 381-386.

- Foundation of your building.(n.d).Fiber reinforcing polypropylene (fiber).Retrieved March 17,2013 ,from
www.fibrainfo.com/en/produkcziya/volokno-armiruyushheepolipropilenovoe-fiber.html

- Kevern,J .Schaefer,V.Wang,K & Suleiman,M.(2007). Pervious Concrete Mixture Proportions for Improved Freeze-Thaw Durability. Journal of ASTM International,5(2).

- Babtiwale,V.(2012). Pervious concrete: A concrete step towards a green earth. Retrieved February 12, 2013, from http://www.foundationsakc.org/process/perviousconcrete

- Varma ,D.(2012).High permeability pervious concrete .Retrieved April 20,2013,from http://www.holderchem.net/pdf/batimix-pervious-concrete-solution.pdf

- Balogh,A.(2001).Pervious concrete pavement. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://www.concretenetwork.com/pervious/

- Tennis,P., Leming,M and Akers,D.(2004).Pervious concrete.2nd edition. North California.USA.Pervious Concrete Design for Paving 63

- Stewart Prezant Ergonomics Group.(n.d).Concrete Screeding. Retrieved May 2,2013,from www.lhsfna.org/files/Roller_Screeder_tip_sheet.pdf

- The Library of Congress Country Studies.(1993).Bahrain climate. Retrieved May 5, 2013,from www.photius.com/countries/bahrain/climate/bahrain_climate_climate.html

- Hooker,K.(2011).Screed stars. Retrieved May 10, 2013, from http://www.concreteconstruction.net/tools-and-equipment/screed-stars.aspx

- Muliquip.(2010).Screeds. Retrieved May 10, 2013, from www.multiquip.com/multiquip/3207_5708_ENU_HTML.htm

- British geological survey.(2010).Sustainable drainage systems. Retrieved May 20, 2013, from http://www.bgs.ac.uk/suds/

- Abdulrehman,H.(2012).Some properties of fiber reinforced no fine concrete. Retrieved May 20, 2013, from http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=64427
Much more researches can be done and
more considerations should be taken into account
in order to improve the use of pervious concrete,
and to prevent some of its disadvantages;

1. Using a little portion of polypropylene fibers in order to
increase the compressive and flexural strength.
2. Another type of admixtures can be added to improve
the properties of the pervious concrete,
such as: carbon fibers, silica fume and fly ash. .
3. More tests can be applied like; split test.

Disadvantages
of

Pervious Concrete
It could be damaged due to
inappropriate use.

Not appropriate when
land surrounding or draining into
the pavement exceeds a 20%
slope

Need continuous maintenance to prevent clogged areas, by vacuum or pressured water.
Not suitable for heavy traffic area
such as: industrial areas.
Special equipments and techniques
are needed in the placing process.
- What is a Pervious Concrete?
- Why to use Pervious Concerete?
- Disadvantages of Pervious Concerte.
- Particular Areas to place Pervious Concrete.
-Materials used in Pervious Concerte.
- Experimental work.
- Procedure.
- Mixes Definitions.
- Results.
a- Standard Mixes Results.
b- Mixes Reinforced with Polypropylene Fibers Results.
-Economical Considerations.
- Conclusion and Recommendations.
-References.

Coarse Aggregate
1.8 kg/m3 = 0.07 of the total mass of the mix
The Best Mix
Reinforced with Fibers
Lower life-cycle costs
Effects on
the Density:
Pervious Concrete
Design for Paving

CENG490
Supervised By: Dr. Raad Kadhum
Parking lots
Particular Areas to place
Pervious Concrete
Pedestrian sidewalks
Residential areas
Shoulders of
Highway Roads
Tennis courts and
Children playing grounds
Pervious Concrete

 Effects on the
Compressive Strength:
Effects on the
Permeability:
Effects on the
Flexural Strength:

University of Bahrain
College of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture
Senior Design Project
CENG 490
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