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Bureaucracy in Education
Transcript of Bureaucracy in Education
Social status is achieved through individual effort.
• Based on ability and achievement rather than social class background or parents’ social status.
• A meritocracy is based on competition: a social process when rewards given to people on the basis of how their performance compares with the performance of others.
Bureaucracy in Education
Educators of the 1900s believed that children should be educated the same way that the cars were mass produced.
There is still an impersonal bureaucratic process in public education.
Most of the schools are based
-rules and procedures
Democratic Reform in the Classroom
• Providing citizens with good education has always been
• The first public schools had firm rules
•In the humanistic movement, restrictive rules were eliminated.
The Open Classroom
• Non-bureaucratic approach based on democratic relationships, flexibility, and non-competitiveness.
• Introduced in 1960
• Students study in groups
• Cooperation replaces competition
• Stress is reduced
• Academic performance and self esteem increases
• More positive attitudes towards school
• Racial and ethnic injustice decrease
Students and teachers collaborate to create the curriculum.
The curriculum is democratic.
It takes advantage of the various ways students express their intelligence.
Alternatives to the Public School System
• Government makes the money spent per child on public education available to families for choosing schools for their children.
• Families would use the voucher to pay a portion of the tuition equal to the amount the government spends per child in the public school system
Publicly funded that operate like a private school by using public school teachers and administrators.
Public schools that attempt to achieve high standards by specializing in a certain area designed to enhance school quality and to promote desegregation.
Some reformers do not believe local or federal government is capable of improving the educational system.
Profit schools would be supported by government funds but run by private companies
is an action that produces an intended and recognized result.
is an unintended and unrecognized result.
Culture is the beliefs, practices, values, norms, and attitudes of a society. In a school system transmitting culture is a key role.
• Students are taught about the shared values of society and the standard behavior that is expected from them.
Creating a Common Identity
• Learning a common language and sharing in national history promotes a shared identity.
• The result of this is a society with norms, beliefs, attitudes, and homogenous values.
• Children learn more about the nation's values and contributions made by different people.
Selecting and Screening Students
For over 50 years, intelligence and achievement tests have been used to group children in schools.
•The purpose of this is to identify an individual's talents and aptitudes.
• Tracking is the placement of students in programs according to academic ability.
• Schools expose the students to a variety of experiences and perspectives helping them develop
Minorities such as:
have the lowest SAT scores and lower performances.
The SAT was originally created and used to identify talented youth regardless of their social class background, so they could attend elite colleges and universities.
College Entrance Exams
Equality and Inequality in Education
Achieving success can be difficult for those individuals who find themselves in the lower class, and racial and ethnic background.
Educational equality is the condition in which schooling produces the same results for lower-class and minority children as it does for other children.
Research has shown that even the best of teachers may evaluate students on the basis of their social class or their racial and ethnic characteristics.
This tendency to judge students on nonacademic criteria is especially apparent in the practice of tracking .
THE HIDDEN CURRICULUM
Symbolic interactionists study how schools transmit culture through the socialization process.
Hidden curriculum is the nonacademic agenda that teaches:
norms and values
These skills are necessary for future professions.
Schools socialize children for the transition in their lives and provide opportunities in operating independently in their personal academic achievement.
In the hidden curriculum, patriotism develops a sense of civic duty.
Textbooks portray history favoring the nation
Convey values and beliefs
negative information is not presented.
US History textbooks have little information about the harsh treatment to Native Americans or none at all.
Textbooks before 1980
More balanced picture of society
Conflict still rises over which group’s view of society is the most accurate.
Men were portrayed in challenging and aggressive activities.
Woman as homemakers, mothers, nurses and appeared less frequently.
Teachers and Socialization
Teachers are a child’s first authority figures outside family. They affect student’s performance in academic tasks.
• 1986 study of Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson
Sexism in Education
Children are taught to adopt “appropriate" gender identity in school.
In a 1995 study, Myra Sadker and David Sadker contended that American teachers are unfair to girls.
As a result of the differences, most of the boys are more likely to:
• -receive the most attention from teachers
• -be praised
• -call out in class
• -be talkative in class
• -demand help or attention
• -be called on in class
Girls are guided in school toward traditional female jobs away from the high paying, powerful, and prestigious jobs.
FACT: four times more men than women receive bachelor's degrees in engineering.
Studies show that females do better in single-gender classes than in coeducational schools.
According to the findings, when teachers don't have boys in their classes, they give their attention to female students, who respond with high levels of performance.
Education in Honduras
Some of the Problems faced in Honduras may include the following
Education in Honduras consist of three stages.
- Primary: 1st- 6th grade
-Secondary: 7th-11th or 12th grade
-University studies: licentiate, master and doctorate
- In 1999, the gross primary enrollment rate was 97.3 percent and the net primary enrollment rate was 85.7 percent.
-Among working children, 34 percent finish primary school estimated. A lack of schools prevents many children in Honduras to receive an education, as well as costs such as tuition fees, school uniforms, and transportation costs.
-The secondary school is divided in two sections, common cycle, which are the first three years (7th-9th grade), and diversified cycle, commonly a bachelor degree (10th-12th or grade), accountant or technician careers.
- The university is ruled by National Autonomous University of Honduras is the public university in Honduras, it has campuses in the Most important cities in Honduras.
One characteristic of bureaucracy is the tendency to specialize.
For example, professional
educators are specialists on being librarians or classroom teachers.
In the bureaucratic models, education can be more efficient by putting a large amount of students that are at a similar stage in ability and development.
All the students will receive the same instructions.
Efficiency is increased when teachers teach similar content.
The Purpose of Standardization
Criticism to Bureaucracy
Not appropriate for schooling.
• Critics prefer formal schooling.
• Formal schooling is education that is provided and regulated by society.
• Critics also prefer several less-rigid, more democratic alternatives.
Widespread illiteracy is more than 40% of the total population
more than 80% in rural areas
Especially in rural areas, schools are not accessible or there are 80 children in one classroom.
Honduras lacked a national education system until the late 1950s.
Before 1957, education was a privilege for those who could afford it.
The government of Ramón Villeda Morales (1957-63) introduced reforms establishing a national public education system.