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Transcript of KOREA
IT IS CALLED
IN SOUTH KOREA
MOUNTAINS AND HILLS
MAKE UP ABOUT 70% OF
Land of the morning calm
IN NORTH KOREA
is bordered by
to the northwest and
to the northeast.
It is separated from
to the east by the Korea
Strait and the East Sea.
it is lies in the north temperature
zone which is cold
MOUNTAINS AND HILLS MAKE UP ABOUT
70% OF THE COUNTRY
SOUTH KOREA PRESIDENT:
84,610 sq mi
The combined population of the Koreans is about
North Korea: 23 million,
South Korea: 50 million
IS THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF BOTH
NORTH AND SOUTH KOREA
KOREAN ALPHABET KNOWN AS
HANGUL IN SOUTH KOREA &
CHOSUNGUL IN CHINA AND NORTH KOREA
South korea total area:
north korea total area:
historically, koreans lived under the influences of
today, it has been characterized by a rise of
and a revival of
government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
, the cabinet is the
administrative and executive body
North Korean government
consists of three branches:
administrative, legislative, and judicial
they are not independent of each other
Supreme Leader: Kim Jong-un
The Government of South Korea (officially,
The Government of Republic of Korea
) is divided into three
executive, judicial and legislative branches and plus electoral branch
IS DERIVED FROM
A DYNASTY WHICH RULED KOREA IN THE MIDDLE AGES
AND CUTURE OF KOREA
Dangun Wanggeom or Tangun
was the legendary founder of Gojoseon, the first Korean kingdom
He is said to be the
"grandson of heaven"
, and to have founded the kingdom in 2333 BC.
Dangun's ancestry legend begins with his grandfather Hwanin, the "Lord of Heaven". Hwanin had a son, Hwanung, who yearned to live on the earth among the valleys and the mountains.
Hwanin permitted Hwanung and 3,000 followers to descend onto Paektu Mountain, where Hwanung founded the State of Shinshi
("City of God").
Along with his ministers of clouds, rain and wind, he instituted laws and moral codes and taught humans various arts, medicine, and agriculture.
A tiger and a bear prayed to Hwanung that they might become human. Upon hearing their prayers, Hwanung gave them 20 cloves of garlic and a bundle of mugwort, ordering them to eat only this sacred food and remain out of the sunlight for 100 days. The tiger gave up after about twenty days and left the cave. However, the bear persevered and was transformed into a woman. The bear and the tiger are said to represent two tribes that sought the favor of the heavenly prince.
The bear-woman (Ungnyeo) was grateful and made offerings to Hwanung. However, she lacked a husband, and soon became sad and prayed beneath a "divine birch" tree (Hangu) to be blessed with a child. Hwanung, moved by her prayers, took her for his wife and soon she gave birth to a son named Dangun Wanggeom.
Dangun ascended to the throne, built the walled city of Asadal situated near Pyongyang (the location is disputed) and called the kingdom Joseon—referred to today as Gojoseon "Old/Ancient Joseon" so as not to be confused with the Joseon that was established much later. He then moved his capital to Asadal on Mount Paegak or Mount Gunghol
THE THREE ancient KINGDOMS
1. Goguryeo 37 BC–668 AD
2. Baekje 18 BC–660 AD
3. Silla 57 BC–935 AD
- FOUNDED BY PRINCE JUMONG FROM THE KINGdom of bayeo
- located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of inner and outer Manchuria
- founded by Onjo, the third son of Goguryeo's founder Jumong and So Seo-no, at Wiryeseong
- was a kingdom located in southwest Korea
- Although it was founded by King Park Hyeokgeose, the dynasty was ruled by the Gyeongju Kim clan for most of its 992-year history
- allied with China, but Silla eventually conquered the other two kingdoms, Baekje in 660 and Goguryeo in 668
- is the body of literature produced by Koreans, mostly in the Korean language and sometimes in Classical Chinese.
- For much of Korea's 1,500 years of literary history, it was written in
is the Korean name for Chinese characters (hanzi). More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation.
is home to the world's first metal and copper type, world's earliest known printed document and the world's first
is an alphabet or other writing system wherein the shapes of the symbols (e. g. letters) are not arbitrary, but encode phonological features of the phonemes they represent
CLASSICAL KOREAN POETRY
has its roots in traditional folk beliefs and folk tales of the Korean peninsula.
There are four major traditional poetic forms:
1. hyangga ("native songs");
2. pyolgok ("special songs"), or changga ("long poems"); 3. sijo ("current melodies"); and
4. kasa ("verses").
Other poetic forms that flourished briefly include the kyonggi-style, in the 14th and 15th centuries, and the akchang ("words for songs") in the 15th century.
was written in Korean using modified hanja in a system that is called idu, literally "clerk's writings.
- system using hanja characters to express Korean
are characterized by a number of formal rules.
The poems may consist of four, eight or ten lines.
The ten-line poems are the most developed, structured into three sections with four, four, and two lines respectively.
Many of the ten-line poems were written by Buddhist monks. And Buddhist themes predominate the poems. Another dominant theme was "death".
Many of the poems are eulogies to monks, to warriors, and to family members.
was the first uniquely Korean form of poetry. Only twenty five survive.
The Samguk Yusa contains 14 poems and the "Gyunyeojeon", a set of biographies of prominent monks, contains eleven poems.
Both these classic works were written much after the Unified Silla, in the subsequent Goryeo dynasty, yet the poems in the Samguk Yusa appear to be based on no-longer-extant records actually from the Silla period.
Ode to Eternal Life
by a monk named
As you go to the west this night,
I pray thee, go before the eternal Buddha
And tell him that there is one here
Who adores him of the deep oaths
And chants daily with hands together saying
Oh grant me eternal life!
Oh grant me eternal life!
But alas, can any of the 48 vows be kept
While still trapped in this mortal frame?
2. pyolgok ("special songs"),
or changga ("long poems")
or goryeo songs
It is characterized by a refrain either in the middle or at the end of each stanza.
The refrain establishes a mood or tone that carries the melody and spirit of the poem or links a poem composed of discrete parts with differing contents.
The theme of most of these anonymous poems is
love, the joys and torments
of which are expressed in frank and powerful language.
The poems were sung to musical accompaniments chiefly by women entertainers, known as
There are two distinct forms:
shorter form in which the entire poem was put into a single stanza
is a more extended form in which the poem is put into several stanzas
3. Sijo ("current melodies")
- are characterized by a structure of three stanzas of four feet each. Each foot contains three to four syllables except on the third stanza, where the 1st foot is supposed to have 3 syllables and the 2nd foot can have as many as seven.
- it reflected Confucian thought; the theme of loyalty is common and have been popular with common people
4. kasa ("verses")
- although its content can include more than the expression of individual sentiment, such as moral admonitions
- is a simple form of verse, with twinned feet of three or four syllables each. Some regard gasa a form of essay. Common themes in gasa were nature, the virtues of gentlemen, or love between man and woman.
CLASSICAL KOREAN POETRY
is often regarded as Korea's first woman poet.
Her poem, the
, is one of only three poems from ancient Korean kingdom, Gojoseon and the first by a woman.
SOME FAMOUS LITERARY WORKS IN KOREA
The Cloud Dream of the Nine by Kim Manjung is a 17th Century Korean novel set in Tang Dynasty China. It was the first literary work of Korea to be translated into English, by James Scarth Gale in 1922. Richard Rutt's translation is entitled A Nine Cloud Dream.
Hong Gildong is a fictional character in an old Korean novel, Tale of Hong Gildong , written in the Joseon Dynasty. The story was authored by Heo Gyun and is believed to have been written in the late 16th or early 17th century. Hong Gildong robs the rich and corrupt aristocrats to provide for the poor, much like the English folk hero Robin Hood. Hong Gildong's historical inspiration was the early 16th century Korean bandit and folk hero Im Kkeokjeong.
The author of the novel, Heo Gyun, is usually known in Korea as the writer of the first Korean novel, but was also a radical intellectual. His half-brother Heo Seong was at that time a famous poet, and his sister Heo Nanseolheon one of Korea's few famous female poets and artists. Heo Gyun had long dreamed to change Korea into a fair society with no pressures within a hierarchy.
Hong Gil dong is also a common placeholder name, similar to John Doe in the United States
The Chunhyangjeon "The Story of Chunhyang") is one of the best known love stories and folk tales of Korea. It is based on the pansori Chunhyangga
Date of composition and author are unknown, and the present form took shape 1694~1834 from the most famous of the five surviving pansori tales, the Song of Chun Hyang.
ChunHyang, Sung (Spring Fragrance) is the main female character, kisaeng Wolmae's daughter. She is very beautiful and also talented in poetry and arts. She fell in love with MongRyong.
Mong Yong, Yi is the main male character who is the son of a Government official (Magistrate). He is intelligent and handsome. He fell in love with ChunHyang.
HyangDan is ChunHyang's servant. She is devoted to ChunHyang.
PangJa is MongRyong's male servant.
Wolmae (Moon Plum) is ChunHyang's mother and used to be a kisaeng.
Yi Mong Yong who always studies hard, goes out to get some fresh air. He sees ChunHyang on a swing and it's love at first sight. He orders his servant, BangJa to ask ChunHyang to come to him but she refuses. Yi Mong Yong goes to talk to ChunHyang's mother, Wolmae, to ask permission to marry ChunHyang; Wolmae gives her permission and the two young people marry that day.
Yi Mong Yong's father, a government official, has to move to another region, Hanyang (Seoul now) so Yi Mong Yong has to leave ChunHyang to follow his father. After he leaves, a new lord comes to ChunHyang's village. The new lord is greedy and selfish- he always wastes his time at partying with courtesans. ChunHyang, renowned for her beauty, is forced to come to his party. Although ChunHyang is not a courtesan the lord treats her like one because her mother is a courtesan. So he compels her to sleep with him, but ChunHyang keeps refusing because she is married. The lord gets angry and imprisons her. He decides to punish her on his birthday.
Yi Mong Yong wins first place in a state examination and he becomes a secret royal inspector, or AmHengUhSa, who investigates and prosecutes corrupt government officials as an undercover emissary of the king. Under disguise, he comes to ChunHyang's village and finds out what have happened to ChunHyang and the misbehavior of the lord. He must conceal his real identity so he acts like an insane person and wears mendicant clothes. Despite his mendicancy, ChunHyang still loves him and asks her mother to take good care of him.
At the lord's birthday celebration, Yi Mong Yong comes in and makes a satirical poem about the misbehavior of the lord, but the lord does not understand the poem. Yi Mong Yong discloses his real position and punishes the lord. At first, ChunHyang cannot recognize Yi Mong Yong and he tests her faith by asking her to spend a night with him. ChunHyang, who still cannot recognize him, refuses him as well. However, she recognizes him soon and they live happily ever after.