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Globalization of Education

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Ashlee Anderson

on 27 May 2016

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Transcript of Globalization of Education

What is Globalization of Education?
Knowledge Economy
-scapes
Global Economy
Spatial Compression
Let's talk about the class . . .
This is the dominant perspective in popular discourse.
Differing conceptions of Globalization
Temporal: the instantaneous flow of ideas and information (Global Media/Social Media)
Spatial: compression of space that separates us . . . the increasing inter-connectedness of human populations across the globe into complex social relations (conscious & unconscious)
Globalization refers to a social phenomenon emerging over the past 40 years characterized by temporal and spatial compression.
Knowledge Economy
Emphasizes that knowledge has become the most important factor in economic development
Associated with the Global Economy
Four "Big Ideas" associated with the Knowledge Economy
Global flows of ideas, practices, institutions, cultural artifacts, and people
Ideo-scapes, media-scapes, finance-scapes, etc.
Geographical conceptualization of global movement
Built on a vision of dynamic change, innovation, and technological development
Advances in information technology
High technology: high value production (Developed Western Nations)
Industrial: lower value production (Developing Nations)
Resource Extraction: lowest value production (Under-developed Nations)
1. Human Capital: the education and training of a population is an economic input
The more educated a population, the greater the prosperity of the nation.
The more education an individual obtains, the greater his/her income potential.
2. Life-long Learning: idea that rapid changes in the global economy requires individuals to re-tool their skill sets throughout their lives
Old formula: education, then get a job, then retire from the same company
New reality: continuous creation and destruction of entire industries
New formula: individuals must constantly re-train to meet the demands of a new economic reality
4. Multiculturalism: cultural learning for global societies
Global Migration and Multicultural Societies: Multicultural workforces and consumers
Global Business: "Doing" business in different nations
3. Economic Development: education should be viewed as an economic investment for both individuals and nations
Advanced Economies: maintain advantages through education investments . . . create new economies = new industries and services
Developing Economies: path to economic development and growth . . . way to become competitive with advanced economies and move up the value chain
According to Arne . . .
Global Superstructure
vs.
Local Concerns
Comparative International Education
vs.
Globalization of Education
Comparative International Education examines the philosophical and cultural origins of national education systems.
Japan Example
Goal of Comparative International Education is to identify these characteristics and compare this system to another system with its own unique characteristics.
Globalization of Education
Evidence
Refers to the worldwide discussions, processes, and institutions affecting local educational practices and policies.
Treats individual nations as being in dynamic relations with global educational processes and discourses.
Similar educational practices all over the world
Discourses propagated by governmental and inter-governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, and multinational corporations.
Each nation's educational system is influenced by global discourses about the purposes, practices, and policies of public education.
Global Networks!
Superstructure
Politics & Political Cohesion

Cultural Values

Languages, Religion, etc.
Local Concerns
Global institutions (UN, OECD, World Bank); transnational corporations (Pearson, Apollo Group); business organizations & think tanks (Chamber of Commerce, Hoover Institution); and global universities (Princeton, Cambridge)

Most adopt the perspective of education as an economic input BUT not all. (The UN views education as the key to democracy, cultural preservation, and peace.)
Break into groups of three or four and share your biographies.
Educational Biography
How were your educational biographies similar?

Were there any common themes?
Questions to consider:
What common themes emerged?
What was the overarching goal of your schooling?
What subjects were taught? Why do you think these were privileged over others?
What instructional strategies did you experience?
How was your learning assessed?
Common Themes?
What did you find?
Thesis one: Your educational biographies/experiences are intertwined with a much larger discourse going on in American society for the past three decades about the purposes, practices, and policies of public education.
What do you think this is?

When do you think it was written?
Other factors?
This is an excerpt from A Nation at Risk, a 1983 report from Reagan's National Commission on Excellence in Education.
Thesis two: Your educational biographies/experiences are intertwined with a global discourse about the purposes, practices, and policies of public education.
In your small groups, read and discuss the distributed excerpt.
What are the central ideas underpinning this text?
Do you see a relationship between your educational biographies and the ideas presented in this text?
Recap: what is globalization of education?
Refers to the worldwide discussions, processes, and institutions affecting local educational practices and policies.
78% of the PT and 98% of the FT have graduate degrees
This is what Joel Spring calls a Global Education Culture.
Intl. Ed. Perspectives
Global Educational Discourse
GE Duality
So . . .
What is globalization of education?

Perspectives on International Education
It treats individual nations as discreet units with identifiable characteristics.
Confucian Philosophy & Culture
Social Ontology: primacy of social and individual identities in a social process
Respect for elders and wisdom
Prioritizes education and respect for teachers
Civil service examination and social mobility
Schooling
Cohesive classes: student ownership of classroom and rotating teachers
Social ownership: teachers and students clean school and serve one another food
Sensei: teachers are held in high esteem by society (K-University)
Testing culture: focus on examinations
This is the perspective that we will adopt in this course.
We will spend the first half of this course developing this perspective (Thesis Two).
For the second half of the course, we'll put this perspective to work by examining different trajectories within this global education culture.
Not a one-way street! INTERACTION between local and global!
Treats individual nations as being in dynamic relations with global educational processes and discourses.
Appadurai: global networks enabled by advances in information technology, mass media, and global institutions
Refers to the emergence of global markets & supply chains that link individual national economies into an international division of labor
U.S. Secretary of Education
What happens globally affects what we experience on national and local levels!
"We have to educate our way to a better economy."
-Arne Duncan
For the first half of the course, we will focus on this global superstructure. For the second half of the course, we will investigate how this dynamic plays out in individual nations.
Refers to the worldwide discussions, processes, and institutions affecting local educational practices and policies.
Treats individual nations as being in dynamic relations with global educational processes and discourses.
Putting it to work . . .
Divide up into six groups and answer the following questions according to your assigned theory.
Describe your theory
How does your theory understand the globalization of education?
What is the evidence, i.e. why is your theory best suited to describe the dynamic processes of the globalization of education?
Evaluate your theory, i.e. what are its strengths and weaknesses?
Can you think of a current example where this theory might be applied?
How might this theory apply to your own educational biography?
World Models of Education
Economic World Model
Economic vs. Progressive
This is the dominant perspective in global education discourses.
Embraces the concept of the knowledge economy
The goals and purposes of education are primarily economic.
Input knowledge (education)
Output economic productivity

Progressive World Model
Economic development, but not primary motivator.
Goals of education & schooling are social justice, sustainability, preparation of democratic citizenry, cultural preservation, and peace
Full transcript