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TV Drama Revision
Transcript of TV Drama Revision
exam The Basics-
it is a 2hr exam with 2 questions
(one on TV Drama the other on Institutions and Audiences : Music Industry). Timing
The total time of the examination is two hours, including 30 minutes viewing time.
The 30 minutes at the beginning will be for reading the questions, viewing and making notes on the extract, before the start of the examination.
Each section of the examination paper is weighted equally and marked out of 50.
It is recommended that you divide the time between Section A and B equally, with 45 minutes for each, although the unit will be administered as a continuous examination of two hours.
Screening the Extract.
The extract will be screened four times in order to allow you to make notes for your answers.
Notes on the moving image extract are made on the answer booklet provided. You are allowed to read the question before the extract is screened. You will then watch the moving image extract, without making notes, for the first screening. You should then make notes for the three subsequent screenings. Use the clock face handout to mark out your exam timings How You Are Assessed Total of 50 marks
20 marks: Analysis & Argument
20 marks: Use of examples from the clip
10 marks: Use of terminology Technical Elements You need to discuss the following technical elements:
Camera Shots, Angle, Movement and Composition
Mise en scène
It is acknowledged that not every one of the above technical areas will feature in equal measure in any given extract. Therefore examiners are instructed to bear this in mind when marking the your answers and will not expect each aspect will be covered in the same degree of detail, but as appropriate to the extract provided and to the discussion of representation. TV Drama- Representation You should be prepared to discuss, in response to the question, how the technical elements create specific representations of individuals, groups, events or places and help to articulate specific messages and values that have social significance. Particular areas of representation that may be chosen are:
Class and status
Definition of Representation Representation in TV Drama relates to the construction of the ‘reality’ on screen. The technical aspects of sound, editing, camerawork, and mise en scène are all used to construct a representation of an event, place or person(s). How Do I Link The Technical Codes To Representation? This is the most important thing to do when writing your response to the clip.
You do it by giving specific examples of how the technical codes “assist in the construction of the representation of……age/class/gender/ethnicity/ sexuality etc…..”
How To Link The Technical Codes to Representation On the following screen are examples of how you would phrase a sentence(s) to illustrate/explain how the technical element was used to construct a representation. For each example you should write your own response to the clips shown in your revision classes on the sheet provided. Age:
A fast, lively non diegetic soundtrack is used in the sequence of the teenagers to represent their youth and energy. This is in contrast to the following scene of the adults in the living room where the diegetic sound of a Radio 4 play is heard coming from the radio. The contrasting use of sound helps to develop a representation of the teenagers as youthful and fun and the adult world as boring and dull.
AGE Gender: A stereotypical representation of the difference between boys and girls is developed by the use of sound in the classroom scene. The boys voices are loud and they frequently shout out the answers. In contrast, the girls dialogue is much quieter and they put up their hands before being asked to speak by the teacher.
GENDER Class: The working class background of the factory workers is represented by the use of a pop music sound bridge. This accompanies the different shots of the workers getting ready for the day and represents them as a unified working class group. A representational contrast is then established in the scene of the managers meeting where a classical music soundtrack is used to represent their middle class backgrounds.
CLASS Representation AGE Representation GENDER Representation CLASS Regionality: The use of sound in the clip helps to develop the representation of Yorkshire as an idyllic and peaceful place to live. The non diegetic soundtrack that plays over the shots of the countryside creates a calm atmosphere which is very different to the representation of London in the previous scene. Here, the diegetic sounds of police sirens and car alarms suggested danger and crime.
REGIONALITY Ethnicity: As the camera pans the market a reggae soundtrack is heard. This is used to represent Jamaican culture and ethnicity, some would say in a stereotypical way.
ETHNICITY SEXUALITY PHYSICAL ABILITY/DISABILITY Write a short paragraph that shows how you would phrase a sentence(s) to illustrate/explain how the technical element was used to construct a representation. Write a short paragraph that shows how you would phrase a sentence(s) to illustrate/explain how the technical element was used to construct a representation. Find a clip from SKINS Find a clip from CAST OFFs Representation RACE Representation DISABILITY How sound constructs a representation of….. How editing constructs a representation of……… AGE CLASS GENDER REGIONALITY Age: The use of parallel editing between the two parties that are taking place emphasizes the age difference. The teenagers are represented as carefree and uncontrolled at their party through the use of fast cuts whereas the slower pace of editing used for the adult party is used to represent them as less fun and more responsible.
Class: The working class neighbourhood is represented as dangerous. This sense of danger is developed through the editing as there are frequent cut away shots from the dialogue to show police cars and hooded youths.
Gender: The mother and father in the scene are represented as in stereotypical gender roles. We cut from shots of the Dad performing DIY around the house to shots of the mum cooking and cleaning.
Regionality: The slower pace of life in the country scenes is represented through the longer shot duration and less frequent cuts. This contrasts with the frantic pace of life in the London scenes which is represented through fast cuts and short shot duration.
How mise en scène constructs a representation of…. Age: The mise-en-scene of her Grandmother’s house represents her in a very unconventional way for an elderly person. Her furniture is very modern looking and the wallpaper is funky and bold- more like that expected in a young person’s home.
AGE Class: It is clear from the dress that she wears that she has come from the lower classes. There are visible tears in the sleeve and her face appears dirty which would have been common for poor people in Victorian times. The upper classes are represented as more opulent in their style of clothes and always appear clean.
CLASS GENDER Ethnicity: Shola’s costume distinguishes her from the other females in the scene. She is wearing a traditional African costume - a full length tribal dress and brightly coloured head-dress. Her clothing, together with the way she holds herself and her determined facial expression construct a representation of Shola as a woman who takes pride in her ethnicity.
ETHNICITY Regionality: The flat caps that the men in the scene wear are a common stereotype of the northern males from this time period. This aspect of their costume, together with the terraced red bricked houses in the scene are a common representation of the north.
REGIONALITY How camera shot, angle & composition constructs a representation of… Age: Whenever Jessica is filmed speaking to her parents the camera is at a high angle to make it look as if her parents are looking down at her. Jessica’s point of view shots of her parents are filmed from a low angle, making them appear to be towering over her. This use of the camera angle represents the parents as authoritative and arrogant, as if they assume their age grants them control over their daughter.
AGE Class: Whenever the poor working class house is filmed the framing of the shots is very tight. There is hardly any room within the frame. This helps represent their poor living conditions as it appears very cramped, with the family all tightly composed within the frame. This framing is very different to that used in the wealthy family home. Here, the characters have lots of room to move about within the frame, creating a representation of a more comfortable life.
CLASS Gender: The use of camera shots in the scene constructs a representation of the males doctors as more dominant than the female nurses. The males are all filmed at a closer angle so we pay more attention to them. When the male doctors are filmed speaking to the nurses the camera looks down at them, representing their lower status.
GENDER Ethnicity: When Chris is filmed walking through the Delhi train station the camera angle is canted and the camera move about in a jerky way. This makes it appear as if he sees things in India as chaotic, representing him as out of place in this culture. There are frequent point of view shots of the Indian people looking at him with interest- further representing him as different to those around him.
ETHNICITY Avoid simply ‘listing’ all the technical elements used in the clip.
Instead- pick out a few KEY examples to illustrate how they construct the representation in the question.
Stick closely to the question- underline the aspect of representation named in the question and ONLY discuss this.
Get straight to the point about how representations are constructed (actually use this phrase)- no need for a lengthy introduction or discussion about the genre of the clip.
Use the correct terminology to describe the technical elements.
Don’t forget sound/editing- the exam report from the January session said that many students under analysed these aspects and therefore missed out on valuable points.
General Exam Tips TECHNICAL TERMS Camera Shots, Angle, Movement and Composition
Shots: establishing shot, master shot, close-up, mid-shot, long shot, wide shot, two-shot, aerial shot, point of view shot, over the shoulder shot, and variations of these.
Angle: high angle, low angle, canted angle.
Movement: pan, tilt, track, dolly, crane, steadicam, hand-held, zoom, reverse zoom.
Composition: framing, rule of thirds, depth of field, deep and shallow focus, focus pulls.
Editing Includes transition of image and sound
continuity and non-continuity systems.
Cutting: shot/reverse shot, eyeline match, graphic match, action match, jump cut, crosscutting, parallel editing, cutaway; insert.
Other transitions, dissolve, fade-in, fade-out, wipe, superimposition, long take, short take, slow motion, ellipsis and expansion of time, post-production, visual effects.
Diegetic and non-diegetic sound; synchronous/asynchronous sound; sound effects; sound motif, sound bridge, dialogue, voiceover, mode of address/direct address, sound mixing, sound perspective.
Soundtrack: score, incidental music, themes, ambient sound.
Production design: location, studio, set design, costume and make-up, properties.
Lighting; colour design.
LINK TO A2
Stuart Hall Write an introduction for an essay with the title; "How is class and status being represented in this clip from 'Waterloo road'.
You have 10 minutes. 1. Read the example exam answer on the handout.
What do you think of it? 2. Using the OCR G322 Mark scheme, decide in pairs what mark you would give this essay. Watch this clip and be ready to answer questions on your observations afterwards. 1.What is Harry wearing on his feet at the start of the clip?
2. What is Harry carrying at the beginning of the sequesnce?
3. What does Harry receive for his birthday?
4. What is on the table when Harry enters the house?
5. How old is Harry?
6. What is the framing when Harry speaks with his father and mother?
7. Harry's father gives him the boots and tells him to do something - what is it?
8. At which point does the non diegetic sound come in? Representation SEXUALITY Before you move onto the next slides make sure you have revised all the technical terms.
Definitions are available on OC Live/Dynamic Learning/The Textbook.
A list of the terms is provided at the back of your revision pack. Activity; Use slide 10 of your revision pack to write your own response to sound in the clips shown in class. How sound constructs a representation of….. Activity; Use slide 12 of your revision pack to write your own response to sound in the clips shown in class. How editing constructs a representation of….. Activity; Use slide 14 of your revision pack to write your own response to sound in the clips shown in class. How mise en scène constructs a representation of….. Activity; Use slide 16 of your revision pack to write your own response to sound in the clips shown in class. How camerawork constructs a representation of….. Gender: The boy’s bedroom is darkly lit and looks dingy with clothes strewn about the floor and an overflowing ashtray on the side table. This constructs a representation of him as a stereotypical rebellious teenage boy.