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Option 2: Developmental psychology for the IB diploma

Review for option 2; 'developmental psychology' for the IB diploma. If you like these notes then please become a fan of IB notes on facebook for more similar styled notes.

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on 2 May 2011

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Transcript of Option 2: Developmental psychology for the IB diploma

Developmental psychology Biology The role of releasing testosterone and oestrogen in fetuses on gender roles Prenatal releases of hormones will affect the way the individuals feel and think of themselves
Wanted to prove that biological sex did not determine gender:
Due to an accident, Money got the opportunity to biologically transform a boy into a girl
'She' was raised as a girl
Had problems with peers in school
'She' got a nervous breakdown and refused to see Money anymore
The family told 'her' that she was really a boy and he decided to transform back
Despite the problems, Money ignored them and used the case study to support his theories
Now know that biology DOES have an effect on gender Cognition Socioculture Social learning theory by Albert Bandura

What affects if behaviour will be imitated:
Identification with model
Rewards/punishments Jean Piaget The sensorimotor stage 0-2 years Profound egocentrism Cannot distinguish between itself and the environment Lack of object permanence If an object is not visible, it ceases to exist for the baby The pre-operational stage 2-7 years Object permanence Realization that objects continue to exist though out of sight Centration Tendancy to focus on only one aspect at a time Lack of conservation Do not realize objects can remain the same despite change in appearance Egocentrism Can only see the world from its own point of view The concrete operational stage 7-11 years Operations Applications of rules and schemas but only to concrete objects Conservation The ability to recognize that objects can remain the same although appearance changes Profound egocentrism Egocentrism - the 3 mountain experiment Lack of conservation Operations - a picture like this one would be needed to answer the question } Can be used for these learning outcomes:
Examine attachment in childhood and its role in the subsequent formation of relationships
evaluate psychological research (that is theories and/or studies) relevant to developmental psychology.
Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development John Bowlby and the attachment theory Evolutionary explanation; Helps newborns survive Ainsworth and the strange situation paradigm Types of attachment: A. Avoidant (20%) Children are:
Show no difference when mother leaves
Avoid contact when mother returns
Are not afraid of strangers Mothers are:
Not interested in child's play B. Secure (70%) Children are:
Upset when mother leaves
Happy to see mother again
Easily comforted by mother Mothers are:
Actively supportive of play and communi-cation
Interested in child's play C. Ambivalent (10%) Children are:
Very upset when mother leaves
Hard to comfort by mother
Seeks comfort but rejects it Mothers are:
Inconsistent Infants form emotional attachments to caregiver
Children seek proximity for people they are attached to
Attachment in infancy can influence social behaviours in adulthood
Interference with attachment have short- and long-term consequences on children
Attachment schemas from early age guide later relationships The theory D. Disorganized (Main & Solomon) Children:
Show no difference when mother leaves and returns
Are often subject to child abuse Mothers are:
Often chronically depressed
Strange situation classification (SSC) Hazan and Shaver's love quiz Found equivalents to Ainsworth's attachment statements but that could be applied to adult relationships
Published the statements in a newspaper and asked people to reply what statement applied the best to them
The percentage of each group were approximately the same as in Ainsworth's study A (equivalent to secure attachement) You are comfortable with being close to others and trusting them. You are not afraid of something happening between the other individual and yourself. B (equivalent to avoidant) It is hard to be close to others because of discomfort and distrust. You are scared of depending on people. They often want you to come closer than you feel like. C (equivalent to ambivalent) You often want people to come closer to you than they do. You are afraid that they do not love you as much as they say they do or that they might leave you someday. Criticism: Does not take the mothers' behaviour into consideration
Does not take into account cultural differences (even though it was done cross-culturally)
Was regarded as not representing the 'expected attachment' since some mothers would never, under normal circumstances, leave their babies
Since it caused some babies to get upset, it is considered not 100% ethical Some final points: Many avoidant babies may turn into 'secure' adults
The older you get, the more competent do you get to develop your own approach to life
Hazan and Shaver's love quiz was a self-selected sample (may thus not be completely generalizable)
Hazan and Shaver's love quiz was based on self-report and reliability is therefore questionable Attachment Can be used for these learning outcomes:
Evaluate psychological research (that is, theories and/or studies) relevant to developmental psychology.
Evaluate theories of cognitive development (for example Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky, brain development theories). The formal operational stage 11 years onwards Can develop ideas and problems mentally, without physical objects
Can put oneself in others' positions without role play or dolls
Can think hypothetically and in abstract patterns Resilience Definition: The ability to recover from a traumatic situation, event or period. Risk factors increase the child's risk of being affected by the traumatic situation, event or period.
They may for example include:
Divorce of parents
Death of a loved one
Some kind of accident
Abuse of some kind
Low/bad social or economic status

Children that are affected by risk factors (and not resilient enough) are in risk of:
Engaging in criminal behaviour
Becoming depressed
Having problems in future adult relationships Protective factors increase the child's chances towards resilience and work against the risk factors.
They may for example include:
A loving and affectionate relationship with at least one parent (or care-giver)
Social support
A safe environment Chicks attach to whatever the first thing they see moving. I could not find the clip I watched in class but I believe the procedure is kind of similar to this: Summary Some children are more resilient than others: The Czech twins: Were from 18 months of age isolated from the rest of the world
Before that, they had developed normally in an institution
Only had each other during time of isolation
Were found when they were 7 years old
Could not walk, talk nor play
Were adopted by two sisters
Were sent to a private school for mentally retarded children
After great progress, they went to normal school
Are now happily married and have kids Genie: Was isolated until she was 13 years old
Unlike the twins, she had not been isolated with anyone else
Could not walk, talk nor play
Never learnt to speak properly
Now lives in a private facility for mentally underdeveloped adults
Ethical considerations the way she was treated and researched after she was found Programs have been developed in order for parents to give their children an as safe environment as possible: Home visit programs: Effective that reduce risks of child abuse, maternal depression and increases access to health care. Useful in high-risk families where attachment between mother and baby may have been at risk. Teen mother parent education and parent groups For unmarried teenage mothers. Decreases chances of child abuse and increases chances of high school graduation. Can delay subsequent pregnancies and is ideal for providing peer support, thus reducing social isolation and later depression. The extended family is also involved in the program. Head start and early head start programs For both children and their families. Makes parents more emotionally supportive, stimulate language development to further extent and use less corporal punishment. After-school programs Proven to lead to better test scores, reading achievement and motivation in high-risk communities. Children can be taught to build resilience. They should learn to:
Set realistic goals
Participate in creative activites
Positively interact with other people
Interpret other's feelings and behaviours
Express feelings in constructive ways This can be used for these learning outcomes:
Define resilience
Discuss strategies to build resilience
Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development vs. Adolescence Weak definition: Depends on the culture
Some say it's the age between puberty and adulthood
Some cultures 'skip' adolescence and consider people adults when they go into puberty What happens during adolescence? Women: Body hairs start growing
Breasts grow
Hips widen
Start producing more oestrogen
Grow 'away' from the typical ideal female body
Often unwanted weight gain Both sexes: Growth spurts are common
Start thinking of who they are, meaning of life etc.
Become more self-aware
Sexuality and gender role become clearer Development of identity Future self-esteem is often determined/shaped during adolescence
More girls than boys develop body image dissatisfaction and it has become a norm in Western cultures
Cultural ideal hypothesis states that during adolescence, women move away from their 'ideal' tall and slim body while men move towards it.
Boys that face body image dissatisfaction usually develop a bit later than their peers.
The few boys that face body image dissatisfaction mostly get over it once they have caught up to their peers and the more masculin body
Development of positive/negative self-image during adolescence will affect future thoughts and feelings of oneself, behaviour and identity What else? 80% girls in a study in USA thought biological factors had nothing to do with looks and that they could change it
This often the reason for eating disorders, diets and continuous exercise
The American girls thought attractiveness had something to do with worthiness
French girls thought laziness about look was the only thing to be ashamed of; the rest was predetermined
Whatever the thoughts, it will affect ones behaviour Erikson's identity crisis Was proposed in the 1950's
According to his theory, everyone goes through 8 stages
The 5th stage occurs in adolescence (12-18 years)
During the 5th stage, adolescents go through an identity crisis, constant turmoil and stress
4 main components that adolescents have troubles processing:
Fear of committment to others
Committment may cause loss of identity
Do not believe time may bring about changes
Simultaneously afraid that time might change things
Erikson called this time diffusion
Inability to concentrate/spend energy on a single area
Erikson called this diffusion of industry
Negative identity
Teenagers show scornful and snobbish behaviour towards family and/or society Heavy criticism: Adolescence is more likely associated with a positive identity formation
Often a time of community projects/productive charity work
According to studies, most American teenagers are confident, happy and self-satisfied
14-15 years were shown not to be in any conflict with parents and if they were, some mental disorder was usually involved
Few complained about feeling miserable or having depressed feelings Outdated Erikson argued that females' sense of identity developed later than males' because it depended on the type of men they would marry: quite outmoded in Western society today
May still apply to some non-Western cultures What he did wrong: Erikson did not have empirical evidence to support his theory
Erikson's theory is based on observations of emotionally and behaviourally disturbed youngsters, thus his sample was biased This can be used for these learning outcomes:Describe adolescence
Discuss the relationship between physical change and development of identity during adolescence
Examine psychological research into adolescence (for example, Erikson’s identity crisis, Marcia) Men: Facial hair starts growing as well as other hairs
Shoulders broaden
Become more muscular
Penis grows
Start producing more testosterone
Grow closer to the typical ideal male body Marcia's approach Wanted to improve Erikson's theory so that it could be empiracally tested.
4 identity statuses (not stages): Identity diffusion: Adolescent feel like there is no choice
S/he has not/doesn't want to/is not trying to make a committment Idenetity foreclosure Adolescent seems willing to commit to roles, values or future goals
Have not experienced an identity crisis
Tend to conform to others' expectations (seek the career ones parents want one to)
Have not explored any range of options Identity moratorium Adolescent is currently in crisis
Exploring various commitments
Are ready to make choices
Have not made any commitments to choices yet Identity achievement Adolescent has gone through identity crisis
Has made commitments to a sense of identity Evaluation of Marcia Identity achievers were found to rise in post-15 years old males
Mostly tested middle-class white male Americans in 1960's and the 1970's thus is it generalizable to contemporary cultures?
Have been criticized for the statuses depending on particular groups
A study found that people are at different stages towards identity formation in different areas of their lives (gender, religion, politics etc.) At early age, children develop gender schemas
Children act as gender polices; boys do not like it when boys play with girl toys and vice versa
Children only select information that supports their world view: memories of male nurses will be disregarded
Gender identity acquired between 2-3 years of age
Understanding that gender is fixed but can change if there is a change in appearance at the age of 3-7
Gender constancy from 4 and a half years old to 7 John Money Margaret Mead Studied 3 different tribes in New Guinea to see if culture had any effect on gender roles:

Tribe 1:
Opposite gender roles compared to Western countries
Men liked gossiping and talking about bodily adornments
Women did the work
Tribe 2:
Both genders were arrogant, competitive and emotionally unresponsive
Children quickly became self-reliant
Tribe 3:
Both genders were helping loving and gentle
Genders shared taking care of children and corps This can be used for these learning outcomes:
Explain cultural variations in gender roles
Discuss the formation and development of gender roles
_________________ _________________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _________________ _________________ Gender roles Discuss how social and environmental variables (for example, parenting, educational environment, poverty, diet) may affect cognitive development Parenting: Refers to emotional, physical, social and intellectual support of ones child(ren) Students with involved parents have:
Better test scores and graduation rates
Better school attendence
Lower consumptions of drugs and alcohol
Lower rates of suspension
Fewer instances of violent behaviour
Better self-esteem and more motivation Parents' expectations the most consistent predictor of a child's academic achievement and social adjustment
Socio-economic status is less predictive than family participation when it comes to students' academic success
Having an established daily routine
Monotoring out-of-school activites
Modelling the value of learning, hard-work and self-discipline
Encouraging their children in terms of support, showing interest, helping etc.
Encourage reading, writing and discussions within family Families whose children do well in school are characterized by: Diet: Eating habits of child/family as well as of mother before child is born During pregnancy, high levels of omega-3 fatty acids (found in seafood) can promote:
Neural development
Motor skills
Social development
Communication skills
...in the children Those that eat breakfast:
Have faster memory recall
Have higher maths and science scores and do better on cognitive tests
Are less likely to have to repeat a course or a year
Are less likely to experience behavioural, emotional and academic problems
Are less likely to be hyperactive, absent and tardy
Are less likely to be suspended from school, have difficulty getting along or have no friends
Are less likely to the recieve mental health counselling and special education services
...in school, have better attendence and improve cognitive development Caution! Social and environmental factors all interact; no single factor determines a child's cognitive development, e.g.: Discuss to what extent biological, cognitive and sociocultural factors influence human development Instructions: Go throw the slideslow (if you already see this, then you are most likely already watching it)
Have your book(s) with you while going through the notes so that you can check up on futher information since these notes are only made as a basis of what you could study/write about in the learning outcomes but will (most likely) in no way be fulfilling if you want a good grade on your final
The material is based on the Psychology Course Companion, Pearson's Psychology book and some videos (but that are in the presentation). Thus you should be able to find all of the resources + further information in case you want more details
Enjoy :)
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