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Sino-Soviet Relations

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Chen Yun

on 15 April 2010

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Transcript of Sino-Soviet Relations

Sino-Soviet Relations 1950: Treaty of friendship There are 4 main issues in the Sino-Soviet Relationship which we will cover today: Taiwan Nuclear Arms Territory Ideology Taiwan Issues: China's attitude towards "2 Chinas" Jinmen-Matsu Crisis Previous problems Nuclear Arms: Development of nuclear arms Attitude towards Nuclear war Other military aspects Territory: Skirmishes on the Sino-Soviet border in Manchuria Large areas of land north of Vladivostok and in Sinkiang province Ideology: Different approaches to communism Initial friendship (1950-1954) China's opposition to 2 'Chinas' USSR preferred to 'liberate' Taiwan
for the sake of peace “An avoidance of hostilities, no matter by whom in the area around Taiwan” USSR at UN Jinmen-Matsu Crisis 1954 China bombed these 2 Kuomintang-
controlled islands in 1954 continuously Reaction from the USA USA announced that it will support
65000 KMT troops to protect the islands China bombed Jinmen intensively in 1958 Reaction from the USA
USA sent warships to the area China's reaction Stopped bombardments momentarily,
but continued doing so for the next 20 years,
on odd days Where does the USSR fit
in this picture? "He [Krushchev] wants to improve relations with the United States? Good, we’ll congratulate him with our guns…" Mao Zedong Bombardments were actually directed at
the USSR Development of Nuclear Weapons USSR and China signed a military agreement in 1957, in which USSR is to provide China with a “sample of an atomic bomb and technical data concerning its manufacture” USSR withdrew from the agreement due to Sino-Soviet
tensions in 1959
Eventually in 1964, China pursued her own nuclear programme and tested a nuclear bomb in 1964. It seemed that China directed the development of
her own nuclear bomb at USSR Attitude towards nuclear war 18 November 1957 – Mao Zedong reminded the world that in the event of a nuclear war, half the population of the world died, China would come out of it relatively well. USSR, on the other hand, was more realistic about the mutual destruction that a nuclear war would bring about, and promoted “peaceful coexistence” Difference in opinions Other Military Aspects Khrushchev suggested joint naval
arrangements to patrol China’s coast Reply from China “unreasonable demands designed
to bring China under military control” Khrushchev asked for a wireless station on Chinese soil which would keep in touch with the Soviet’s new long range submarines China's Response “For the last time, no,… we don’t want you here. We’ve had the British and other foreigners on our territory for years now, and we’re not ever going to let anyone use our land for their own purposes again.
Initial Friendship Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance signed China was lent $300 million for five years at 1 percent interest For socialism as well against the United States of America “joyously… following the leadership of the mighty Stalin” Song Qing Ling, January 1950
1955 Bandung Conference Bandung Conference 1955 · Conference of emerging third world countries in Asia and Africa held in Bandung, Indonesia
USSR wanted to take part in the conference, but they were not invited and the Chinese took the centre stage, establishing diplomatic ties with these countries and setting itself as a model for the former colonial states.
Khrushchev’s tour of south and south-east Asia at the beginning of 1960 added to the disenchantment. China regarded Asian states as primarily within her sphere of influence and resented Soviet attempts to woo neutralist governments. These events intensified the discontentment between the two Communist powers.
20th Party Conference 1956 20th Party Conference 1956 Krushchev criticised Stalin Struck a bad chord in China, where Mao saw himself
in a Stalinist role Mao accused Khrushchev of the same kind of "deviationism" from true communist teaching and "revisionism" as that for which Stalin had condemned many of his own opponents. "What Khrushchev and company did during and after the 20th Congress has shown that they have thoroughly betrayed the international proletariat and the revolutionary peoples of the world." From publisher's preface to Statements by Khrushchev, Vol. V, World Culture Press, Beijing 1965 "We must say outright that this (defending Stalin's ideas) is an unenviable role which will bring them neither honour nor glory. No one will succeed in persuading the Marxist-Leninists and the progressive people to take the road of defending the cult of the individual!" From an Open Letter from the Central Committee of the CPSU, printed in Pravda, 14 July 1963

Different Approach to Communism Great Leap Forward 1958 Mao launched this scheme to take Chinas to Communism in one fold A direct ideological challenge to USSR, which had been moving towards Communism ever since 1917 without ever claiming to have reached the goal. China hence had set the standards for all communist doctrine, assuring Mao's position as the new 'leader' of Communism.
· USSR did not help in the aftermath of
Great Leap Forward, when China faced famine. Russia under Khrushchev believed in peacefulco existence with capitalist systems such as without need for war. Russia supported revolution based on the urban worker, China believed in force and violent revolution. China favoured revolution based on peasant support. Zhenbao Island Since 1900 with the Treaty of Beijing,
The Sino-Soviet border was demarcated using the
rivers. However, the demarcation line was on China's side of
the river, due to Chinese weakness then. Thus, all the islands on the river
belonged to USSR. China argued that if the
demarcation was made in accordance
with international shipping rules,
China would have gotten the islands. Krushchev refused to return
the islands to China. Land in Vladivostok and Xinjiang China claimed that large parts of land
in Vladivostok and Xinjiang actually belonged to
China, as the land taken away due to 'unequal treaties' This conflict raised the prospect of a Soviet strike into China, a prospect supported by a widespread rumor that the USSR was considering a "surgical strike" on the Chinese nuclear testing facilities in Xinjiang. USSR stationed more troops near the
border with China
(30 battalions in 1970 to 44 in 1971) Increased Soviet military
activity along the border made
China suspicious of Soviet intentions



China-India Border Crisis China-India Border Crisis
In August 1959, Chinese troops crossed
the Mcmahon line and attacked Indian Army Posts
USSR issued an official statement regretting the dispute
as both Inida and China were both friends of her.


1962: Chinese defeated them and advanced across the disputed frontier. USSR gave firm and diplomatic support to India and took sides against China.
Bibliography http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/prc-soviet.htm http://books.google.com.sg/books?id=iGTLKIEN19UC&printsec=frontcover&dq=sino+soviet+split&source=bl&ots=CBwjhK4jdd&sig=pSxCoKDRijM9prs0dmH0YDanjFw&hl=en&ei=Y0jGS9yTB4u8rAeYkriUDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBAQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/Chinese_stamp_in_1950.jpg/800px-Chinese_stamp_in_1950.jpg http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6f9h_3CwXJI http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Zhenbao_island. png http://www.wikipedia.org The world since 1945, PMH Bell. A great power triangle, 1964-79 China under communism, Alan Lawrence Revolution and its Past, R. Keith Schoppa The rise of modern China, Immanuel Hsu Timeline 1950: Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance signed
1954: Start of the Quemoy-Matsu Crisis
1954: Khrushchev’s visit to China’s 5th anniversary of its founding
1955: Bandung Conference (with 3rd world countries)
1956: Khrushchev criticizes Stalin (De-Stalinization)
1957: Military Agreement between USSR and China
1958: Great Leap Forward by China
1959: USSR withdrew its military advisers from China, denouncing its military agreement
1960: Khrushchev toured south and south-east Asia
1960: Bucharest conference
1962: China-India Border Crisis
1962: USSR withdrew from the Cuban Missile Crisis
1963: Partial test ban treaty of nuclear arms signed by USSR, USA and UK
1964: China tested its first nuclear bomb

1954:
Start of the Quemoy-Matsu Crisis 1950:
Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance signed 1954:
Khrushchev’s visit to China’s 5th anniversary of its founding 1955:
Bandung Conference (with 3rd world countries) 1956:
Khrushchev criticizes Stalin (De-Stalinization) 1957:
Military Agreement between USSR and China 1958:
Great Leap Forward by China 1959:
USSR withdrew its military advisers from China, denouncing its military agreement 1960:
Khrushchev toured south and south-east Asia 1960:
Bucharest conference in which Sino-Soviet Split came into open 1962:
China-India Border Crisis 1962:
USSR withdrew from the Cuban Missile Crisis 1963:
Partial test ban treaty of nuclear arms signed by USSR, USA and UK 1964:
China tested its first nuclear bomb TIMELINE
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