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Chronological Chart of the Bible's Historical Literature
Transcript of Chronological Chart of the Bible's Historical Literature
the Bible's Historical Literature
Then Joshua commanded the officers of
the people, saying, "Pass through the midst of the camp and command the people saying, 'Prepare provisions for yourselves, for within three days you are to cross this Jordan, to go in to possess the land which the LORD your God is giving you, to possess it.'" (Joshua 1:10-11)
And the priests who carried the ark of the
covenant of the LORD stood firm on dry
ground in the middle of the Jordan while
all Israel crossed on dry ground, until all
the nation had finished crossing the Jordan.
Now when all the nation had finished crossing the Jordan, the LORD spoke to Joshua, saying, "Take for yourselves twelve men from the people, one man from each tribe, and command them, saying, 'Take up for yourselves twelve stones from here out of the middle of the Jordan, from the place where the priests' feet are standing firm and carry them over with you and lay them down in the lodging place where you lodge tonight.'" (Joshua 4:1-3)
1406 - 1399 BC
Following the pattern set by the Lord at Kadesh Barnea, Joshua prepared for the invasion of Canaan by sending spies to the city of Jericho. Jericho, located about six miles from the Jordan river, was the most formidable city in central Canaan. It was also the most strategic as it controlled the various passes into the Central highlands. Joshua's military strategy was to divide the land in half, then conquer the southern cities and northern respectively.
Israel Loken, The Old Testament Historical Books: An Introduction, 46.
1353 - 1065 BC
Cycle of Judges
into sin and idolatry
Israel cries out
to the Lord
up a Judge
Conquest of Canaan
Times of the Judges
And there arose another generation... who did not know the LORD, nor yet the work which He had done for Israel. Then the sons of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD and served Baals, and they forsook the LORD... and thus they provoked the LORD to anger... In those days there was no king in Israel; everyone did what was right in his own eyes. (Judges 2:10b-12; 21:25)
Reign of Saul
1049 - 1007 BC
And it came about when Samuel was old that he appointed his sons judges over Israel... Then all the elders of Israel gathered together and came to Samuel at Ramah; and they said to him, "Behold, you have grown old, and your sons do not walk in your ways. Now appoint a king for us to judge us like all nations..." So Samuel spoke all the words of the LORD to the people who had asked of him a king... Nevertheless, the people refused to listen to the voice of Samuel, and they said, "No, but there shall be a king over us, that we also may be like all the nations..." ...the LORD had revealed this to Samuel saying, "...I will send you a man from the land of Benjamin, and you shall anoint him to be prince over My people Israel... For I have regarded My people, because their cry has come to Me." (1 Samuel 8:1, 4-5, 10, 19-20; 9:15-17)
The alleged tension between Samuel's negative attitude toward kingship in response to the people's demand and his positive support of Saul at the time of his selection and anointing is without historical foundation. Samuel's quarrel is not with kingship but with the character of kingship demanded by the people - "such as all the other nations have" - and with their refusal to wait for the man of God's own choosing... Yahweh assured Samuel that their demand for a king was a repudiation of the theocratic ideal and not of Samuel personally. Since they wanted a king like all other nations and could not wait for the anointed of Yahweh, they would get their way, much to their future sorrow.
Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, 208, 210.
When Samuel poured oil on Saul's head, that act represented God's approval of Saul as leader of His people... the masses were convinced of his eminent suitability for the high office and in jubilation cried out, "Long live the king!" However, in the eyes of the Lord, Saul was disqualified. The prophetic word of Jacob was that the scepter (of kingship) would not depart from Judah (Gen 49:10). The promised dynasty of kings which would eventually produce the Messiah must originate in Judah. Saul, as a Benjamite, could not meet the prerequisite of lineage. Nonetheless, the people had made their demand, and the LORD had acquiesced. All that Samuel could do was invest Saul with his authority and responsibility.
Walvoord & Zuck, Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament, (Colorado Springs: Cook, 1983), 442.
1010 - 970 BC
Reign of David
Now the LORD said to Samuel, "How long will you grieve over Saul, since I have rejected him from being king over Israel? Fill your horn with oil and go; I will send you to Jesse the Bethlehemite, for I have selected a king for Myself among his sons..." Thus Jesse made seven of his sons pass before Samuel... And Samuel said to Jesse, "Are these all your children?" And he said, "There remains yet the youngest, and behold, he is tending sheep..." So he sent and brought him in... And the Lord said, "Arise, anoint him; for this is he." Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers; and the Spirit of the Lord came mightly upon David from that day forward. (1 Samuel 16:1, 10-13)
So enraged was Saul at the diminishing of his glory that he, inspired by the demonic spirit, tried to spear David. But God delivered David and gave him even greater popularity... he tried to slay him once more with his own hand; then he hired conspirators to murder him in his bed, a plot foiled by Michal. Next Saul sent men to... Ramah where David had taken refuge with Samuel. This effort was also unsuccessful for they, and later Saul, where overwhelmed by the Spirit of God... This means that they fell into a trance or an ecstatic state, a condition which immobilized them and made them incapable of accomplishing their evil intentions.
Walvoord & Zuck, BKC: OT, 449-450.
David had gotten settled in Jerusalem. He had built a palace for himself, but it seemed inappropriate for the ark to be kept in a tent. David conceived the idea of building a temple in Jerusalem, and he proposed the idea to Nathan, the prophet. Nathan responded positively without consulting God. It seemed like a great idea, but it would be Solomon who would build the temple, and not David.
https://bible.org/seriespage/david-becomes-israel%E2%80%99s-king-1-samuel-16-2-samuel-10 (accessed 10/26/13)
Reign of Solomon
970 - 928 BC
Building of Solomon's Temple
Division of the Kingdom
Reign of Jehu
841 - 814 BC
Discovery of the Law
Fall of Nineveh
Death of Josiah
Battle at Carchemish
Three Exiles of Judah
605 - 586 BC
Fall of Babylon
538 - 444 BC
Three Returns from Captivity
As David's time to die drew near, he charged Solomon his son, saying, "I am going the way of all the earth. Be strong, therefore, and show you yourself a man. Keep the charge of the LORD your God, to walk in His ways, to keep His statues, His commandments, His ordinances, and His testimonies, according to what is written... that the LORD may carryout His promise which He spoke concerning me, saying, 'If your sons are careful of their way, to walk before Me in truth with all their heart and with all their soul, you shall not lack a man on the throne of Israel.'"
(1 Kings 2:1-4)
Now Solomon loved the LORD, walking in the statutes of his father David... In Gibeon the LORD appeared to Solomon in a dream at night; and God said, "Ask what you wish Me to give you." Then Solomon said... "Now, O LORD my God, You made me Your servant king in place of my father David, yet I am but a little child... So give Your servant an understanding heart to judge Your people to discern between good and evil," ...It was pleasing in the sight of the Lord that Solomon had asked this thing. God said to him, "Because you have asked this thing... behold, I have done according to your words. Behold, I have given you a wise and discerning heart, so that there has been no one like you before you, nor shall one like you arise after you. I have also given you what you have not asked, both riches and honor, so that there will not be any among the kings like you all your days." (1 Kings 3:3a, 5-6a, 7a, 9a, 10-11a, 12a, 13)
Now it came about when Solomon had finished building the house of the LORD... that the LORD appeared to Solomon a second time... The LORD said to him, "I have heard your prayer... As for you, if you will walk before Me as your father David... then I will establish the throne of your kingdom over Israel forever... But if you or your sons indeed turn away from following Me, and do not keep My commandments... then I will cut off Israel from the land which I have given them, and the house which I have consecrated for My name... (1 Kings 9:1a, 2a, 3a, 4a, 5a, 6a, 7a)
In appearance the First Temple was a modest building... It was about the size of a small church or synagogue: 90 feet long by 30 feet wide by 45 feet high, or about 3,500 square feet, and situated on a platform approximately 10 feet high... Beyond an entrance porch lay the first, and smallest room, called "the Holy Place"... This was the largest room in the temple... The innermost room was separated from the Holy Place by a double veil of fabric... access to this room, called also "the Holy of Holies"... was forbidden to all except the high priest, and to him only once a year at the high holy Day of Atonement...
Randall Price, The Temple and Bible Prophecy, 69
Now the rest of the acts of Solomon and whatever he did, and his wisdom, are they not written in the book of the acts of Solomon? Thus the time that Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel was forty years. And Solomon slept with his fathers and was buried in the city of his father David, and his son Rehoboam reigned in his place. (1 Kings 11:41)
Then Rehoboam went to Shechem, for all Israel had come to Shechem to make him king... When all Israel saw that the king did not listen to them, the people answered the king, saying, "What portion do we have in David?... To your tents, O Israel! Now look over your own house, David!" So all Israel departed to their tents. But as for the sons of Israel who lived in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them... It came about when all Israel heard that Jeroboam had returned, that they sent and called him to the assembly and made him king over all Israel. None but the tribe of Judah followed the house of David. (1 Kings 12:1, 16-17, 20)
Now Elisha the prophet called one of the sons of the prophets and said to him, Gird up your loins, and take this flask of oil in your hand and go to Ramoth-gilead. When you arive there, search out Jehu the son of Jehoshaphat... Then take the flask of oil and pour it on his head and say, 'Thus says the LORD, "I have anointed you king over Israel."' (2 Kings 9:1-2a, 3)
Joram king of Israel and Ahaziah king of Judah went out, each in his chariot, and they went out to meet Jehu... When Joram saw Jehu, he said, "Is it peace, Jehu?" And he answered, "What peace, as long as the harlotries of your mother Jezebel and her witchcrafts are so many?" So Joram reined about and fled and said to Ahaziah, "There is treachery, O Ahaziah!" And Jehu drew his bow with his full strength and shot Joram... and the arrow went through his heart and he sank in his chariot... When Ahaziah the king of Judah saw this he fled... And Jehu pursued him and said, "Shoot him..." So they shot him... But he fled to Megiddo and died there. (2 Kings 9:21b, 22-24, 27)
Then Jehu gathered all the people and said to them, "...Now, summon all the prophets of Baal, all his worshippers and all his priests... for I have a great sacrifice for Baal..." And when they went into the house of Baal, the house of Baal was filled from one end to the other... Then it came about, as soon as he had finished offering the burnt offering, that Jehu said to the guard and to the royal officers, "Go on, kill them; let none come out..." Thus Jehu eradicated Baal out of Israel. (2 Kings 10:18a, 19a, 21b, 25a, 28)
In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah, Hoshea the son of Elah became king over Israel in Samaria, and reigned nine years. He did evil in the sight of the LORD, only not as the kings of Israel who were before him. Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against him, and Hoshea became his servant and paid him tribute. But the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea... so the king of Assyria shut him up in prison. Then the king of Assyria invaded the whole land and went up to Samaria and besieged it three years. In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria captured Samaria and carried Israel away into exile... in the cities of the Medes. (2 Kings 17:1-6a)
When they were bringing out the money which had been brought into the house of the LORD, Hilkiah the priest found the book of the law of the LORD given by Moses... When the king [Josiah] heard the words of the law, he tore his clothes. Then the king commanded Hilkiah... "Go, inquire of the LORD for me and for those who are left in Israel and in Judah, concerning the words of the book which has been found; for great is the wrath of the LORD which is poured out on us because our fathers have not observed the word of the LORD, to do according to all that is written in this book. (2 Chronicles 34:14, 19-20a, 21)
Though Nineveh was like a pool of water throughout her days, Now they are fleeing; "Stop, stop," But no one turns back. Plunder the silver! Plunder the gold! For there is no limit to the treasure --- Wealth from every kind of desirable object. She is emptied! Yes, she is desolate and waste! Hearts are melting and knees knocking! Also anguish is in the whole body And all their faces are grown pale! (Nahum 2:8-10)
Ashurbanipal would prove to be the last significant Assyrian king. His death was followed by a series of successful revolts throughout the empire, including those by Babylon, Media, Phoenicia, and even Judah. The final years of the Assyrians were filled with turmoil... The Assyrian Empire gradually crumbled until the city of Nineveh itself came under attack in 612 B.C. After a brief siege, the city fell to a coalition of Median, Chaldean, and Scythian forces.
Israel Loken, The OT Historical Books: An Introduction, 164.
After all this, when Josaih had set the temple in order, Neco king of Egypt came up to make war at Carchemish on the Euphrates, and Josaih went out to engage him. But Neco sent messengers to him saying, "What have we to do with each other, O King of Judah? I am not coming against you today but against the house with which I am at war, and God has ordered me to hurry. Stop for your own sake from interfering with God who is with me, so that He will not destroy you." (2 Chronicles 35:20-22)
By the year 609 B.C. Assyria had become so weak that she had lost practically all her empire, especially to the Babylonians (or Chaldeans). Nineveh had fallen in 612 so the Assyrians had concentrated their forces around Haran and Carchemish on the upper Euphrates River. The Babylonians decided to advance against them there to destroy them once and for all, but Egypt, more fearful of Babylonia than Assyria, launched an attack through Palestine with the idea of coming to Assyria's assistance at Carchemish. Josaih in the meantime favored the Babylonians and therefore set out to intercept the Egyptians under Pharaoh Neco (609-595 B.C.) and prevent them from getting to Charchemish.
Wavoord and Zuck, BKC: OT, 648.
However, Josaih would not turn away from him [Neco], but disguised himself in order to make war on the plain of Megiddo. The archers shot King Josaih, and the king said to his servants, "Take me away for I am badly wounded." So his servants took him out of the chariot and carried him in the second chariot which he had, and brought him to Jerusalem where he died and was buried in the tombs of his fathers. All Judah and Jerusalem mourned for Josaih. (2 Chronicles 35:22-24
Zedekiah was twenty-one years old when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. He did evil in the sight of the LORD his God; he did not humble himself before Jeremiah the prophet who spoke for the LORD... Furthermore, all the officials of God of the priests and the people were very unfaithful following the abominations of the nations; and they defiled the house of the LORD which He had sanctified in Jerusalem... Therefore He brought up against them the king of the Chaldeans... All the articles of the house of God... he brought them all to Babylon. Then they burned the house of god and broke down the wall of Jerusalem... (2 Chronicles 36:11-12, 14, 17a, 18, 19a)
Then Daniel was brought in before the king. The king spoke and said to Daniel, "Are you that Daniel who is one of the exiles from Judah? ...Now if you are able to read the inscription and make its interpretation known to me... you have authority as the third in the kingdom... "This is the interpretation of the message: MENE - God has numbered your kingdom and put an end to it. TEKEL - you have been weighed on the scales and found deficient. PERES - your kingdom has been divided and given over to the Medes and Persians." ...That same night Belshazzar the Chaldean was slain. So Darius the Mede received the kingdom at about the age of sixty-two. (Daniel 5:13, 26-28, 30)
Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia... he sent a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, saying, "...The LORD the God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth and He has appointed me to build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Whoever there is among you of all His people, may his God be with him! Let him go up to Jerusalem which is in Judah and rebuild the house of the LORD, the God of Israel; He is the God who is in Jerusalem." (Ezra 1:1-3)
Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, there went up Ezra... He came to Jerusalem in the fifth month, which was in the seventh year of the king. (Ezra 7:1a, 8)
The words of Nehemiah... "If it please the king, and if your servant has found favor before you, send me to Judah, to the city of my father's tombs, that I may rebuild it." (Nehemiah 1a, 5)
by: William A. Miller III