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Martha Rogers Science of Unitary Human Beings
Transcript of Martha Rogers Science of Unitary Human Beings
Theorist: Martha Rogers Who was Martha Rogers?
Martha E. Rogers was born May 12, 1914 in Texas. She attended the University of Tennessee but was discouraged from entering the pre-med program to become a doctor so she transferred to Knoxville General Hospital where she graduated with a diploma in nursing. One year later, she obtained a Bachelor of Science from Peabody University. She earned her MA in Public Health Nursing Supervision from Columbia University. Johns Hopkins awarded her a Masters in Public Health and in 1954 she earned her Science Doctorate.
In 1954 she became Professor of Nursing Education at NYU. In 1979 she was appointed head of the Division of Nursing at NYU.
She published over 200 articles and wrote several books. She set up the public visiting nurse program in Phoenix, Arizona and lectured in almost every US State as well as many other countries.
She continued to lecture extensively until her death in 1994. What is the Science of Unitary Human Beings?
In 1970, Rogers published "The Science of Unitary Man" which revolutionized nursing. Her theories, as put forth, were a new way of thinking for nurses about human beings, and how human beings interact with each other and the environment around them. Terms and Definitions
According to Dr Rogers
Energy Field: the functional unit of the living. Field is a unifying concept. Energy fields are infinite.
Pattern: The distinguishing Characteristic of an Energy field perceived as a single wave.
Pan-dimensional: A non-linear domain without spatial or temporal attributes.
Conceptual System: An abstraction. A representation of the universe or some portion thereof.
Unitary Human Being (human field): an irreducible, pan-dimensional energy field identifiable by pattern and manifesting characteristics that are specific to the whole and that cannot be predicted from the knowledge of the parts.
Environment (environmental field): An irreducible, pan-dimensional energy field identified by pattern and integral with the human field. Roger's Assumptions about Human Beings
The Human Being is a unified whole possessing an individual integrity and manifesting characteristics that are more than and different from its parts.
The Human Being is visible only when the particulars disappear from view.
The life process of human beings evolves irreversibly and unidirectionally along a space time continuum.
The human being is characterized by the capacity for abstraction and imagery, language and thought, sensation and emotion. "A human being is a part of a whole, called by us _universe_, a part limited in time and space. He experiences himself, his thoughts and feelings as something separated from the rest... a kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us. Our task must be to free ourselves from this prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty."
~ Albert Einstein Principles of Homeodynamics
Changes in the life process in human beings are predicted to be inseparable from environmental changes and to reflect the mutual and simultaneous interaction between the two at any point space-time. Changes are irreversible, nonrepeatable. They are rhythmical in nature and evidence, growing complexity of pattern, and organization. Change proceeds by the continuous repatterning of both human beings and environment by resonating waves. Dr Rogers stated that she had developed an abstract system specific to nursing from which many theories are derived. Major Concepts in Rogerian Theory
1. Energy Field is the fundamental unit of the living and the inanimate. The energy field is infinite. Rogers discusses two in particular. The first is the human field. Human beings do not have an energy field but rather they are energy fields. The environment is also an energy field. Neither field can be reduced any further. The Science of Unitary Human Beings
In 1970, Dr Martha E. Rogers published An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing where she presented her theory on the Science of Unitary Human Beings. She saw the universe is a collection of open systems in which we interact independently and continuously without effecting each other. She believed the central focus of nursing consisted of human beings and their environments as a unitary whole. 2. Universe of Open System (openness) indicates energy fields are infinite and continuously open. The human and environmental systems are integrated and overlap with each other. 3. Pattern identifies the energy field. It is the distinguishing characteristic of a field and is perceived as a single wave. The pattern changes continuously and innovatively. Each human pattern is unique and is integrated with its own unique environmental field. 4. Pandimensionality
The evolution of the unitary
human being is a dynamic, irreducible non-linear
process characterized by increasing diversity
of energy field patterning Many theories evolved from Roger's abstract system.
The theory of Kaleidoscoping in Life's Turbulence uses metaphor to understand this form of patterning.
Kaleidoscoping refers to flowing with turbulent life events. These are events we consider to be traumatic, painful, or difficult. Roger's theory places traumatic experiences into an entirely new context; one of renewal, rebirth, growth, transformation, and new possibilities Flow within the theory is described as total immersion in activities that are experienced as highly enjoyable or meaningful and associated with a sense of well-being. Flow involves deep participation in an activity and can be beneficial in making life more rich, intense, and meaningful. Becoming immersed in meaningful flow activities, paying attention to what is happening, and enjoying the immediate experience are all ways that can help transform potential threats and experiences of turbulence into enjoyable challenges and assist in recovering a sense of harmony. Reading, art, music, dance, movies, gardening, exercise, meditation, sports, swimming, photography, the use of guided imagery, and many other activities people can be deeply involved in, are all potential patterning modalities that enhance flowing with turbulent life events Theory of Self-Transcendence This theory was influenced by the life-span movement of the 70's when developmental psychology provided awareness that development did indeed continue beyond adolescence and well into adulthood, throughout the process of aging and into the state of dying. Martha Rogers contributed to the theory due to her early research about the nature of change in human beings, particularly as it pertained to aging and dying processes. The theory of self-transcendence was further encouraged by applying developmental theories in child and adolescent psychiatric-mental health care. Self-transcendence integrates complex and conflicting evidence of living, aging, and dying. Health events sometimes confront people with new stress. Example, a diagnosis of a chronic disease introduces strange new information, medications, and other treatments. It raises fears about pain and mortality. The Theory of Self-Transcendence is based on two major assumptions: 1. Human beings are integral with their environment as Rogers theorized. 2. Human beings are pandimensional, co-extensive with their environment & capable of an awareness that extends beyond physical and temporal dimensions. This awareness may be experienced through altered states of consciousness, most often found in everyday practices in reaching deeper within the self, reaching out to others, to nature, to God, or other source. Self-transcendence embodies experiences that connects a person to self, others, and the environment. It focuses on the personal realm. Smith, M. J., & Liehr, P. R. (2008). Middle range theory for nursing. New York: Springer Pub. Butcher, H. (n.d.). Biomedical Search - Medical Research and Health Resources. Biomedical Search - Medical Research and Health Resources. Retrieved October 6, 2012, from http://biomedsearch.com Kearney-Nunnery, R. (2008). Advancing your career: Concepts of professional nursing. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis. Theory of Aging
The theory of aging explains how with passage of time, life becomes more enriched and complex . Aging is a time of unlimited growth potential. Pattern, rather than chronological age, is a more appropriate marker for human development. Rogers theorized that we feel the rush of time more as we grow older. Accelleration syndrome becomes an important part of our lives. Human development, perceptions, attitudes, thinking, and awareness will be changing faster and faster.
As a result of Accelleration syndrome, we are seeing increased longevity. Due to medical advancements and lifestyle changes, more people are living longer lives. With the rising number of baby boomers who are now in the aging population, there are some things we need to consider:
People will retire when they are ready and will seek employment well into their 70's and 80's. Age enhancing technology designed to delay aging, promote energy, relaxation, sexuality, mental alertness, endurance, recuperation, and wellness will be in demand. Youth extending hormones, brain enhancement herbs, vitamins, drugs, age-enhancing spa, sensory devices designed to improve vision and hearing, clothes that sense and adjust temperature differences in different body zones are just some of the technologies on the horizon for the aging population. Lifelong learning centers will be increasing in demand. Homes will be reengineered so that they are ergonomically appropriate for older bodies. There will be a tremendous need for health care professionals with specialized knowledge of the health and illness concerns of older adults.
Financial services and the travel/leisure industry will need to look toward meeting the needs of active and productive older adults. nursing research articles, theories, reviews, education, administration, psychiatric nursing, MCQs. (n.d.). nursing research articles, theories, reviews, education, administration, psychiatric nursing, MCQs. Retrieved October 4, 2012, from http://currentnursing.com References