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Sea Turtles and Tortoises.

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Jamshyd Cooper

on 25 September 2010

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Transcript of Sea Turtles and Tortoises.

Green Sea turtle- Chelonia mydas Black Sea Turtle- Chelonia agassizii Hawksbill Sea Turle- Eretmochelys imbricata Kemps Ridley- Lepidochelys kempii Olive Ridley- Lepidochelys olivacea Sea Turtle species Loggerhead- Caretta caretta Leatherback- Dermochelys coriacea Australian Flatback- Natator depressus The Pile Up! Threats and Causes of Decline Natural Threats and Cuases Predators Fibropapilloma Tumours Beach erosion and Nest destruction Irresponsible Fishing Activities Bycatch Turtle Excluder Device Entangled in discarded nets Injested hooks Commercial Harvesting by Humans Irresponsible Human Activity Watercraft Coastal Development Extensive Coastal Lighting Pollution
Lifecycle Conditons:-
Sand should be loose enough to allow oxygen through and moist so that nest does not collapse

If required conditons not found' results in 'False Crawl' Average Clutch-
100 to 120 eggs

Incubation period-
45-70 days; avg.60 days

Temperatures below 82.4°F- mostly males

83.3 - 86.4°F- Equal male & female

Above 86.9°F- mostly females Conservation Kingdom:Animalia

Family Cheloniidae
Family Dermochelyidae

Protostegidae (extinct)
Toxochelyidae (extinct) Thalassemyidae (extinct) CRITICALLY
ENDANGERED VULNERABLE VULNERABLE Sea Turtles & Tortoises LPM-312 Jamshyd K. Cooper. v/09/001
Bombay Veterinary College.- jammykc@hotmail.com Nesting sites for sea turtles in India (Kar & Bhaskar 1982)

Location: West Coast
(Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala)

Species Recorded: Green, Olive ridley and Leatherback

Confirmed Nesting: Olive ridley and Green

Known nesting beaches
Gujarat: Mandvi in Kutch, Sea beach between Okha and Okha Madhi,
Bhaidar, Beyt, Nora and Chank Islands.

Maharashtra: Olive ridley nest near Gorai, Kihim, Manowrie and
education & awareness Total = 143 LEGISLATION

All the five species of sea turtles that occur in Indian coastal waters are

legally protected under Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act

(1972), as well as listed in Appendix I of Convention of International Trade

in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) which prohibits

trade in turtle products by signatory countries. At present there exists no

commercial or international trade of marine turtles or turtle products in India. Casuarina Plantation Biswajit Mohanty Shrimp Trawling protection of nesting sites Operation Kachhapa patrolling of the ‘no fishing zones’ MEDIA FOCUS Prosecuting Offenders & Obtaing Court Orders Data Recording & Enrolling Volunteers Illegal mechanized fishing which has killed over 130,000 turtles in the last 13 years - Wildlife Protection Society of India. Clinical Turtle Medicine
Captive Management Nutrition All diets to be low in protein and fat.

Herbivores: Aquatic & Terrestrial weeds, grasses and flowers. Should be rich in Vit. A and D.
Spinach, Cabbage and Beet greens not to be fed as they contain unsuitable levels of oxalates.

Omnivores: After maturity are largely herbivorous.
Snails, slugs, earthworms dusted with Calcium suppliment to be fed. Prefer fruits and vegetables that are over ripe.

Carnivores/piscivores: Non fatty fish, shrimps.

Adult Chelonians to be fed only 3-4 times a week.
Blood Collection & Restraint sub-carapacial sinus Anesthesia Ketamine hydrochloride at a dose of 5-10 mg/kg combined with
medetomidine at 50 mcg/kg IM works very well.
The medetomidine is then reversed with atipamezole. Hydration is important prior, during, and after anesthesia.
15-25 ml/kg/day will suffice. Barbiturates should be avoided. Non-Infectious Diseases 1. Hypovitaminosis A Swollen eyelids
Loss of appetite and weight
Raw skin with secondary bacterial infections
Nasal discharge Rx. parenteral dose of vitamin A
(2000-5000 IU/kg) 2. Prolapsed Organs 3. Metabolic Bone Disease Turtles fed primarily organ meats (liver, heart) or pure muscle (beef, pork, chicken) will develop metabolic bone disease and other nutritional problems. Rx. Vit D3 parenteral and diet correction with suppliments. 4. Shell Rot Usually secondary to the turtle spending all of its time in the water or water which is of poor quality Infectious Diseases 1. Bacterial Disease Debilitated chelonians are vulnerable to respiratory diseases caused by bacteria. Aquatic turtles with lung disease will frequently float in the water asymmetrically or have difficulty surfacing or submerging Septic cutaneous ulcerative disease (SCUD) is a problem most frequently observed in feshwater aquatic turtles like sliders and cooters. The causative agent is Citrobacter fruendii, a Gram-negative rod. Affected animals may present with deep skin ulcers in a variety of locations. Turtles are prone to both superficial and deep mycoses. There are several reports in the literature of fungal granulomas in the lungs of turtles and fungi cultured from skin and shell tissues are even more common. Systemic infections are very difficult to treat and are usually secondary to a poorly functioning immune system. Superficial fungal infections can be readily treated with topical antifungal agents and proper hygiene. Decreasing the pH of the water below 6.5 may also help alleviate fungal problems. Fungi which have been cultured from superficial lesions of turtles include Basidobolus ranarum, Dermatophyton sp., Fusarium sp., and Aspergillus sp. 2. Fungal Diseases. 3. Protozoal Diseases. Fortunately for turtles, they are rarely infected with Entamoeba invadens or Cryptosporidium sp. Turtles can be sub-clinical carriers of amoebiasis. There are reports of protozoans causing disease in chelonians, but by the same token, the appearance of protozoans in a stool sample does not mean there is a problem. The Hexamita /Spironucleus flagellates do cause disease in turtles, and if present in large numbers, may be treated with metronidazole. A wide variety of protozoans have been reported in turtle blood. Since these parasites are not usually a clinical problem they will not be elaborated upon but the student should be aware that they exist.

4. Helminth Parasites. Turtles have their share of nematode, cestode, trematode and acanthocephalan parasites. Diagnosis is made by fecal examination and history (turtles captured in the wild will tend to have broader and heavier parasitic loads than captive raised animals). See the notes on snakes and lizards and consult the reptile formulary for drugs and doses.

5. Leeches. These parasites are strictly external and are found on many wild freshwater and marine turtles. In severe cases they may cause anemia and they can act as vectors for blood borne parasites. Treatment is by plucking them off of the turtle.

Acknowledgement Mr. B.F. Chappgar. Rtd. Curator, Taraporewala Aquarium The Book of Indian Reptiles & Amphibians- J. C. Daniel Turtle Medicine Greg Lewbart M.S., V.M.D., Dipl. ACZM google.com prezi.com Dr.Rajiv V.Gaikwad -Department of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, Bombay Veterinary College.
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