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Physical Education Unit 2

This Prezi will include all the information for Unit 2. AoS 1, 2 and 3
by

Simon Berry

on 30 October 2012

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Transcript of Physical Education Unit 2

Physical Education
Unit 2 - Understanding sports
coaching and physically
active lifestyles AoS 1
Effective coaching
practices Prezi Home learning Ultranet Learning Tools Please log into ______ this is our ultra net space. Please write a comment on the chat.

We will be using this as our class space.

When finished please start reading Chapter 10 p199. To be finished next Wednesday. You will be expected to finish your reading before we cover the subject during class. Then complete L.A. after and post them on the Ultranet. Eg...
You will be hit with the info 3 times Effort This Prezi will cover all the information in Unit 2. It will be the biggest mind map ever created!!! This is the number 1 predictor of achievement.

I WILL be away due to sport. If you do not use this time effectively we will once again have no time to study for exams. SAC's Sac's NEED to be handed in on time. Any extension on Sac will result in only a pass mark achievable. Chapter 10
Skill learning principles and practice The importance of sports
science in Australia has been
recognised with the building of
the Australian Institute of Sport
(AIS). In 2002, the AIS added
a dedicated skill acquisition
department to ensure Australian
performers keep their competitive edge.

Write down 3 advances in science that have impacted sports (hint: doesn't have to be in a lab!) This chapter explores the best ways to develop and enhance skill acquisition, or more specifically skill learning principles and optimal practice environments. While many of the topics will be looked at separately, it is important to recognise the constraints model presented in Figure 10.1.

There is a dynamic connection between
the individual, the environment and the task (such as the skill to be developed), as all three are interconnected. A coach can develop a well-structured training session but if the individual is not motivated then learning, in this setting, will be compromised.

Please copy in Fg 10.1 pg 200 Please write down what you consider a Skill? Skill

Two contemporary authorities on motor skill development have defined motor skill as:

‘A skill for which the primary determinant of success is the quality of the movement that the
performer produces.’ (Schmidt and Wrisberg 2008)

‘Activities or tasks that require voluntary head, body and/or limb movement to achieve a goal.’ (Magill 2004) As a class we will read Real World focus 200-201.
Motor skills are often categorised under:
• movement precision
• type of movement
• predictability of the environment. Movement precision

Motor skills can be classified according to the precision of movement, and the corresponding
size of musculature required, as:
• gross motor skills
• fine motor skills.

Please write down one example of each Gross motor skills involve the recruitment of large muscle groups, place less emphasis on precision, and include running and swimming.

Write down 3 examples UNDER appropriate heading Fine motor skills involve the recruitment of smaller muscles associated with movements requiring precision, such as bouncing the ball before serving in tennis, or the precise finger and hand movement required in darts.

Write down 3 examples UNDER appropriate heading Type of Movement
Motor skills can also be classified according to the type of movement as:
• discrete motor skills
• continuous motor skills
• serial motor skills. Discrete motor skills have an obvious
beginning and end, such as kicking a ball or a
netball pass.

Write down 3 examples UNDER appropriate heading Continuous motor skills have no
definite beginning or end point and include
activities such as walking and running.

Write down 3 examples There are also occasions when
several discrete skills are performed in a
sequence such as a gymnastics floor routine.
This combination of discrete skills is classified as a serial motor skill.

Write down 3 examples Predictability of the environment

Motor skills can also be classified according to the extent to which they are influenced by environmental factors. Closed motor skills are performed in surroundings where the performer has the greatest control over the environment.

Write down 3 examples The opposite of a closed skill is an
open motor skill performed in a less
predictable environment.

Write down 3 examples Class/Ultra Learning

- TTT pg 202 1-3

Post to Ultranet

TTT pg 204 in books (hint: use your CD for the template) Stages of learning

Understanding the developmental needs of beginners through to elite performers enables practice to be tailored more specifically to enhance the learning process.
The most recognised and used model was proposed by Paul Fitts and Michael Posner in 1967, they divided learning into three distinct stages (see Figure 10.11):
• cognitive (beginner)
• associative (intermediate)
• autonomous (advanced/elite). Cognitive Stage

The beginner is mentally trying to comprehend the movement requirements of the motor skill; that is, ‘what is to be done’.

If you were a coach what questions would these people ask you? Associative stage
In this stage the performer is beginning to refine their technique/movement pattern.

What question would this athlete ask you? Autonomous Stage
In this stage the skill is now largely automatic; the performer is no longer consciously thinking about the skill. What they will look like
Their attention is on movement production and their performance will be inconsistent, with stiff and unrelaxed movements.
Beginners are often aware of what is wrong but do not know what they need to do to correct the problem.
They may lack confidence but they will show quick improvement. Training Tips
Blocked practice (repetitive practice of the same task) is preferable in the early stages of learning a motor skill.
It is also preferable to remove the unpredictability of an open skill by designing drills that are performed in a more closed environment. What they will look like
They are more consistent and make fewer errors.
The demands of performing the motor skill on the attention are decreasing, allowing the performer more time to focus on external stimulus such as the effects of spin on a ball, or the positioning of the opposition.
The performer can detect the cause of some errors and develop strategies to eliminate them. Training Tips
Performance variability is decreasing and improvements are more gradual.
The performer is more focused on ‘how to do’ the particular motor skill and more able to cope with more practical coaching experiences. What they will look like
Their focus can be directed elsewhere while performing the skill, for example an elite basketball player calling plays while dribbling up the court.
The performer has developed anticipation for their sport and performance variables are very small.They can detect their own errors and correct them. Training Tips
Good coaching such as offering precise feedback is still very relevant for performers in this stage. Skill learning continuum
As for all skill learning models, it should be noted that it is impossible to distinguish exactly when
a performer moves from one stage to the next. Fitts and Posner’s three-stage model should be
viewed as a continuum.
Please draw in figure 10.11 into your books It is also worth noting that for the same sport, a performer can be in different stages
of learning for different skills. For example, a hockey player may have excellent hitting
skills but lack control in dribbling the ball. In class learning

- Practical Activity: TTT pg207 1-4

Post answers onto Ultranet / AoS 1 - Week 1 Skills/ Message Board. Full sentaces! Marked out of 10 Movement Preparation Cognitive Model Ecological model In any activity requiring the performance of a motor skill, a variety of information, both internal and external, will be received by the performer. This information needs to be processed before a response, usually the initiation of a motor skill, can be initiated. There are two opposing views on how this information is processed. Cognitive Model and Ecological Model. Based on cognitive psychology, utilises an information-processing
model to help explain movement preparation. Richard Schmidt hypothesised that a schema, likened to an instruction, forms the basis of coordinated movement. Stored in our memory, it is like a storage template that provides the appropriate neural stimulation to bring about coordinated movement. This model proposes that the neurological
system does not have the storage capacity required for the amount of schemas that would
be stored and refutes the concept of a storage template. This system views a stimulus as the
opportunity for a performer to apply a response on the basis of their experiences and capabilities;
that is, perception and action without cognition. Reaction Time

One concept that is common to both theories of movement preparation (cognitive and ecological models) is reaction time. Between every stimulus and the initiation of a response there is a small time delay called reaction time. Can be classified as either 'simple reaction time' or 'choice reaction time' Simple Reaction

Simple reaction time involves one stimulus and only one available response. Any type of race with some form of starting device (for example, a starter’s gun) involves simple reaction time.
Please write down one example of a simple reaction? Choice reaction
A number of options or responses exist to a stimlus, reaction times increase.

What application does this have in competition? Reaction time increased as the amount of options or response alternatives to a stimulus increase. Another factor to consider is stimulus–response compatibility. When the available response options are more ‘natural’, reaction time will be faster. The time it takes from the initiation to the completion of the movement is known as movement time. Total response time = movement time + reaction time

note: movement time and reaction time are independent. Anticipation
Anticipation is the ability to predict a likely
event occurring.

Through practice, learners can develop the ability to recognise ‘cues’ or certain stimuli that will enable them to predict what is about to happen.

Can you think of a professional sport this occurs in? Advantage: Anticipation enables the performer to optimise their movement preparation time and reduce their reaction time. Disadvantage: In many team sports, players can give the impression they are about to perform a particular move such as a head fake in basketball. The performer could believe the fake is genuine and begin to respond, while the opponent then moves in the other direction. The performer has two different stimuli in quick succession. As they have already started to respond to the first ‘fake’, it will take longer to respond to the genuine stimuli. This is known as the psychological refractory period. Learning Styles

The role of a coach/educator is to develop and improve performers.

Communication is vital!
Effective communication
is when the intended message is understood by those receiving it.

There are 3 types of learning styles: Visual, Auditory and Kinaesthetic Learners. Visual learners
Prefer to see, or visualise, the instructions. They prefer
demonstrations, diagrams, pictures, handouts and other visual material.

'SHOW ME' Auditory learners
Prefer to hear the instructions.
They prefer to discuss things.


"TELL ME" Kinaesthetic learners
Prefer to experience the task. They would prefer to commence the task
and then get instructions along the way.

"LET ME TRY" If you were a coach how would you teach these participants how to throw? If you were a coach how would you teach these participants how to throw? If you were a coach how would you teach these participants how to throw? Individuals commonly have a preferred learning style. However, they can also employ a combination of all three learning styles (multimodal), or display a preference for one learning style while still performing adequately under another form of instruction. Practice

When practice takes into consideration the individual, the task and the environment (constraints model) that learning will be optimised.

There are several different practice methods including:
• blocked or random practice
• whole or part practice
• massed or distributed practice. Blocked Practice
Is practising the same skill continually without changing to a different task. VAK (visual, auditory, kinaesthetic) Activity
Please complete your personal VAK and TTT pg 211 Q1-4 Extension 5-6

Post to UN/AoS1/Chr 10/Message boards Examples include continually practising a netball chest pass for
15 minutes, or performing 50 basketball free throws in a row. Who is it for?
Great for beginners who are trying to repordice the movement action Environment factors should be kept as stable as possible. It should be completed in a closed environment Examples include kick, jump, head, dribble, sprint, cross in soccer. Who is it for?
Suitable for performers in the associative and autonomous stages. Environment factors can be open. Oppositions players could be introduced. Random practice
Is the varied sequencing of different motor skills in the same training session. Can you give me an example of blocked practice? Can you give me an example of random practice? The results of a study by Farrow and
Maschette (1997) are depicted in Figure 10.13. In this study, it can be seen that blocked practice
led to better performance during training. However, greater learning, via a delayed retention test,
was seen in the group under the random practice regime. Please copy in Fg 10.13 into your books And Part and whole practice Motor skills can be trained whole, as a tennis serve. We can also break this down into its parts Please come up with your own to discuss Choosing practice type
Two factors need to be considered before deciding whether to practice a task in parts or as a
whole. Task complexity it may be appropriate to
break the task into part practice. Task Organisation refers to how dependent each segment is on the previous segment. A cartwheel in gymnastics would lose its rhythm if part practice were applied. Massed and distributed practice Massed Practice
Involves the scheduling of less frequent training sessions that last for a longer period of time.

Rest intervals between tasks are also reduced compared to distributed practice.

Most non-professional team sports use this method because they need to schedule training around the varied commitments of team members such as work, school and family life.

Physical and psychological fatigue are more likely to result from massed practice. Distributed practice Involves shorter but more frequent training sessions.

More time is also given for rest between tasks within
the training session.

Research has shown that this type of practice scheduling creates a better learning environment.

This is the model that is generally adopted by full-time professional teams. And Transfer of Practice
Designing a training session can be a challenge within itself.

A greater transfer of skills from training to a game situation will result from practice that closely resembles the game.

Beginners may benefit more from reducing some of the environmental factors that would be present in a game, such as an opposition. Example of massed practice Example of distrubuted practice Blocked and Random Practice Feedback
Feedback is the information that a performer receives about the outcome of a task. It is a critical part of skill development.

Feedback can be classified as either inherent (internal) or augmented
(external), and is depicted in Figure 10.15. Please copy fg 10.15 Internal feedback
Internal feedback is when performers use their own senses including visual, auditory, proprioception and touch.

What are some example of internal feedback? External feedback
Greatly enhance a performer’s own internal feedback system. Usually delivered by a coach, video, team mate PRACTICAL ACTIVITY
Complete in Microsoft word.
Transfer over to UN - AoS1/Practical Activities
PG 213. Lab report.

Write out as a laboratory report report
Use full sentences
Copy in ALL sections under correct headings.

Marked out of 10 Knowledge of results is specific feedback about the outcome of the task as opposed to feedback aimed at any performance characteristics of the task. This feedback is particularly beneficial for learners when they are trying to develop new skills. For a learner trying to develop a topspin tennis serve, the coach could give feedback on the amount of topspin imparted on each serve. Example of Knowledge of results feedback Knowledge of performance feedback concerns the characteristics of performing a task as opposed to the actual specific outcome of the task. A coach may tell a performer to increase the height of the ball toss in tennis to achieve greater topspin, or to tuck tighter in a dive to increase rotational speed. Example of performance feedback How to deliver feedback
External feedback can serve three purposes:
• Fixing errors through either knowledge of results or knowledge of performance
• Motivation through feedback (e.g. ‘You’re doing well.’)
• Reinforcement through feedback (e.g. ‘You’ve got the ball toss right.’).

Most feedback from coaches will be verbal, regardless of learning style. Feedback should
be clear, precise and limited in the information it offers. Overly complicated feedback will only
confuse the performer.

All learners respond well to positive reinforcement. Dr Rob Sands suggests the use of the ‘see if you can’ approach, which is a very effective strategy for offering feedback. Class Activity
In pairs coaching
- One coach, one participant. Learning a new skill
Participant: Describe internal feedback
Coach: External feedback (knowledge or results then knowledge of performance)
Coach employs the 'see if you can method' Chapter 11
The Coaching Toolbox What do these words mean? What do you think we will be learning? They call it coaching, but it is teaching. You do not just tell them it is so. You show them the reasons why it is so.
- Vince Lombardi, head coach Green Bay Packers 1959–67, NFL Pro Football Hall of Fame It is the responsibility of the coach to engage
and develop, be fair, positive and encouraging to and cater and care for the wellbeing and safety
of all athletes in their care. Mindmap - What is a coach? https://bubbl.us/ Styles of Coaching The styles and methods used will vary according to:
• the level of competition
• if the sport is a team-based or individual sport
• whether the athletes are junior or senior, elite or recreational, mixed or single gender. The authoritarian coach is very strict and fi rm and demands discipline. This style of coach may make decisions without any input from the athletes they are coaching.

Acting caps! 1 minute show how a coach would teach an athlete with this cap on. The casual or easy-going coach is sometimes described as a supervisor rather than a teacher. This style of coach may allow the players to ‘run’ training.

Acting caps! 1 minute show how a coach would teach an athlete with this cap on. The democratic coach may use a range of specialist staff and coaches, using their individual
expertise to deliver the overall program. This style of coaching may be seen at an elite sporting
club or organisation. Each support staff member has a highly specific role.

What are some roles under a democratic coach seen in professional teams? The cooperative coach involves the players in the decision making but will guide the players with
decisions. The athletes working with this style of coach are more likely to work hard to achieve
the team goals if they feel that the coach is genuinely interested in them and their opinions.

Acting caps! 1 minute show how a coach would teach an athlete with this cap on. There are many variables and circumstances that will influence and determine the methods a coach applies. Within any coaching session, the coach might employ one or a combination of coaching styles. Ultranet Activity
Post to Chr 11/Message board
TTT 223 Q1 and Written report pg 225 Sometimes coaches need to apply their style or method in very different settings from the level
they have been employed to work at.
They need to pitch the session according to the level of athlete they are working with. Roles and responsibilities of the coach On field roles Rainer Martens (2004) suggests four key steps in managing risk in sport:
1 Identify the risk.
2 Evaluate the risk.
3 Select an approach to manage the risk.
4 Implement the approach.

Please apply these steps (in books - 5 mins) to an athlete who has injured his hamstring in training Martens further outlines a coach’s legal duties:
1 Properly plan the activity.
2 Provide proper instruction.
3 Warn of the inherent risks.
4 Provide a safe physical environment.
5 Provide adequate and proper equipment.
6 Match your athletes appropriately.
7 Evaluate athletes for injury or incapacity.
8 Supervise the activity closely.
9 Provide appropriate emergency assistance. As class read Gene Schembri (2001) checklist. Discuss Q 2 Managing Risks Coach's code of behaviour Player-Coach Relationship Codes of conduct have been developed and implemented to supplement other measures that ensure the safety and wellbeing of the athlete. (Schembri 2001)

The Australian Sports Commission (ASC) has developed sporting codes of behaviour. Their website outlines the following minimum expectations to ensure fairness, respect, responsibility and safety:

As class read through pg228 and 229. Discuss TTT qns 2 Ethical Issues confronting the coach AoS1 Revision
- Word Check (show in Prezi)
- Exam Revision (on UN) complete handout The words ‘ethics’, ‘values’ and ‘morals’ are often linked to an explicit behaviour or action of an individual or group, or a decision made by someone.
Quite often opinion will be divided on whetherthe behaviour was ‘right’ or ‘wrong’, ‘ethical’ or ‘not ethical’. The term ‘ethics’ is often used in sport, and is an extremely complex topic, generating huge debates.

Discuss this?
To prevent New Zealand from scoring the six they needed to tie, the Australian captain, Greg Chappell instructed his bowler (and younger brother), Trevor Chappell to deliver the last ball underarm, along the ground. This action was technically legal, but seen as being against the spirit of cricketing fair play. Coaches fulfil a unique role in an athlete’s life –one of mentor, guide, trusted friend and confidant.

Coaches owe a duty of care to athletes, and contributing to the community in general by bringing people together.

The coach should always be positive and fair. Underpinning this relationship is the skill of communication (see page 234).

What value do you see as most important to a coach? Off field roles Professional development, accreditation and coaching pathways Coaching juniors, working with parents Planning and Reviewing Working with officials Sport is continually evolving and changing at a rapid pace, along with our knowledge and understanding of sport performance. Coaches of all levels can access professional development
opportunities.

Coaching conferences and clinics allow current and prospective coaches to keep abreast of change through hands-on learning.

Other than team skill development, what is another reason for PD? Parents and adults play a critical role in sport. Parents can significantly shape their child’s attitude
towards sport.

To ensure a harmonious relationship, it is vital to establish effective communication with parents and to work cooperatively and positively together. Officials play a critical role in sport. Without judges, umpires, scorers and referees, there is NO SPORT

In many cases, officials work in a voluntary capacity or are remunerated only a small amount to undertake this important role. Officials are often subject to immense pressure, criticism or abuse from spectators as a result of the decisions they make.

Sporting associations can bridge the gap between players and officials by educating athletes
about the important work undertaken by officials. Effective planning prior to the season commencing ultimately underpins the smooth running of the season ahead. The five steps in the planning process are summarised in the flowchart in Figure 11.9. Please draw into books Authoritarian Casual Democratic Cooperative Practical Activity
Plan training in your favourite sport. Use the headings step 1-6 on fg 11.9.
Must be at least 500 words. Can use pictures and web links.
Post to UN/prac activities
-write in word! Skills and behaviour of an exemplary coach Mindmap - What do you think are the skills and behaviours of an exemplary coach? https://bubbl.us/ An exemplary coach requires specific skills including:
• the ability to communicate, motivate, lead and deal with conflict resolution
• an understanding of group dynamics
• knowledge of the sport, skill acquisition and biomechanics, sports psychology, sports injury prevention and medical history and sports nutrition
• tactical and strategic sense. Communication skills A coach must be able to communicate effectively, to athletes specifically, in a diversity of situations.

To communicate effectively with an athlete, the coach must give and receive information – feedback.

A coach needs to be a good listener.

Effective questioning by the coach during training sessions can stimulate the players’ thinking, in turn improving their decision-making ability, with the goal of transferring this learning into the game situation.

Coaches should also have good written communication skills, as they will
often need to provide written instructions to athletes.

Body language is a non-verbal form of communication. A nod of the head, hand signals, a smile and eye contact are all effective forms of communication.

The coach must treat all athletes fairly, avoiding favouritism.

Start half way through Motivation skills To motivate athletes a coach should know what their needs are and the help fulfill them. This will result in improvement in the athlete.

Motivated athletes, for example, are punctual to training, complete tasks successfully, encourage others and organise team social events without the need for rewards.

Motivated athletes display these behaviours more often than is ‘normal’ and to the point where it is a feature of their character.

I am a 100 meter sprinter that is tired at training, please motivate me. Leadership Leadership is a key element when coaching. The coach provides direction to the individual or team towards a shared goal.

Coaches are often referred to as leaders because they determine the standards and behaviours to be met. This is often referred to as ‘the culture’.

What do you think 'the culture' is?

Good leaders know when to delegate, have good people skills, are strategic in their purpose and demonstrate humility.

Coaches will have a philosophy they want to implement – sometimes referred to as ‘core values’ – values such as discipline, passion, respect, resilience and selflessness. Ultranet activity.
Post to AoS1/Chr 11/
Put title and date
TTT pg 235 Q1 and 2 6.08.12

Then read other responses and upvote 'good' answers! Conflict Resolution Sport puts people in challenging situations – physically and mentally – where decisions and actions are made in a split second.

Emotions can run high, tempers can ‘boil over’ and frustration can quickly turn to conflict.

When people have different opinions, unresolved disagreement can lead to ongoing discontent.at

What are some conflicts that could occur in a sporting team?

In an attempt to avoid potential confl ict, coaches can be pro-active and with the team (or individual) establish rules and expectations prior to the season. These rules would provide clear and realistic guidelines about appropriate and acceptable behaviour.

What are some team rules that could be put in place to avoid conflict?

As a coach, you may have to deal with confl ict with an athlete or angry parent. It is always best to deal with these situations in a private, quiet place.

Good listening skills and empathy are important. Discussion should result in an agreement about future interactions.

Focus on solutions rather that problems is the key.

Act - I am an angry parent, respond in a way that reduces conflict? Understanding group dynamics Positive group dynamics can be observed where there is a shared purpose or goal that binds the group or team together.

The role of the coach in understanding group dynamics is to know their athletes, understand their needs and identify the individual athletes’ role in the ‘overall plan’.

However, teams with poor group dynamics cannot always pay for team-building assistance. Local coaches and clubs can have informal get-togethers and social events so that teammates and coaching staff can socialise and have fun together away from training and competition.

What sort of get together do clubs have? Conflict Resolution Knowledge of sport Knowledge of sports injury prevention and medical history Knowledge of sports psycology Knowledge of skill acqusition and biomechanics All coaches should have a thorough knowledge and understanding of the rules, necessary
technical skills and tactics of the sport they are coaching.
Teaching the foundation skills to
the beginner is as important as teaching advanced techniques to an elite athlete. Skill acquisition relates to the specific motor skills required to perform the actions or tasks of the
sport; for example, passing and catching in basketball. An individual’s ability to perform the skill
can be enhanced by the coach through the application of skill acquisition principles.

Biomechanics refers to the analysis of how and why the human body moves (see Chapters 4–7).
A sound understanding of biomechanical principles allows a coach to fi ne-tune an athlete’s
technique so the athlete can achieve their best performance.

What is an example of skill acquisition and biomechanics? Sports psychology is where the principles of psychology
are applied in a sports setting and is sometimes referred to
as mental skills or mental training.

With this knowledge, coaches
seek to enhance the athletic performance of individuals
and teams. Goal-setting helps athletes of all levels and ages
to perform better by focusing the athlete’s attention on key
areas, such as improving a physical skill, or a mental or
behavioural goal.

What SMART goals may and athlete set? Coaches should know if any of the athletes under their direct supervision have a medical condition.

Coaches should be aware of their athletes’ medical history and have completed basic first aid training.

Overuse and overtraining injuries are often the result of poor monitoring or training programs with little or no recovery phases.

Coaches should have a fundamental understanding of training
principles and methods and be able to adjust programs for individual athletes as required.

The prevention of injury can also be addressed by:
• well-designed warm-ups that are specific to the sport
• conditioning programs based on the principle of specificity
• managing of training loads
• correctly fitted protective equipment
• thorough checking of the playing environment
• careful management of athletes under different weather conditions.

What questions would you ask a new athlete to your team? Knowledge of sports nutrition Coaches should educate their athletes, promote the need to eat a nutritionally sound diet and outline the role that carbohydrates play in providing energy for the muscles.

The role of fats and proteins also needs to be explained.

Coaches should educate their athletes about the importance of hydration and recognising signs of dehydration, and
how dehydration can affect performance.
If you were a coach, how would you do this? Tactical and strategic sense Once the key component of skill development has been achieved, the coach can focus on teaching tactics, often referred to as a strategy or game plan.

Through the teaching of tactics, coaches are equipping athletes with decision-making skills, so that in a game situation they can read the situation and make the correct tactical decision. Ultranet activity.
Post to AoS1/Chr 11/
Put title and date
TTT pg 238 Q1,2 and 3 6.08.12

Then read other responses and upvote 'good' answers! AoS 2
Physically Active Lifestyles Chapter 12
Physical activity concepts and health outcomes Understanding the nature of physical activity Physical activity may be defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure (expressed as kilocalories or kilojoules). Structured physical activities tend to be planned, such as participating in organised sport, or going to the gym or going for a bike ride.

Incidental physical activities tend to be unplanned, such as walking at work, riding to the shop. The primary goal is not physical activity

Most people engage in a combination of incidental and structured physical activity that contributes to their overall physical fitness and well being.

List 3 structured and 3 incidental activities you do. Structured Physical Activities Incidental Physical Activities Physical activity may also be classified as structured or incidental.
Can you give an example of each? Regular physical activity Physical activity guidelines both nationally and internationally encourage participation in regular physical activity.

Regular physical activity is activity performed on at least five days of the week, preferably every day. Practical Activity - Physical Activity Diary.
UN Post. Complete as accurate as possible and post to Practical Activities page.
Light/Moderate/Vigorous (intensity) Inactivity Physical inactivity is defined as people undertaking ‘insufficient’ physical activity to achieve measurable health outcomes.

It is a lack of moderate-intensity physical activity.
Moderate-intensity physical activity an activity equivalent to a brisk walking pace; expends the
equivalent of at least three times the energy expended at rest. Sedentary Behaviour Sedentary means staying in the same place for much of the time and expending low amounts of energy. While many inactive people spend many hours engaged in sedentary behaviour, highly active people can be highly sedentary too.

Sedentary behaviours include activities that require around 1–2 METs to perform, where a MET (metabolic equivalent) is the amount of energy you expend at rest, and 2 METs is twice the energy expenditure of resting levels. Domains of physical activity Physical activity can take place during leisure time, work, while performing household chores, gardening or yard work or as a form of transport to different locations. Leisure-time activity domain Household/garding domain Occupational domain Active transport domain Leisure-time physical activity is performed during recreation, non-working spare time when a person has the freedom to choose an enjoyable activity or pastime.

An example from each of you? The activity you carry out around the house and garden provides an important source of physical activity.

For many older people, this is an essential source of physical activity and provides an opportunity to develop strength, flexibility, balance and muscular endurance.

An example from each of you? This is the physical activity performed regularly as part of one’s work or occupation.

Some people have highly active jobs such as labourers, gardeners, cleaners, personal trainers and physical education teachers, whereas others are highly sedentary (many desk jobs).

An example from each of you? Active transport is physical activity performed while travelling to a specific destination (such as school, work, the post box) usually across a reasonable distance by walking, skating, cycling or the use of public transport.

Increasing the number of people riding bikes to work not only results in many health benefits but also reduces traffic congestion and greenhouse gas emissions and increases productivity within the workplace.

An example from each of you? Dimensions of physical activity Written report pg 246, as a SAC anyone interested? Before we go any further you need a sound understanding of the fundamental dimensions of physical activity. The dimensions include activity type, frequency, intensity and duration. Activity Type There are hundreds of types of physical activities people engage in. These can be classified in terms of the following categories based on the physical activity pyramid (see Figure 12.3):
• Lifestyle or lifetime physical activities
• Active aerobic activities
• Active sports and recreation
• Flexibility activities
• Strength and muscular endurance activities Please draw into your books Lifestyle physical activity
Lifestyle or lifetime physical activities should be the most common form of daily physical activity. e.g. Walking. UN post AoS2 home page
- Message board

When finished please write down at least 1 activity you did last week from each level (5 mins F.I.T. Frequency The number of times a person engages in physical
activity within a given time frame is referred to as
frequency.
The adult guidelines recommend that people be active on most days, by which they mean five or more days a week. Intensity Time/Duration The intensity of an activity refers to how much effort is required to engage in an activity.

Intensity is classified as light, moderate or vigorous according to how much energy is expended during the activity. Table 12.4 outlines four methods of determining activity intensity.

As class read through Tbl 12.4, 12.5 pg 249

Post to UN/AoS2/Chr 12/Message board
Individually read through tbl 12.6, 12.7, 12.8 pick 10 activities you reguarly do. Post the activities (along with the METs), finish with Total METs expended. Very Important to memorise this table. This table summarises the 4 types of intensity measurements Duration refers to how long a person is active for within a given time period.

The physical activity guidelines generally recommend people engage in 30, 60 or 90+ minutes daily or most days depending on their age and weight status.

It is recommended that people engage in moderate to-vigorous physical activity for a minimum of 10 minutes at a time. L.A. Post to UN
TTT pg 253 1-4 Understanding the nature of physical activity There are many well-documented health benefits associated with participation in regular physical activity (see Figure 12.6).
The benefits span physical, social and mental health.
Read through Fg 12.6. Write down 3 interesting facts/discussion points. Physical benefits Improved cardiovascular function When you are regularly active, the size and strength of your heart muscle increases. A stronger heart is able to work more efficiently by pumping more blood with each beat.

More oxygen is delivered to the brain, and muscles perform more efficiently for longer, therefore delaying fatigue.
A more efficient cardiovascular system means you can work harder.

Out of 10 write down your estimated resistance to fatigue Improved strength and endurance Resistance to fatigue Greater lean body mass and less body fat Regular exercise increases the strength and endurance of muscles. Having stronger muscles decreases the risk of injury and reduces lower back problems. Maintaining muscular strength as you age is very important for maintaining mobility and independence and slowing the rate of functional decline.

Many older people struggle to open jars or to get up from chairs – these are examples of functional decline.

Out of 10 write down your estimated resistance to fatigue A key benefit of regular physical activity is resistance to fatigue. Having increased energy levels allows you to have enough energy to get through a typical day at school or work and then still have plenty of energy to enjoy your leisure time without feeling lethargic.

Increased energy levels are associated with an improved ability to cope with stress and improved quality of life.t

Out of 10 write down your estimated resistance to fatigue Optional Sharing
Estimated physical activity levels.
Hands up if over 50
Hands up if over 40
Hands up if below 30....maybe need to look into excercise

What are you highest/lowest in
***this is in no way scientific, just a personal estimate. A high level of physical activity is associated with an increase in lean body mass made up of muscles, tendons and ligaments, and a decrease in body fat.

Healthy weight range guidelines can be misleading; sometimes elite athletes who may have a large amount of lean body mass and low body fat are classified as overweight or obese.

Out of 10 write down your estimated lean body mass Improved Flexibility Being flexible allows you to perform a wide range of movements with a lower risk of muscular and joint injuries.

Regular stretching can lead to a greater range of movement and can improve sporting performance and reduce your risk of injury.

Out of 10 write down your flexibility. Social benefits Bone Density Participating in regular weightbearing and high-impact activities is essential to maintain strong bones.

Childhood and adolescence are key times to develop bone density and during this developmental period activities such as skipping, running and gymnastics are ideal for developing large amounts of the mineral deposits responsible for bone strength.

Out of 10 write down your bone density. 10 - no broken bones, 7- 1 broken bone, 5 -2 broken bones. Playing in a team, or going to the gym to do a workout or even walking the dog means interacting with other people.

Socialising when you are active can increase enjoyment of physical activity, improve self-concept and improve quality of life and sense of wellbeing. Mental health benefits Over the past decade, there has been more interest in the positive association between increased physical activity and improved mental health and wellbeing.

Research has also shown that active people have greater
self-esteem and lower levels of anxiety.

Good-quality sleep is essential for all aspects.

Good quality sleep. What does that mean?
Time?
Environment (phone)?
Setup? Health risks associated with inactivity Practical Activity -Lifestyle physical activity
As a class, participate in a lifestyle physical activity - Yoga. Room 7 projector,

Answer questions and post to Learning activity - Yoga discussion. There are numerous health risks associated with inactivity. It is estimated that inactivity costs Australia over $500 million per year.

Sedentary death syndrome is a complex condition associated with sedentary living. It is a series of symptoms including low cardiovascular fitness, weak skeletal muscles and poor metabolic fitness.

This section will focus on hypokinetic conditions; too little movement; a lack of regular physical activity Hypokinetic Conditions Type-2 diabetes Obesity Cardiovascular diseases Hypertension High cholesterol levels Practical Activity - Nordic Activity/Mountian Biking Diabetes is a disease that results from too much sugar in the blood, which occurs because the
body either doesn’t produce or properly use insulin.

Insulin is produced within the pancreas and
used by the body to convert sugar and other foodstuffs into energy.

Low physical activity levels and poor cardio-respiratory fitness are predictors of mortality (death) related to type-2 diabetes (Telford 2007).

Physical activity is extremely important in the prevention of type-2 diabetes and is commonly prescribed in the treatment of diabetes.

With out current obesity rates, we (most likely) will experience an epidemic soon. Over the past 30 years, obesity has evolved from a minor public health issue to a global epidemic and major threat to public health.

In Australia, approximately 60 per cent of adults and 30 per cent of young people are either overweight or obese!!

There is an association between weight status and physical activity. You expend more energy when you are regularly active and this assists in healthy weight maintenance.

However, obesity as a condition is very complex and it would be simplistic to suggest that people become obese solely because they don’t do enough physical activity.

The medical complications of obesity are numerous, and include pulmonary diseases, sleep apnoea, liver disease, cirrhosis, gall bladder disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome, coronary heart disease, stroke, cataracts, diabetes, hypertension, cancer and gout. BMI

A body mass index (BMI) of 25 is generally considered the cut-off for being overweight and 30 is classified as obese.

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/publichealth/healthpromotion/obesity/bmi.asp
Sketch below Cardiovascular diseases are the biggest killers in Australia. One in five deaths in Australia can be attributed to physical inactivity and almost one in five deaths is caused by coronary heart disease and colon cancer.

It is important to understand that high physical activity levels are associated with reduction in coronary heart disease risk. There are many forms of cardiovascular diseases; these are summarised in Table 12.11. pg 259 (READ) Please draw into note pads What do these cholesterol crystals decrease/increase? UN Activity TTT pg 259 1-5 Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. In stages 1–3 hypertension, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values are elevated above normal levels (see Table 12.12).

Remember Systolic (just after heart pumps, pressure at highest) Diastolic (just before next heart beat, pressure at lowest.

Hypertension is a common condition and is the
most frequently managed condition treated by general practitioners in Australia.

It is more prevalent in males and is generally treated by regular moderate-intensity
physical activity, reduced salt intake, prescribed drugs and stress management strategies.

Sketch below into books. Individuals with high total levels of cholesterol have a higher risk of coronary heart disease.

Regular physical activity can reduce blood lipid profiles including total cholesterol.

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a major contributor in the development of atherosclerotic deposits on the inner walls of arteries.

Please sketch below. UN timetable check Catch up week.
Make sure you are up to date by the end of this week.

Should be finished chapter 13 highlighting.

Practical Activities:
Week 1 Lab report: Holiday Homework
Week 2 Lab Report: Blocked Practice - non dominant hand (tennis ball)
Week 3 Lab report - Planning and reviewing Fg 11.9
Week 5: Respond yo Yoga discussion

TTT:
pg 202 Q1-3
pg 207 Questions 1 to 3
pg 211 Q1-3 extension 5-6
VAK activity and TTT pg 211
pg 223 Q1 and Written report pg 225
pg 235 Q 1 and 2
pg 247. Fg 12.3 List 1 activity from each level
pg 253 Q 1-4
pg 248 Q 1-4
pg 250. Tbl 12.6-8. 10 MET activities with total.
pg 259 1-5

Make sure you sketch the figures above.


If finished. Please take time to study UNIT 1!!!!! We have to do a joint exam, as all exams have been changed to 1 at end of year. Chapter 13
Physical activity guidelines, prevalence and sedentary behaviours National Physical Activity Guidelines Within developed countries, the degree of involvement of the population in physical activity is increasingly being considered a significant public health issue.
An important role of governments is to set national physical activity guidelines.

In 1996, the Surgeon General’s report recommended that significant health gains could be obtained from engaging in moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week. Adults The National Physical Activity Guidelines are a minimum recommendation for good health, rather than for the attainment of a high level of fitness or sports training.

Guideline refers to the added benefits associated with vigorous-intensity physical activity. People should always be encouraged to combine theseguidelines with a healthy eating plan consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Australians. Young Children Research has shown active play assists children to develop muscles, bones and the heart, fundamental motor skills and communication and social skills.

Young children should
have opportunities to accumulate physical activity
through:
• unstructured ‘free’ play (e.g. playing in sand pit,
dress-ups)
• structured play (e.g. creative movement classes)
• active transport (e.g. scooter, bicycle)
• everyday physical tasks (e.g. helping with
gardening, meals or picking up toys).

Parents should allow their children to engage in low-risk outdoor rough and tumble play so they can learn about their bodies and the environment around them.

Talking points Children and youth Post to UN on Tuesday
pg 267 TTT 1-4 This is you....
There is consistent evidence to show that regular physical activity during childhood is associated with improved cardiovascular fitness, self-esteem, HDL (‘good’) cholesterol, bone health and reduction in the likelihood of unhealthy weight gain leading to obesity.

Children and adolescents should participate in a range of different types of physical activity. There is evidence to suggest that weightbearing impact-type activities (for example, jogging, skipping, hopping, jumping, landing) are important for children’s bone health.

Watching more than 2 hours of television a day increases the risk of becoming overweight and obese. Older People All older people are encouraged to do some
form of physical activity regardless of health
and fitness levels.
Preventing falls and slowing loss of function is a major focus of the guidelines, which recommend people engage in physical activities that incorporate fitness, strength, balance and flexibility (Table 13.3).

Loss of function:
a reduced ability or capacity
to perform everyday tasks
with ease, sometimes due
to weakening of muscles and
bones, e.g. inability to get up
from a chair or to remove a
lid off a jar Overweight or obese people It is recommended overweight or obese adults engage in 60 minutes of physical activity per day. Once weight has been lost, adults should accumulate 60–90 minutes of activity per day to avoid regaining weight.
Obese or overweight children and youth should engage in more physical activity than is currently being engaged in. Summary of national guidelines How active are Australians Post to UN on Tuesday
pg 269 TTT 1,2,3,4,5 Organisations such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Sports Commission and
Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing to systematically observe patterns and trends
in physical activity levels and participation rates in organised sports.

It provides an opportunity to compare the activity levels among subgroups in the population with the incidence of specific diseases including type-2 diabetes, cancer and obesity. This in turn increases our understanding of the causes of disease, enabling us to become more equipped to develop policies and programs aimed at preventing disease.

The following section describes the physical activity patterns among various groups based on large-scale population studies. Adult participation patterns in physical activity Participation in organised physical activity Children and adolescent physical activity patterns Adult sedentary behaviour Chapter Review The 2007–2008 National Health Survey surveyed over 17 000 Australian adults about their physical
activity patterns during the previous 2 weeks. The research was conducted by the Australian
Bureau of Statistics, which defined moderate physical activity as exercise undertaken for fitness,
recreation or sport that caused a moderate increase in the heart rate or breathing. Vigorous
physical activity was defined as exercise undertaken for fitness, recreation or sport that caused a
large increase heart rate or breathing. The following tables and graphs provide a summary. Discussion of research Prac Activity (Tuesday): Data Analysis pg 271
Found on your Learning Tasks National Health Survey The National Health Survey, surveys of adult physical activity participation were conducted as part of the Active Australia Survey in 1997, 1999 and 2000. Data from nationally representative samples provide an opportunity to identify the least active subgroups within the population. Such groups include women, older adults, socially or economically disadvantaged
people and those from non-English-speaking backgrounds. Lets try this together Exercise, Recreation, and Sport Survey (ERASS) The ERASS total participation rate is based upon the number of people who have participated in exercise, recreation or sport at least once during the previous 12 months. The 2008 ERASS report
focused on regular participation (physically active at lease three times per week) and surveyed over 17 000 people. Tracking physical activity participation rates over time allows us to study physical activity trends (see Figure 13.6). The 2008 ERASS estimated that 83 per cent of the population (aged 15+ years)
participated at least once annually in physical activity for exercise, recreation or sport.

An estimated 72 per cent of the population participated at least once per week, on
average, in physical activity. Less than half of the population (49 per cent), participated
in physical activity on average at least three times a week. The median frequency of
participation was 2.9 times per week during 2008 and female (2.9 times) participation
tended to be more frequent than males (2.5 times). Figure 13.7 displays the frequency of
participation in 2008. Overall regular participation in organised physical activity was highest among people aged 15–24 years. In contrast, participation in non-organised physical activity increased with increasing age.

physical activity for exercise, recreation or sport that is not fully organised by a club, association or other type of organisation. The Multi-Purpose Household Survey found that 66 per cent of Australians (15+ years)
participated in physical activity at least once for recreation, exercise or sport during the
12 months prior to the survey in
2005–2006. While 66 per cent
sounds like a large proportion of
the population, only 29 per cent
of people participate in physical
recreation and sport more than
twice per week. Participation rates in
non-organised activities were around
54 per cent, nearly double that for
participation in organised activities
(28 per cent). Class discussion Data Analysis pg 276 Many people spend their days moving from bed to a chair, to another chair, to the car, back to a chair and then back to bed, with minimal incidental activity interspersed between.

Despite the media attention associated with the poor health outcomes associated with inactivity and long periods of sitting, ABS data for 2008 indicates around a third of the adult population do no physical activity at all

The research reported that regardless of a person’s weight, long periods of sitting increase risk of cardiovascular disease, poor blood lipid profile, diabetes and death.

Additionally, watching more than 2.5 hours
of television a day means that you are four times more likely to become obese than those who watch less than 2.5 hours per day.. The 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity collected data on two occasions for over 4000 children aged 5–16-years.

Overall most 9–16-year-olds (69 per cent) managed at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day and thus met the physical activity guidelines. However, most children exceeded the recommended 2-hour maximum for screen time, with only 33 per cent of 9–16-year-olds meeting the screen time guidelines. Class data review. Read through pg 278 and 280.
UN post
pg 281 TTT 1-5 Complete Chr summary
Review Questions. Chapter 14
Factors influencing physical Activity Prac Activity in Learning activities
pg 271 Determinants of Physical Activity For governments, schools, workplaces, community organisations, researchers, health professionals and other organisations to design effective physical activity intervention programs, they need to understand what factors influence physical activity behaviour.

These influencing factors are often referred to as ‘determinants’ or ‘correlates’ (predictors).

Correlates are factors that display an association with physical activity within the context of cross-sectional research. From correlational studies.

Correlates allow us to predict activity level within certain contexts or circumstances.

Can we think of some correlated physical activity items? The term ‘determinants’ should not be used interchangeably with the term ‘correlates’.

Determinants refers to an established and reproducible association that is potentially causal (Buckworth & Dishman 2002).

What are some determinants in physical activity? Classification of determinants/correlates Points of interest Points of interest Check chr 13 responses for feedback

Exam practice...post to UN
pg 286 TTT 1,2,3,4,5
15 minutes (3 minutes per question)
All answers are IN chr 14 on previous pages Variation of determinants/correlates Physical Activity behaviour of youth Many factors show an association with physical activity in several studies and then no association in others. Individual factors Social factors Environmental factors Cultural background Socioeconomic factors Physical environment Work out your demographic factors for each of these In a study of over 17 000 adolescents in the US (Gordon-Larsen et al. 2000), family income was found to be associated with physical activity – adolescents from the highest family income bracket were more active than adolescents from poorer families.

Serious crime in residential areas was also inversely related to physical activity.

Why? National surveys conducted in Australia using the Active Australia Survey have identified people from non- English speaking backgrounds as being as a higher risk of being inactive.

Certain cultures have expectations about the appropriate types of physical activities for different age groups and genders. As well as factors relating to the physical environment, such as water or trees or footpaths, environmental factors also refer to the social environment, such as family, peers and health professionals and their influence on physical activity.

What are some environmental factors you experience? The social environment refers to the network around us: family, spouse, partner, friends, work colleagues, health professionals and even pets. Social support (peers, spouse family) Social support has long been considered the most well-established determinant reinforcing
physical activity (Sallis and Owen 1999).

Social support is consistently identified as a key
determinant for women of all age groups.

Social support can be in the form of exercising
with someone, and providing encouragement
and praise for being active.

Parental support might include paying fees for competitions.

What social support do you receive? Dog ownership Puppy dogs are the best.
A large study of non-dog owners conducted in
Western Australia followed their physical activity
over time. The study found that the non-dog
owners who acquired a dog increased their
walking by 12 minutes per week (Cutt et al. 2008).

Who walks their dog here? Features within the built environment such as buildings, transport, mix of land use and layout of
community facilities, parklands, walking and cycling trails and recreational facilities all play a
role in physical activity levels.

People with recreational facilities and programs in close proximity to where they live tend to be more active than people without close access. Access to facilities.
is also infl uenced by cost.
What is Mallacoota's Physical environment?
Do you think it helps us stay fit? Exam practice UN post
15 minutes in class.
pg 289 TTT Q 1,2,3,4 Table 14.4 displays the results of a systematic review of studies that have examined the influence of various factors on the physical activity behaviour of youth.

Several factors consistently show a positive association with youth physical activity including family support, family income and time spent outdoors.

A factor may be related to physical activity in some studies but not in others. This makes the field of physical activity behavioural research very complex, because we still don’t understand what factors are the most important. Table 14.5 outlines the findings from a systematic review of 47 different studies, published between 1980 and 2004, that examined determinants of adult physical activity.

Most of the studies were cross-sectional; only three were longitudinal.

Although not shown in Table 14.5, many correlates are positively associated with physical activity among men and not women and vice versa.

Class investigation
PG 290 Tbl 14.4
Try to decipher the table. Hint use the key at the bottom.
What are convincing positive associations?
What are negative associations? Class investigation
PG 290 Tbl 14.4
Try to decipher the table. Hint use the key at the bottom.
What are positive associations?
What are negative associations? Barriers to participation in physical Activity Barriers are generally considered factors that make it difficult to do something.

You will notice from your reading of this chapter and your own research that some factors can be considered both a barrier and a facilitator by different people or by the same person in different situations. The main reported barriers to physical activity are:
• lack of time
• dislike of exercise
• feeling too tired
• lack of company
• lack of money.

Ideas...how can we overcome these? Barriers across the lifespan Barriers and determinants can vary for an individual across their lifespan.

Personal circumstances change throughout life, as do priorities; certain periods within your life are known as transition periods.

What are some changes/transition periods that may occur during your life that affect physical activity levels? Barriers according to type of physical activity We cannot assume the barriers to different types of physical activity are all the same.

The barriers to walking may be different from the barriers to more vigorous activities such as jogging.

Commonly cited barriers to vigorous physical activity include:
• feeling self-conscious
• lack of energy
• disliking of the discomfort associated with strenuous exercise
• lack of financial resources.

What are some ways to overcome such barriers?

In class activity pg 294 Data analysis.
Complete and discuss Males and Females Indigenous Australians People with disabilities Geographic location Overweight/Obese Some men may feel insecure going into a gymnasium full of body builders because they don’t have large pectorals or biceps and deltoids.

Many women are more comfortable about exercising in front of other women, and this has led to the popularity of centres such as Fernwood, Contours and Curves.

Research has shown that the competing demands of women’s multiple roles is a huge barrier to engaging in regular physical activity. Indigenous Australians have been identified as being at a higher risk of being inactive than non-Indigenous Australians.

The National Health Survey conducted in 2001 reported that 73 per cent of Indigenous adults did not meet the National Physical Activity Guidelines and had not been active in the 2 weeks prior to the survey.

Many Indigenous people prefer to spend time with loved ones rather than exercising alone for personal benefit or for health reasons. Modifications to sporting facilities, equipment, rules and policies are often required to ensure an activity is safe and provides participants with an opportunity to achieve success.

Unfortunately, many buildings and workplaces and other facilities are poorly designed and make access for people with disabilities very difficult. People living in rural areas tend to be more at risk of being inactive than people living in city areas.

People living in urban areas generally have access to a greater diversity of physical activity and sports programs, facilities and clubs.

Urban areas tend to have greater infrastructure for public transport and many more options to get around (buses, trains, car) than rural areas.

What barriers are in Mallacoota? Elderly people Children / Adolescents Common barriers to children being more active include:
• being too tired
• having too much homework
• preferring sedentary activities
• inadequate facilities.

A major barrier for children is the physical environment, in particular the built (man-made) environment.

How is Mallacoota's environment a barrier? / or is it a encouragement? Ethnic Minorities Ethnic groups face many challenges, particularly if the individual or family are new to Australia.

Language is a key barrier to accessing physical activity facilities and programs. Sometimes people can feel isolated initially without adequate social support.

People from some ethnic groups have serious concerns for their safety and are frightened to move about individually or as a family.
Violence is an issue for all of society and sometimes ethnic minorities can be the target of attack by racists.
The language barrier canmake finding employment very difficult for many people.

With limited financial resources, physical activity often becomes a much lower priority
than important staples such as food, accommodation and utilities.

What are some policies/ways we can overcome these barriers? Overweight or obese people can be prevented from being active because of:
• being embarrassed to exercise in public or in front of others
• discomfort
• increased risk of injury
• many sporting and activity clothing labels are not designed to fit larger frames
• criticism from others. Unfortunately some people find it amusing to belittle or bully overweight people who are exercising by name-calling or yelling comments from moving vehicles.

Why is it in all of our interest to remove all of these barriers? pg 299 TTT pg 1,3,4

Prac Activity Beach Botchi? AoS 3.1
Detailed study - Chr 16 Decision making in sport In this chapter, you will carry out an investigation in which you must demonstrate:
• initiative and planning skills
• regular consultation with teacher(s) and peers
• appraisal and reporting on appropriate methodology
• various forms of communication during the study to plan, investigate, evaluate and report on the investigation
• summaries of material relevant to the investigation and acknowledged its use
• ‘experts’ where practicable and appropriate. Team sports can be classified into four categories and subcategories:
• Invasion
• Net/court
• Target
• Striking/fielding Invasion games Invasion games are team games in which the purpose is to invade the opponent’s territory to score more points than the opposing team within a time limit. Invasion games include:
• basketball
• handball
• netball
• soccer
What other invasion games are there? Subcategories of invasion games include where the ball can be:
• carried or caught across the line (rugby league, rugby union and American football)
• thrown or shot into a target (netball and basketball)
• struck with a stick or foot into a target area (hockey, soccer and Australian Rules football) Class discussion pg 343 TTT 104 Target games Net/Court games Striking/fielding games The terms ‘net/wall’ and ‘net/court’ can be interchanged.
In these games, the aim is for a player or team to hit an object (ball or projectile) into the opponent’s court, so that the opponent cannot return it.

In a game of volleyball, for example, two teams strive to place the ball out of their opponent’s reach, in an attempt to with the rally. Tennis, squash and badminton are also net/court games.

What are some examples? In target games the aim is to achieve the best
possible score by placing the projectile (arrow,
golf ball, dart etc.) closest to the designated target.

Success is determined by the accuracy of the
player. Target games can be further classified as
contested or uncontested.

Contested target games are where the outcomes can be determined by other participants/players also aiming at the same target.

Uncontested target games are not affected
by other participant/players attempts at the target.
Uncontested target games include archery, golf and darts.

Contested target games include bocce and marbles.

What are some examples? Classifying team sports and games The objective of striking/fielding games is to score more runs than the opponents in the designated time.

Softball and baseball are striking/fielding games. What are some other striking fielding games? Tactics and strategy The terms ‘strategy’ and ‘tactics’ are often used in association with team and individual sports and games.

Strategy is the plans you devise before the competition – what you intend to do.

Tactics are the decisions and actions you execute in response to the evolving situations in the game.

Who creates strategies? Who creates tactics?
Some examples, tell me which! Players influence what happens in the game continually and it is their actions those of their opponents that will determine what happens next.

Strategy and tactics are found in both individual and team sports.

The challenge of team sports is encountering opposition.

For a player of an individual sport, the challenge is encountering another individual whom they must attempt to outplay and outwit.

In both team and individual sports players must use strategies and tactics to defeat their opponents.

Read real world focus pg 345-346 Usually within any invasion game, both teams will have players whose primary role is to attack or defense.

Within the roles of attacking and defending, there are sub-roles, such as a counter attack and tight forward pressure. Points for your research assignments - ORANGE When considering the concept of team sports, certain characteristics are evident.
• A team confronts another team with the same aim – to obtain possession of the object.
• The application of motor skills already mastered to the game situation will play a significant part.
• Individuals combine to make collective decisions to defeat an opposition. Gréhaigne and Roche (1990) define team sports as the self-organisation of a group confronted by another group with antagonistic interests. To score and prevent scoring, Gréhaigne and Roche suggest players use common strategies:
1 To resolve anticipation–coincidence motor problems – the preparation of responses before the
arrival of the ball and the regulation of these responses as the ball arrives.
2 To make informed choices among potential answers, depending upon the likely costs and benefits.
3 To manage the varying courses of the players and the trajectories of the ball in urgent conditions of decision making. heuristics: the application of knowledge gained from experience to problem solving Before the game commences, each team will have strategies they will want to execute, so as to control the flow of the game.

As the game unfolds, and players impose themselves on the game, tactics come into play, as players have to quickly make the right decisions in reaction to what is happening in front of them. The challenge for coaches is how to expose or teach their players about these situations in a practice setting before they occur in the game situation.

The ongoing question for coaches is how best to teach the game to their players, so that in the game situation, they will choose the right course of action
at the right moment. Current research asks these questions in an attempt to design the most effective way to
assist coaches and teachers to improve a player’s tactical knowledge, and hence the players’
performance.

This can be achieved by placing the player in a game situation and have them try and solve the tactical problem.

Once the game has been played, the player reflects on their performance and their actions and evaluates how this could be improved through questioning and critical thinking.

The player then plays the game again, implementing what they have learnt. Invasion game structure What the coach should focus on How much time should be spent on technique work and how much time should be spent on tactical understanding and decision-making before playing the game? We now need to identify and discuss a variety of approaches to teaching decision making in sport, in an attempt to improve this concept.

To choose one for report, describe it in detail, use it in practice and game. Game sense approaches Game sense is a relatively new approach to coaching in which the game, rather than technique, is the focus of a training session!

What does that mean?

The coach uses tactical questioning rather than instructions to encourage players in their independent decision making. Game sense is based on the approach called ‘Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU)’. The aim of TGfU is to encourage players to become more tactically aware, encouraging higher order thinking, thereby equipping players to make better decisions during the game.

The player has to take control and make decisions. Effective questioning by the coach promotes:
• reflective thinking
• decision making
• communication. Real world focus - Game sense points

Game sense provides opportunities for enjoyment, for maximising activity, and creativity.

They (players) develop an understanding of the tactics of play whether they are on the ball or not. Discuss. 3 minutes per game.

The notion of training players to work off the ball helps to illustrate how efficient coaching may need to address not only ball skills, but also perception and decision making off the ball

He suggests that a lack of transfer from training to the game is the result of not training athletes within contexts that are close enough to game conditions:

Most of the coaches in this study agreed that to be effective in improving game performance training needed to replicate game conditions Discovery Learning Constrains based learning Discovery learning is repeatedly performing a specific movement skill and then modifying performance based on outcome feedback.

pg 351 Read as class RWF Discovery learning can be either guided or unguided.

The guidance provided might relate to how the movement skill might be performed, or to make correct decisions in tactical situations.

Discovery learning often uses if-then statements. If-then rules are a common coaching concept in which coaches relate a specific situation (IF) to a specific action (THEN)

Eg ‘IF the defence player opposing you is far away and you are in a good position, THEN shoot to the basket.’

Lab activity 351 - modified Constraints are ALL the factors that can influence learning and performance at any moment in time.

Constraints can refer to the individual, the environment and ultimately the task.

What are some common constraints? Individual constraints include body size, fitness, mental skills, perceptual and decision making skills and personality skills.

Environmental constraints include both physical and social environmental factors.

Physical factors include the terrain and natural light. These constraints can also include cultural norms.

Task constraints are more closely related to performance and include the rules of the sport, equipment, pitch sizes and player numbers. The rules of the game play a major role in determining skills, strategies and tactics.

pg 352 Read RWF 352 Practical applications There are many things that a coach can do in training to work on specific parts of their players’ game.

For example, the size and dimensions of a court or boundary can be changed, obstacles placed on the playing area and ‘no-go’ areas introduced.

What do these obstacles do? These can all force the players to develop their technical skills while practising their problem-solving and decision-making skills.
Small-sided games encourage players to develop strategies and tactics. pg 351-352 Read / Highlight
There are 15 points in this you should discuss in your report! Deliberate play and/vs practice Deliberate practice is highly structured practice with a specific goal of improving performance and is achieved by sustained physical effort directed toward positive skill development.

Deliberate play typically involves children in the 6–13-year-old age group before they become specialised in a particular sport. Deliberate play of team games (for example, football at the local park or backyard cricket) may be as important as deliberate practice in developing skills such as decision making. Technology Technology can be used in unlimited ways to analyse and interpret set plays and strategies – from the complex to the easily accessible:

The enormous benefit of filming games is that they can be replayed and reviewed as frequently as the coach and the player require. The player can analyse the game by watching the film, receive feedback, and make adjustments to improve performance.

Try to use as much technology in your report as possible. Through researching this exciting area and then having to practically teach a sport in the ‘game situation’, you will develop not not only the players’ tactical awareness, allowing them to make better decisions, but also your own. Please note: All information has been transfered from the year 11 student/teacher text book for the purpose of private study.
Malpeli, R., Telford, A., Whittle, R. & Corrie, M. Physical Education VCE Units 1 & 2. Nelson, 5th ed., 2010.
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