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"Prezitation" of the Geologic Rock Cycle for 8th Grade Science Newbies
Transcript of "Prezitation" of the Geologic Rock Cycle for 8th Grade Science Newbies
by Louis Martina
EDU 652 - Week 2 Assignment Learner Setting Underperforming urban middle school in Southwest Pennsylvania
654 students in Grades 6 thru 8
204 students in Grade 8
This Lesson Plan is within the Eighth (8th) Grade Science Curriculum
School & Classroom Setting Eight (8) classrooms divided into three (3) teams
Racial mix of Grade 8 mirrors the total school and local community ethnic diversity
23% African American
8% Asian/ Pacific Rim
Learner Needs Summary Eighteen (18) learners with special needs
12 learners in IAP 504 programs
3 learners with corrected vision below 20/200
2 learners hearing impaired
1 ambulatory impairment (Down’s syndrome)
Classroom Learning Styles Independent:
learners who are self directed and confident in their learning abilities and investigation skills. They might prefer to focus on ‘important’ content, and will probably want to work alone rather than in a group with other students. Collaborative:
students who feel they can learn by sharing ideas and talents across groups or within guided interactions. They are cooperative and prefer group settings. More talkative than others! Competitive:
students who learn (perform) in order to out-perform their classmates. These learners are the hardest for me to work with because I do not believe that learning is a competitive sport.
‘The good kids’. They are the ‘easy ones’ who enjoy getting involved in class and take part in as much of the course activities as possible. However, they risk being forgotten and overlooked because they are not needy. These students need to know that they are an important element of the learning that goes on in this class Teachers & Instructors detour Students ......
for those about to ROCK!
(we salute you!) What do we know about rocks?
- that rocks are all around us
- that some rocks look and feel different that others
- that rocks in the mountains are angular and sharp
- that rocks in or near water are flat or smooth
- that tocks erode (weather) as a result of the forces of wind, water, and gravity Classroom Technology Microsoft Exchange Domain Server
Wireless 128gb-encrypted B-G router
Seven (7) MS-Windows 2007 workstations
DVD and USB ports have been disabled
Each learner has unique UserID and Password
Classroom portfolio can be accessed via any browser, including handheld and personal devise
Accessibility accommodations for ADHD Vision, and Hearing impairments contained within lesson
Louis C. Martina, PMP,
Ashford University, Clinton IA
The Ohio State University,
Mathematics & Physical Sciences, B.S.
Petroleum Geology, B.S.
WGA Evans Scholar,
The Ohio State University
Four Year academic scholarship
What do you want to know? Why are some rocks flat and crumbly? Why do some rocks have veins of color running through them? Where does the lava in a volcano come from? Lesson Objectives There are four (4) key objectives for this lesson:
We will know the Rock Types and their processes of formation We will understand the Processes of Erosion We will understand the Economic benefits of Geologic Forces We will begin to correlate the Relationship & Interconnectedness of Geology to the Gaian Principles (Lovelock, 1979) How will we know when we’ve arrived? We’ll have reached the goal for this when:
We can name the four (4) rock types, their classifications, and a few examples within each type
We can name the processes that form these four rock types: heat, pressure, erosion, compaction, subduction, and metamorphism
We have completed the lab and outdoors group experiments to demonstrate the forces of heat, pressure, and gravity
We understand the economic benefits of these geologic forces
We can explain the relationship & interconnectedness of Geology to the Gaian Principles of ‘Mother Earth’ (Lovelock, 1979)
We have demonstrated this knowledge in a series of quizzes, discovery prompts, and the final “in-class” assessments (TEST ) How do you begin to identify what type of rock you might have? Visual observation
use the manifying lens
perform a 'color streak' test
feel it: does it crumble easily
is it cold to the touch ( easily (high silica content)
how hard is it? (what materials can scratch the rock?
what is the specific gravity of the rock? (how much water does it displace?)
Where we will collect and record the data and information that we observe? our old pal, the scientific method The Rock Cycle What Type of Rock do I Have?
How to tell an igneous rock from a sedimentary or metamorphic rock. Click to see the ‘Rock Cycle’ come to life:
Compliments of the Geologic Society of London
This avi was 'stolen by 'screentoaster.com' The real source is the Geological Society of London (UK) http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/site/GSL/lang/en/pid/3892
click on this Youtube object. ...and ponder this sylogism:
a. All geologists like rock
b. AC/DC is a rock band
c. THEN: All geologists like AC/DC So..... Key Concept 1: Rock Types Key Concept 2: Erosion Key Concept 3: Economics Key Concept 4: Gaian Principles Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are created when melted minerals cool from a liquid into a solid.
Above ground, the molten rock takes the form of lava spewing from volcanic fissures while below ground, magma cools in small caves of air.
These processes form volcanic or plutonic rock, respectively.
Igneous comes from the root word "ignis," which means, "of fire," which differentiates this form of rock from sedimentary or metamorphic. Igneous rock are like volcanic, but they cooled much slower
Volcanic Rocks Volcanic rocks are igneous rocks that originated from volcanoes.
In other words, these are rocks that came out of a volcano during an eruption.
For example, basalt rock forms from lava flows, and pumice is often associated with explosive volcanic events. Both are volcanic rocks.
Examples of Igneous & Volcanic Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Many sedimentary rocks are made from the broken bits of other rocks.
The broken bits of rocks are called sediment. Sediment is the sand you find at the beach, the mud in a lake bottom, the pebbles in a river, and even the dust on furniture.
The sediment may, in time, form a rock if the little pieces become cemented together.
Examples of Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have "morphed" into another kind of rock.
These rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks.
The rocks were subjected to heat and pressure, which fosters heat build up, and this causes them to change.
If you exam metamorphic rock samples closely, you'll discover how flattened some of the grains in the rock are.
Examples of Metamorphic Rocks Erosion Processes…
the rocks are shrinking! Chemical Weathering
Many rocks, particularly limestone, are susceptible to chemical reactions when combined with materials carried in the air and water. Most of our caves are formed by limestone dissolved by the action of water.
Oxygen in the air around us may oxidize minerals in the rock. The reddish color of the rocks making up the exterior walls city office buildings are the result of iron slowly oxidizing in the rock when exposed to air.
Freeze and Thaw
Water is unique. As it freezes, it expands in volume. In the mountains, snow melts during the day, and the resulting water flows into cracks in rocks. Overnight, as temperatures drop, the water expands and freezes. This expansion provides an incredible wedging force and slowly chips away at the rock face. Glaciation
Glaciers carve valleys. A ‘U’ shape valley is a very good indicator that a glacier may have run through the area.
As snow accumulates high in the mountains, eventually the excess is released in the form of avalanches. Since these releases will follow the most efficient route, they normally follow the same path year after year.
Water is the “king of erosion.” Nothing carves up a landscape like the action of water. As water begins to move, it picks up material in the form of gravel and debris. As these sediments are carried within the water, they provide the abrasive needed to begin carving river channels.
Under the force of gravity, soil slowly begins to slide downhill, and eventually the signs of creep become evident. Tree trunks curve upward as the creep had caused them to tilt downhill, and they in turn corrected for this. Fence posts and telephone poles may also begin to lean downslope as the effects of creep increase.
Sometimes, as layers of rock are steeply uplifted, the bonding of one layer to another may be weakened by the action of water or other agents of erosion. As the force of gravity constantly pulls down on the surface of a steep slope, there may eventually be a failure. As a fracture occurs at the top, a layer may slide down suddenly creating a large rockslide.
In the Rockies, wind tends to play a minor role. In area’s where the wind constantly blasts, as in the Bow Valley, the wind may add to the effects of other forces.
The orange and green lichens that coat many of our rocks are slowly breaking them down. This breakdown begins the lengthy process of soil creation.
Economic Geology Economic geology:
Is concerned with earth materials that can be used for economic and/or industrial purposes. These materials include precious and base metals, nonmetallic minerals, construction-grade stone, petroleum minerals, coal, and water.
The term commonly refers to metallic mineral deposits and mineral resources.
Economic geology is studied and practiced by geologists. However it is of prime interest to investment bankers, stock analysts and other professions such as engineers, environmental scientists, and conservationists because of the far-reaching impact that extractive industries have on society, the economy, and the environment.
The Gaia Principle The Gaia hypothesis:
The theory proposed by Prof. James Lovelock in 1979 that the Earth, (Gaia) , is made up of components (biosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere) that are very closely integrated and dependent on each other to sustain life on Earth.
Why are the oceans the same ‘saltiness’ after all of these years?
Why is the air still 21% Oxygen after all of these years?
How come the Earth's average temperature is still ~ 74 degrees after all of these years?
Experiments and Learning Outcomes Outdoors Activity: “The Rolling Stones” – An experiment to observe how fluvial deposits are discharged as a result of density and velocity. This is an outdoors exercise where various 5 gal. buckets of water, mud, rocks and pebbles (of specific size and classifications) are poured down a gutter at various degrees of elevation.
The ‘Geologic Cycle” – A ‘not -to-scale’ topographic model of the Earth’s major mountain chains (orogenies)
Web-based game: ‘fill in the blank’ game using (Quizlet)
Edible Plate Tectonics – Snickers™ v. Milky Way™ serve as the massive geologic plates that are crashing into each other, creating troughs and uplifts. Using popular candy bars, the class will observe and demonstrate tensile strength and material elasticity. The class will have the option of eating the evidence (The ScienceSpot, 2011)
Vocabulary: words, terms, and flash cards (Quizlet)
Group Activity: Presentation created by class groups on a topic related to the Geologic Cycle
Assessment – End of Lesson Test The Tectonic Plates Earthquakes & Tsunamis are no accident... they occur on the boundaries of the tectonic plates I hope this lesson 'Rocked' your world!
Earth Sciences – The Rock Cycle; from Internet search 03/13/2011,
Kraft, K. , (2010) “The Earth as a System” Concept Map, Mesa Community College, Mesa, AZ http://serc.carleton.edu/images/NAGTWorkshops/assess/earth_as_a_syst.jpg
Lovelock, J., The Gaia Hypothesis. Sydney, Australia, Mountain Man Press
Young, Angus & Johnson, B. (1981) “For those about to Rock, (we salute you!) Sung & Performed by AC /DC, London, Sony Records
The Geological Society of London, Online search results, February 2, 2011, http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/site/GSL/lang/en/pid/3892
Trimpe, T. “The Science Spot” Middle School Science website. Online search, February 2, 2011. http://sciencespot.net/index.html Japan Haiti San Francisco (click 'Show' to view the assignment in 'Presentation' mode This classic rock anthem plays for ~ 5 minutes;
you can click to 'play' arrow
anytime to continue the presentation.
...but you'll miss a cool tune!