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IGCSE Physical Education 1.8. Drugs

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by

Rob Myatt

on 5 May 2015

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Transcript of IGCSE Physical Education 1.8. Drugs

Drugs definition
: Any chemical introduced to the body which affects how the body works.

Doping definition
: Taking a drug to improve sporting performance.


ATHLETES TAKE DIFFERENT KINDS OF DRUGS FOR DIFFERENT REASONS

These generally include:

To increase their performance.

To kill pain so that they can keep going.

To build muscles faster than they can do by training.

To calm themselves before important events.
What is doping?
Provide a definition for each of these words:

W.A.D.A.:

Doping:

Drugs:

6 Banned Classifications (P.A.N.D.A.S.):

Blood doping:

Socially-accepted drugs:
KEY VOCABULARY
- Red blood cells carry oxygen. The more, the better!

- Athletes train at high altitude to increase oxygen supply when they return to normal altitude.

... Blood doping has the same effect.
Blood Doping
P
eptide Hormones & Analogues
A
nabolic Agents
N
arcotics-Analgesics
D
uirectics
A
nxiety-Reducing Drugs
S
timulants
P.A.N.D.A.S.
Usually means they have a genuine medical use in some cases.

In order to use one of the following drugs in competition (with the exception of alcohol) you must have a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) certificate.

Examples.

Marijuana.
Lowers the heart rate, reduces anxiety and steadies shaking hands.

Corticosteroids.
Reduces pain and inflammation from injuries and inflammatory conditions (e.g. asthma).
Possible side-effects are diabetes and brittle bones.

Alcohol.
Calms nerves.
Reduce coordination, judgment and reactions. Long term use has more serious side-effects (e.g. liver, kidney and heart failure).

Local anaesthetics.
An injection to an injured area to reduce pain.
They may be allowed in some sports for medical purposes.
Other Drugs with Restrictions
Examples:

HGH (Human Growth Hormone), EPO (Erythropoietin)

Positive Effects: Negative Effects:

Increase in red-blood cells. Thickening of the blood.
Increased muscle growth. Increased risk of a stroke or heart problems.
Improve fatigue coping ability. Muscle tremors.
Abnormal growth.
Difficult to detect! Diabetes.
Arthritis.
Impotence.
Oily skin & acne.

Sports:
Cycling, Rowing, Distance Running,Cross-country Skiing
Peptides, hormones & analogues.
Examples:
Beta-blockers

Positive Effects: Negative Effects:
Lower HR. Lower BP.
Steady nerves & muscles. Cramp.
Calms & relaxes. Heart failure.

Sports:
Shooting
Archery
Anxiety Reducing Drugs
Examples:

Frusemide, Probencid

Positive Effects: Negative Effects:

Rapid weight loss Dehydration
Masks other drugs Cramp
Dizziness
Headaches
Nausea

Sports:
Horse racing
Boxing
Weightlifting
Diuretics
Examples:

Nandrolone, Testosterone, Stanozol, Clenbuterol, THG (Tetrahydrogestinone).

Positive Effects: Negative Effects:

Increased strength Increased aggression
Increased muscle growth Impotence
Increased body weight Kidney damage
Increased endurance Baldness
Can train harder and more frequently Development of gender-specific elements
Irregular periods

Sports:
Bodybuilding, Weightlifting, Baseball, Athletics, Cycling
Anabolic Agents
Examples:

Morphine, Methadone, Heroin.

Positive Effects: Negative Effects:

Reduces pain Injuries can get worse/become permanent
Masks injury or illness Highly addictive
Lose motor skills
Addictive with bad withdrawl sympotoms.

Sports:
Athletics
Boxing
Contact Sports
Narcotics-Analgesics
Examples:

Amphetamines, Ephedrine, Cocaine, Adrafanil, Coffee (eight 250ml cups in 2 hours).

Positive Effects: Negative Effects:

Give the athlete a ‘high’ Increased HR & BP
Alert & competitive High level of strain on the body
Affects CNS to increased reflexes Make injuries worse
Reduces fatigue Acute anxiety/aggresiveness
Addictive

Sports:

Football, Cycling, Athletics, used in long competition events
Stimulants
Seven Classifications of
Performance-Enhancing Drugs

1.8. Drugs
GCSE Physical Education

UNIT 1

‘Factors affecting performance’

Affects coordination, speech and judgement.

Less likely to perform an action accurately (e.g sobriety test).

Slows reaction time.

Muscles tire quicker.

Drinking before sport is very dangerous.

Causes damage to…
Liver.
Kidneys.
Heart.
Muscles.
Brain (e.g. mental illness).
Digestive & immune systems.

Small amounts aren’t too harmful; they’re promoted in some cases (e.g. an infrequent glass of red wine).

BEST ADVICE: Drink in moderation, if not at all!
Alcohol
‘Socially-accepted’ drugs
Affects the respiratory system.

Contains tar which blocks up alveoli.
Harder for Gaseous exchange to occur.

Leads to alveoli collapse & stop working.

Contains addictive & poisonous drug nicotine.

Causes tightening of the blood vessels in the lungs, which slows blood flow in the lungs.
Gaseous exchange less efficient.

Main cause of…
Lung & throat cancer.
COPD.
Fertility problems.

Others problems include…
Discolouration of teeth and skin.
Shortness of breath, rise in blood pressure.
Costs thousands of Euros/Pounds & it’s highly addicitve!
Smoking
‘Socially-accepted’ drugs
Categories outlined by the International Olympic Committee (I.O.C.)

Stimulants.

Narcotics-Analgesics.

Anabolic agents.

Diuretics.

Anxiety-reducing drugs.

Peptides, glycoprotein hormones & analogues.

Other drugs with restrictions.
Method
:
- Inject with red blood cells.
- Take EPO to increase red blood cell count.
Advantages
:
- Athletes can exercise for longer.
- Virtually undetectable.
Disadvantages
:
- Allergic reaction.
- Kidney damage.
- Blocked capillaries.
- Virus contraction (e.g. HIV, hepatitis, etc).
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