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Mediterranean Diet: Libya
Transcript of Mediterranean Diet: Libya
Mbatan and Libyan Salad Photo based on: 'horizon' by pierreyves @ flickr The Libyans always say: "one must eat well." Eat the country and you will understand it Ingredients Recipe Preparation Dietary Suggestions In the traditional Libyan cuisine, there are four main ingredients: olives and olive oil, grains, palm dates, and milk. Libya is one of the largest African countries. It lies on Africa’s northeast coast, with its entire northern border concealed by the Mediterranean Sea. Surrounding countries include (from west to south to north) Tunisia, Algeria, Niger, Chad,
Sudan, and Egypt. 4 potatoes (medium size)
Corn oil for frying
2 tsp butter
1 medium onion, finely chopped
500g minced/ground beef or lamb
1 cup parsley, finely chopped
1 cup green onion, finely chopped
1 clove garlic
1 hot chili
1 tsp black pepper
1 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp ginger
1 tsp salt
1 egg Nutritional Analysis Tea: strong black tea at mid-afternoon family hour, sometimes with nuts
green tea is traditionally offered in the evening to aid in digestion of the day’s consumption. Thank you Prepared by:
Fawziah Saleh #1091324
Marwa Idrees #1090306 Grains: like wheat and barley, usually processed into flour and used for making bread, cakes, and other Libyan dough-based dishes Dates: eaten dried or can be used in some dishes. Many Libyans enjoy eating dates with a glass of milk. Garlic: it is sometimes mixed with honey or olive oil, and used as a spread over bread. Olive oil: used in almost every dish Salad:
2 crab apples, plus extra wedges to top
1 medium onion, finely chopped
1 cup parsley and /or coriander, finely chopped
1 cup Arab cucumbers, grated
or finely diced
4 Tbsp olive oil
8 black olives, pitted
Pinch of salt to taste
Some Lemon Juice to taste wholewheat flour and breadcrumbs
increase ginger and chili pepper
heart-healthy oils instead of butter and corn oil
saute', baking or fryer instead of frying
Salad additives: Zumita fingers, tuna, seeds (fiber, vitamin E and A, antioxidants, K, P, Zn, protein combo with potatoes)
decrease the amount of olive oil to 2 Tbsp
To add source of (Ca) to replace dairy... Protein Carbohydrates potatoes
apples and vegetables in the salad. Minerals Dietary Fibers Fats and Cholesterol Good Points Frying Advantages:
increases concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in the food, especially vitamin E
no effects on both the mineral and protein composition
elevates the amount of resistant starch and fiber in the potatoes especially. Resistant starch and fiber are not digested by our systems, so this helps give bulk to the meal without contributing to the energy or kcalorie intake.
batter, limits oil absorption; it holds in moisture by sealing the food’s surface. balanced, complete meal
containing all the essential amino acids and essential fatty acids
moderate amount of carbohydrate
2 servings of carbohydrate, which has minor affects on diabetic individuals
sufficient amounts of vitamins and minerals
little amounts of cholesterol
tasty, savory meal, especially since it is fried
wide color assortment from potato stuffing and salad
spices replaced need of adding salt, giving extra flavor parsley, cucumbers, apples and potatoes
helps with digestion, satiety, and cholesterol.
The soluble dietary fiber, pectin, in apples binds the bad LDL cholesterol preventing its absorbance
induces satiety by adding bulk to the meal
Bulk, satiation, and its complex, indigestible structure; lowers the glycemic index. Disadvantages:
high in Kcal
high in trans fat
nutrient losses esp (vit. B and C)
health problems Good Frying Techniques:
type of potato: high density potato, low moisture content
heart-healthy oil with a high smoke point, such e.g. peanut oil, soybean oil, canola oil
right frying temperature to prevent extra oil soaking into the food and making it soggy.
carbonated liquid or a leavening agent
paper towel serving size: 4
preparation time: 1.5 hours
Kcal per serving: 830 + 232= 1062 Libya’s inhabitants are mostly conserved around the Mediterranean coast, as much of the country at the south end is part of the Sahara Desert. This location has aided Libyans to revolve around the fertile soil and moisture of the Mediterranean Sea, which contributes to their food sources. The ground meat and eggs
Potatoes and seeds make a complementary protein source
important for maintaining metabolic reactions
enzymes, carriers, and hormones are made out of the protein building blocks, amino acids
builds muscle mass and gives a feeling of satiation. considered healthy carbohydrates
low in fat
low to medium glycemic index
constitutes about half of the energy content (RDA) olive oil, a healthy oil containing monounsaturated fatty acids, oleic acids
benefits are best when eaten raw
Olive oil has vitamin E
Extra virgin and virgin olive oils are naturally produced, unrefined oils (also called "cold pressed"), and is the type of oil used most in Libya.
According to recent research, extra-virgin olive oil contains a natural painkiller called oleocanthal, that inhibits the activity of enzymes involved in inflammation, just as the NSAID, ibuprofen, does.
Olive oil is also widely used as a skin ointment for its healing properties and in perfumes and medicines. MUFA:
decreases risk of cholesterol > heart diseases
regulates blood sugar
regulates insulin secretion
prevents excessive blood-clotting
reduces inflammation > cytokines > atherosclerosis Mbatan has minute amounts of cholesterol, only coming from the moderate meat and egg components.
Meat, even if cut lean, has hidden fat could contribute to cholesterol
Beef has 45.8% of omega 3 RDA
Eggs are 36% fat: cholesterol, MUFA, PUFA, and omega 3
cholesterol in the eggs comes from its yolks; this will not affect the overall body cholesterol by that much.
The fats in the frying oil contribute the most to Kcalories in Mbatan Vitamin C
Vitamin C can be found in lemon juice, tomatoes, apples, potatoes, and chili peppers
Lemons not only enhance flavor
decrease the need for salt,
give a nice, shiny appearance
prevent the apples from oxidizing into an unwanted, brown color as well.
Vitamin C increases the bioavailability of iron absorbed from plant sources (non-heme iron).
increase the absorption of the iron in parsley, cucumbers, tomatoes, potatoes
vitamin C is an antioxidant; it helps one gain resistance against pathogens and rid of pro-inflammatory free-radicals.
chili peppers: contains vitamin C, has antioxidant, anticancer properties, capsaicin Parsley
Parsley is a common ingredient in the Mediterranean cuisine.
two cups of parsley were used: potato stuffing, salad.
has a moderate iron composition, better absorbed with vitamin C
includes vitamin A, B-complex vitamins, vitamin K, beta-carotene, flavonoids, and other phytochemicals.
parsley consists of 38% of the recommended daily allowances (RDA) of folates, 220% vitamin C, 281% vitamin A, 1366% vitamin K, 14% calcium, and 77.5% iron of the RDA.
The vitamin A in the parsley used for the stuffing was destroyed by 29% in the frying process, but fortunately, the parsley in the salad replaced the losses. Vitamin B6 is found abundant in potatoes, and in moderate amounts in chili peppers. Vitamin B6 has been shown to increase zinc absorption and is important for many biological enzymatic reactions, and immunity.
The zinc in this dish is abundant in eggs, meat, and in nuts and seeds that could be added to the salad. Zinc is important for child development, cell growth, immunity, and sexual maturity, Vegetables 1 Tbsp tomato paste
2 tsp breadcrumbs
4 tsp breadcrumbs
4 tsp white flour
2 large eggs
tomatoes have vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin K, B1, potassium, lycopene, beta-carotene B Vitamins B vitamins are very abundant in this dish, as well as the Mediterranean diet in general. The Eggs serve as a good source of Vitamin B12 and B2 (Riboflavin).
Vitamin B12, found in ground meat also, helps keep the body's nerves and blood cells in good condition, participates in DNA synthesis, and has been shown to prevent many types of anemias.
Riboflavin in eggs is essential for growth and red blood cell synthesis.
Thiamin (vitamin B1) found in breadcrumbs, is essential for heart, muscle, and nervous system function. Tomatoes, apples, and the potatoes are good sources of potassium, a mineral that is necessary for regulating osmolarity, blood pressure, and heart rate.
Phosphorous is quite abundant in tomatoes, cucumbers and eggs, and found in less amounts in the potatoes. Phosphorous is essential for energy production, immunity, and plays part in many metabolic reactions.
Apples contain a reasonable amount of copper, which is an essential building block for hemoglobin, collagen, melanin, and myelin.
Selenium, in eggs and meat play a crucial role in the immune system and prevent the development of chronic diseases.
The Mediterranean diet shows to be complete with all the main vitamins and minerals, which are like little soldiers in our body. 340 kcal are added to mbatan as a result of frying.
Baked mbatan: 830 kcal - 340 kcal + 45 kcal = 535 kcal per serving.
135 kcal of the dish per serving come from the olive oil in the salad.
Libyan Salad with olive oil reduced to 2 Tbsp: 232 kcal - 68 kcal = 164 kcal per serving
total calorie for alternative mbatan = 1062 > > 699 kcal per serving Calorie Alterations