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World War II
Transcript of World War II
Treaty of Versailles Signed
This effectively ended World War I and left Germany with the brunt on the blame.
League of Nations Formed
This international group's mission was to maintain peace.
Adolf Hitler Gains Control
The World War I veteran gains control over the National Socialists Party in Germany.
Beer Hall Putsch Fails
Hitler's National Socialist, or Nazi Party, attempts to overthrow the reeling German government.
He is sentenced to five years in prison, but serves just over one.
German Mark Hits New Low
The value of the German monetary unit, the mark, began a decline in value at the end of WWI.
By the end of 1923, it took about 2.5 million marks to equal one US dollar.
"Mein Kampf" is Published
Translated "my struggle," Hitler included both autobiography elements and his political views in the book.
Germany is Admitted
The League of Nations admits Germany into the group.
The stock market crashes in the United States, sparking events leading the country into the Great Depression.
Nazi Party in Power
Germany elects the Nazi Party, giving them legitimacy and control.
It also paves the way for Adolf Hitler's ultimate control.
Adolf Hitler on Top
Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany.
German Reichstag Burns
The Nazi Party sets fire to the Reichstag building, which was the seat of the German government.
This act allowed Hitler to take absolute power under the prefix of "protecting the nation's security."
The first of many concentration camps opens in Berlin.
While later camps targeted the Jewish population, this camp was used to hold those who opposed the Nazi Party.
Nazis Boycott Jews
Prosecution of Jewish population begins with business boycotts.
NAZI SOLDIER OUTSIDE OF JEWISH BUSINESS WITH SIGN THAT READS, "GERMANS! DEFEND YOURSELVES! DON'T BUY FROM JEWS."
Thousands of German students gather and burn any book containing "non-German" ideas (like Freud, Einstein, HG Wells, etc.).
First Nazi-run concentration camp opens in Germany; first prisoners: any who opposed Nazi Party. Later prisoners: Jews.
Dachau prisoners were forced to stand outside for hours without movement.
Germany drops out of the League of Nations.
"Leader and Chancellor"
Hitler named Führer und Reichskanzler (leader and chancellor) of Germany.
"At the risk of appearing to talk nonsense I tell you that the National Socialist movement will go on for 1,000 years! ... Don't forget how people laughed at me 15 years ago when I declared that one day I would govern Germany. They laugh now, just as foolishly, when I declare that I shall remain in power!" -A. Hitler, 1934
Hitler violates rules set forth by the Treaty of Versailles by rearming Germany.
Nuremberg Laws Passed
This set of laws sought to deprive Jews of their German citizenship.
A person with three or four German grandparents was considered to be German, while those with three or four Jewish grandparents were considered Jewish.
The establishment of these laws meant that Jewish people in Germany:
1. Jews could not marry German citizens.
2. Sexual relations between Jews and German citizens was prohibited.
3. Jews could not employ female citizens under the age of 45.
4. Jews were forbidden to display the national flag or its colors.
Mussolini on the Move
Italian dictator, Benito Mussolino's, military forces take over Ethiopia.
Mussolini Takes Command
Fascist, Benito Mussolini, gains control in Italy.
Olympic Games in Berlin
The 1936 Olympic games are held in Berlin, Germany.
Adolf Hitler is sure that his race of pure Aryans will prove dominant to the rest of the world.
Stalin Purges Army Generals
Beginning in 1937 and lasting throughout 1938, Russian dictator Joseph Stalin systematically removes political and military leaders from office on accounts of treason.
Germany & Austria Team Up
Amidst cheers, Adolf Hitler announces Germany's alliance with Austria.
Germany Takes Sudetenland
Originally part of Czechoslovakia, Sudetenland was home to many Germans that were on board with the Nazi cause.
Also known as the "night of the broken glass," this word refers to the two-day destruction of Jewish businesses in Germany.
League of Nations Meeting
32 countries (including the US) convene a meeting in France in which they consider helping the Jews fleeing Nazi Germany.
The meetings result in inaction because no country will accept them.
More Jewish Regulations
Jewish people over the age of 15 are required to apply for ID cards.
These cards could be requested by police to see at any time.
Jews Take the Blame
Jewish population fined 1 billion marks for damages during Kristallnacht.
Jews Must Pay
Jews forced to turn in all of their gold and silver to the government.
Nazis Take Czechoslovakia
Hitler's Nazi army moves into and takes over Czechoslovakia, expanding Germany's territory.
"Pact of Steel"
Germany signs treaty with Italy.
Even More Jewish Rules
Jewish people now banned from being outdoors after 8pm.
Parliament signs Mutual Assistance Treaty with Poland.
English military mobilizes.
Germany Invades Poland
After gaining control over Czechoslovakia, Hitler turns his attention to Poland.
Many Jewish people had fled here from Germany to avoid persecution.
Germany's Hitler and Russia's Stalin sign a non-aggression pact.
Germany Gains Enemies
Great Britain, France, Australia, and New Zealand all declare war on Germany.
WORLD WAR II
British Royal Air Force attacks German navy
U.S. Keeps out of War
The United States stands by its claim of neutrality in the war in Europe.
Soviets on the Move
Russia invades Poland.
Nazis Practice Euthanasia
Called "mercy killings" by the Nazi Party, and resulted in the deaths of those sick and/or disabled in Germany.
The Soviet Union attacks Finland.
Russia is kicked out of the League of Nations.
Nazis on the Move
Nazis invade Norway and Denmark.
Nazis invade France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
Germans bomb Paris, France.
Paris Signs Armistice
France signs armistice agreement with Nazi Germany.
Axis Powers formed when alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan is formed.
Four More Years
The United States reelects Franklin Roosevelt as President.
Britain begins an offensive front against Italy from North Africa.
To the Hills of Tripoli
German's arrive in Tripoli, North Africa to combat the British forces there.
President Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease Act, allowing the US to support European allies like Great Britain and France.
Nazi Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece.
US Takes Some Action
The United States freezes all German and Italian assets in America.
The Germans attack the Soviet Union.
German SS soldiers (Nazis) execute Jews on a mass scale in both Germany and newly acquired territories like Lithuania.
Nazi places a siege on the Russian city of Leningrad.
More Jewish Regulation
Jewish people are forced to wear yellow stars like this:
Experimental Use of Gas Chambers
Nazis execute Jews in the concentration camp, Auschwitz, in gas chambers.
33,771 Jews Murdered
Nazis kill 33,000+ in Kiev.
Japan Bombs Pearl Harbor
In a surprise attack, Japanese planes bomb the US fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 2,403 Americans are killed.
On December 8, the day after the Pearl Harbor bombing, the US and Great Britain declare war on Germany and Japan.
Japanese living in America (including those with citizenship) are placed in camps on suspicion of treason.
First British air raid against Germans in Cologne.
First gassing of Jews takes place at Auschwitz.
Ike in London
US General, Dwight D. Eisenhower, arrives in London to oversee American operations in Europe.
Stalin Meets with Churchill
Russian dictator, Joseph Stalin, meets with British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, in Moscow.
Discussions of how joint forces will defeat the Germans ensues.
1st American Air Attacks
By bombing German targets during the day, the United States increases the success rate of bombs hitting their targets.
22,000 pound "Grand Slam." which was produced by the RAF, was the largest explosive bomb ever made.
The United States, along with the Allies Powers, invade North Africa.
Commanding US generals included D. Eisenhower and George S. Patton.
Germany surrenders to Russia at Stalingrad, marking the first military defeat of Hitler's Nazi army.
Italy No More
Soon after Mussolini resigns his leadership, Italy surrenders to Allied forces.
Part of "Operation Overlord," the codename for America's operations in Europe, D-Day was the landing of thousands of American troops on beaches in France.
August , 1944
Now famous for published diary, Anne Franks and her family are discovered in Germany.
As part of the ending stages of the island-hopping campaign, American forces take the island of Iwo Jima and its two airstrips from Japan.
Casualties were high.
US Casualties: 6,821
Japanese Casualties: 18,844
(Out of 22,000 total.)
The largest amphibious assault in the Pacific during World War II.
Casualties were higher.
US Casualties: 12,000
Japanese Casualties: 110,000
(Out of 120,000 total.)
Mussolini No More
The former Italian dictator is hanged.
America's only 4-term president dies from a brain aneurism.
Vice President, Harry S Truman takes command.
Facing pressure from the Allies tot the west and Russia to the east, Hitler choosing suicide over capture.