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Transcript of Behaviour Exceptionality
Learner Start Ontario Ministry of Education
Definition Strategies Behaviour Exceptionality Presented by
Angela Clarkson Associated Disorders Something to Ponder...
"If a child doesn't know how to read, we teach."
"If a child doesn't know how to swim, we teach."
"If a child doesn't know how to multiply, we teach."
"If a child doesn't know how to drive, we teach."
"If a child doesn't know how to behave, we...........
"Why can't we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others?"
Tom Herner (NASDE President) Counterpoint 1998, p.2 "A learning disorder characterized by specific behaviour problems over such a period of time, and to such a marked degree, and of such a nature, as to adversely affect educational performance, and that may be accompanied by one or more of the following: "Behavioural disorders affect social relationships and academic progress. The characteristics
listed below may be exhibited in varying degrees by students with behavioural/emotional
disorders. It is important to note that evidence of some of these characteristics does not always
indicate a behavioural exceptionality. The frequency, intensity, or duration of the behaviours
must be taken into account. The behaviours will be evident and will persist in different settings
and with different people. They are not primarily due to intellectual or health factors." (MOE Special Education Companion p.16) "Students who have behavioural/emotional disorders may demonstrate behaviours that show
disregard for social or cultural norms and that deviate in a significant manner from those that are normally expected. They may:
- destroy their own, another person’s or the school’s property;
- be disobedient, defy authority, test limits, refuse to follow directions, or be domineering;
- be uncooperative, resistive, inconsiderate, or disruptive;
- interrupt, disturb, or cause disturbances for which others are blamed;
- be apathetic, exhibiting a “don’t care” attitude;
- intimidate, bully, or threaten others;
- be restless, boisterous, or noisy;
- be untrustworthy or dishonest, lie, or steal;
- demonstrate delinquent behaviour or vandalism;
- be truant from school." (MOE Special Education Companion p.16-p.17) "Students who have behavioural/emotional disorders may demonstrate behaviours that tend to be impulsive or compulsive and that negatively affect learning. These students may:
- speak out;
- disrupt classroom activities;
- display temper tantrums;
- repetitively demonstrate the same behaviour;
- have difficulty thinking before acting, or be impulsive;
- become distracted or inattentive, or lack focus;
- daydream or appear preoccupied;
- demonstrate a short attention span or poor concentration;
- demonstrate an extreme resistance to change (secondary consideration). " (MOE Special Education Companion p.17) "Students who have behavioural/emotional disorders may demonstrate behaviours that show poor interpersonal relationships and low self-esteem. They may:
- be uncooperative in groups, argumentative, or passively noncompliant;
- seek attention;
- depend on others for direction and require constant reassurance;
- be hypersensitive, easily hurt or embarrassed, or easily flustered;
- lack self-confidence;
- demonstrate inappropriate sexual activity." (MOE Special Education Companion p.17) "Students who have behavioural/emotional disorders may demonstrate behaviours that are
injurious to themselves, such as:
- anorexia or bulimia;
- substance abuse." (MOE Special Education Companion p.17) Resources
The Ontario Ministry of Education
The Ontario Curriculum Unit Planner:
Special Education Companion © Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2002
Consult "The Pre-Referral Intervention Manual" for ideas on various behaviour challenges.
The CPRI Brake Shop: www.leakybrakes.ca
Nonviolent Crisis Intervention (CPI)
Dr. Ross Green "The Explosive Child"
Ontario Teacher Federation: Teacher's Gateway to Special Education
http://www.teachspeced.ca/index.php?q=node Nature vs. Nurture Excurpts from the MOE Special Education
Companion Documnet a) an inability to build or to maintain interpersonal relationships;
b) excessive fears or anxieties;
c) a tendency to compulsive reaction;
d) an inability to learn that cannot be traced to intellectual, sensory, or other health factors, or any combination thereof" (Ministry of Education) ODD - Oppositional Defiant Disorder CD OCD - fight, hit or assault others; - use profane or abusive language and gestures; ODD is a condition in which a child displays an ongoing pattern of uncooperative, defiant, hostile, and annoying behavior toward people in authority. The child's behavior often disrupts the child's normal daily activities, including activities within the family and at school. Some children with ODD go on to develop a more serious behavior disorder called conduct disorder. The behavior is considered to be a conduct disorder when it is long-lasting and when it violates the rights of others, goes against accepted norms of behavior and disrupts the child's or family's everyday life. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by uncontrollable, unwanted thoughts and repetitive, ritualized behaviors you feel compelled to perform. "Teachers and educational assistants who work with the behaviour disordered are the first to acknowledge that there is no pedagogical magic, no secret formula for teaching success in this area of exceptionality. And those who think there is one and go looking for it are bound to be disappointed." (Weber & Bennett, Special Education in Ontario Schools, p.79) "There are many human strengths needed to teach effectively. Traits like patience, flexibility, creativity, a sense of humour, a capacity to see all sides of an issue - these are elements that, in the heat of a teaching moment, outweigh intelligence and scholarship. Effective teachers manifest these characteristics most of the time. However what they manifest all of the time is not a characteristic at all, but an attitude, a perspective, namely: respect." (Weber & Bennett, "Special Education in Ontario", p79) Attitude Know where your student is "at".
Try to get "inside" the students view point.
Be empathetic, but keep the balance of still being an adult mentor. You are not there to be there friend.
Control Over the Environment - for younger children (Dr. Jordan Peterson)
Collaborative Problem Solving - for older children (R. Green) Model appropriate behaviour yourself.
Be professional in all situations.
Do not react defensively to being challenged.
Employ fair and realistic consequences in a consistent manner. Establish a realistic, consistent and predictable learning environment.
Procedures and expectations are clear, uncomplicated and predictable. "Catch a kid doing something good"
Look for positives and 'discreetly' reward By knowing where the student is at, plan small attainable goals that you can build on.
When they can achieve these smaller goals with success use this momentum to work on a more difficult goal. Focus on academics.
Remind students that they are here at school to learn.
Don't let Social Skills training take over the regular academics. These kids are smart and they do not like to be different. Strategies (Weber & Bennett, "Special Education in Ontario Schools")
The Crisis Development Model
When dealing with a student's Crisis Development/Behaviour Levels you need to react at the appropriate level.
1. A student demonstrating Anxiety (taping their legs, pacing, etc)
Staff response is Supportive (ex. take student on a walk)
2. A student is Defensive (ex. questioning you)
Staff response is Directive (ex. firmly direct student)
3. Acting-Out Person (total loss of control)
Staff response is Nonviolent Physical Crisis Intervention (safe, non harmful control and restraint techniques)
4. Tension Reduction (Decrease in physical/emotional energy; regaining of rationality)
Staff response is Therapeutic Rapport (attempt to re-establish communication.
(CPI) Behaviour Interventions All Behaviour is a form of communication. What was the function of the behaviour? To get something? To aviod something? Verbal Intervention of a student in the Defensive State 5 Stages of Defensive Behaviour
Release (verbal acting out)
Intimidation (verbally threatening)
Tension Reduction So.... what do you do in this situation!? Set Limits: When you set limits, offer a person choices and state the consequences of those choices starting with the positive first. Keep limits simple and clear; reasonable and enforceable.
Verbal Intervention Do's and Don't's
1. Remain calm 1. Overreact
2. Isolate the situation 2. Get in a power struggle
3. Enforce limits 3. Make false promises
4. Listen 4. Fake attention
5. Be aware of nonverbals 5. Be threatening
6. Be consistent 6. Use jargon
7. Respectful tones 7. Take it personally
8. Use sarcasm
(CPI) Attention Deficit Disorder with or without Hyperactivity.
ADHD is caused by neurological inefficiency in the area of the brain that controls impulses, aids in screening sensory input and focusing attention.
This means that ADHD:
has a biological cause
is not an excuse
can be hereditary
is no one's fault
can be a disability if unaddressed
(Educator Handbook for ADHD) "The bottom line is that although some kids are born with difficult temperaments, the quality of parenting can moderate the extent to which these temperaments lead to problems later in life. Children’s vulnerabilities for mental health problems can be activated by certain triggers, such as poor parenting. On the other hand, their strengths can be activated by effective parenting. Good parenting allows children to explore and use their innate abilities."
(terrificparenting.com) Verbal Intervention
My top two strategies... Silence One Voice