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THE RISE AND DEVELOPEMENT OF NAZI GERMANY

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Daniel Santella

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Transcript of THE RISE AND DEVELOPEMENT OF NAZI GERMANY

E
Account for the fall of the Weimar government.
Analyze the reasons for the rise of Adolf Hitler to power.
• “Hitler was a really bad person that led to the deaths of millions of people.”
• “There are many reasons for the failure of the Weimar Republic: the conditions under which is was formed, the structure of the government, and the economic pressure created by the Great Depression.”
• “Throughout history the German people have been living under many
governments that controlled them. One of these was the Weimar government.”
• “While the Weimar Republic had many inherent weaknesses (the conditions under which it was set up and structural deficiencies), it was ultimately the outside force of the Great Depression that led to its failure.”
• “The Weimar government could have survived had the Great Depression not struck Germany so hard.”
• “This essay will consider the reasons for the failure of the Weimar government”
• “Hitler wanted to destroy the Treaty of Versailles by rearming Germany, rebuilding the German economy, and conquering lands with people who were of German blood.”
• “In this essay I will consider the three major factors in the failure of the Weimar Republic.”
• “It is impossible to attribute the failure of the Weimar Government to one primary cause. Ultimately, it was the combined effect of internal and external factors that brought the government to an end in 1934.”
• “The most significant factor in the collapse of the Weimar regime was the inability of the elite to effectively control Adolf Hitler, allowing him to seize control of Germany in 1934 with the passage of the Enabling Act.”
• “The Weimar regime never gained the love of the German people because of its association with the Treaty of Versailles. In fact, it was loathed by many, ultimately leading to its failure.”
• “The Weimar Republic ruled over Germany for many years before it collapsed.”
• There were many people involved in the collapse of the Weimar government: Hindenburg, Hitler, Bruning, von Papen, Schleicher, and Muller.
• “Adolf Hitler’s charisma, organization, and shear determination were singularly responsible for the downfall of the Weimar government at the hands of the Nazi party”
• “While Hitler’s charisma, organization, and ideology were important factors in Hitler’s rise to power, it is more important to consider how they were helped to power by external factors like the Great Depression, mistakes by the Weimar leaders, and the inherent structure of government set up by the Weimar constitution.”
COMMUNISTS
THE RISE AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAZI GERMANY
WHEN LOOKING AT AUTHORITARIAN STATES, WE NEED TO CONSIDER...
Origins & nature of authoritarian/single party states
Conditions that produce authoritarian/single-party states
Emergence of leaders: aims, ideology, support
Establishment of authoritarian & single party states
Methods: forced, legal
Form of government, left and right wing ideology
Nature, extent, and treatment of opposition
Totalitarianism: the aim and the
extent to which it was achieved
Domestic policies and impact
Structure & organization of government & administration
Political, economic, social, and religious policies
Role of education, the arts, the media, propaganda
Status of women, treatment of religious groups & minorities
THE RISE AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAZI GERMANY
THE RISE AND DEVELOPMENT OF NAZI GERMANY
1. Why was Germany viewed as one of the world's most advanced and developed nations at the turn of the century?
2. Which features of German society worked against the development of democracy?
3. Why did Germany's growing power lead to the formation of the Triple Entente?
4. Why was World War I considered an example of "total war"? How did "total war" affect the lives of ordinary Germans?
5. What events in 1917 added to the pressure on Germany's military leaders?
6. How did Russian communists help create an opportunity for German military victory in 1918?
CHOICES READING ONE QUESTIONS
Each group will be assigned one of the following readings:
Defeat, Revolution, and Armistice
The Versailles Treaty
German Territorial Losses
The Weimar Constitution
Answer the "Questions for Discussion" at the end of your assigned document.
Jigsaw groups and share your expertise
Work together to answer the questions from "The Formation of the Weimar Republic"
1. Why did many Germans feel that the Versailles Treaty was extremely unfair? (Your group's answer should take into account the concluding events of World War I and specific provisions of the peace settlement.)
2. Why did many Germans mistrust the authors of the Weimar Constitution? (Your group's answer should reflect opinions from a wide range of political viewpoints.)
3. If you were living in Germany in the early days of the Weimar Republic, how would you have assessed the prospects for your country's future? (Your group's response should present a balanced picture of Weimar Germany's potential strengths and weaknesses.)
FORMATION OF THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC
HYPERINFLATION,
LOOKING AT DOCUMENTS
What was the
mood
in postwar Germany?
1. Explain why several segments of German society never accepted the legitimacy of the Weimar system.
2. How did Hitler use anti-Semitism to further his political aspirations?
3. How was the French occupation of the Ruhr tied to Germany's hyperinflation?
4. Describe "Weimar culture" and explain why many Germans rejected its values.
5. How did the conflict between the Catholic Center Party and the SPD contribute to the political crisis of the Weimar Republic?
6. How did the economic depression that began in 1929 create an opportunity for extremist political parties in Weimar Germany?
CHOICES READING TWO QUESTIONS
THE MOOD IN POSTWAR GERMANY
Anger at Versailles: Article 231, reparations, territory loss, economic
and military restrictions. Treaty did not resemble Wilson's 14 Points.
Germans did not think they started the war, nor did they think their military had lost it.
Myth of the Dolchstoss, or "stab in the back".
Fear of, desire for, Soviet style Revolution through groups like the Spartacists.
Fear, anger, and uncertainty led to the formation of conservative, nationalistic groups like the Freikorps.
Hope for a more democratic, representative government.
Fear of economic collapse and mutinies in the military.
KDP (COMMIES)
NSDAP (NAZIS)
CATHOLIC CENTER
SDP (SOCIAL DEMOCRATS)
FAR LEFT
FAR RIGHT
FORMATION OF MAJOR POLITICAL
PARTIES IN WEIMAR GERMANY
NSDAP: NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS PARTY?
WHAT WERE THE VALUES AND IDEAS UNDERLYING THE
WHAT WERE THE MAJOR PROBLEMS
FACING WEIMAR GERMANY (1919-24)?
POLITICAL
ECONOMIC
SOCIAL
DEMOCRATIC PARTY
GERMAN PEOPLE'S PARTY
DNVP (NATIONALISTS)
Most workers were paid daily and given time to shop before the value of their wages fell further.
Housewives used small bills to fuel their ovens because they were worth less than wood kindling.
The German central bank printed larger denominations of bills almost every month.
Depositors received letters from banks informing them that their life savings were worth less than the administrative costs of maintaining their accounts.
Not all bad, however. Debt was easy to pay off. Industrialists had easy access to cash needed in order to spur production.
EFFECTS
SOURCES
Explain the connection between the occupation of the Ruhr and Germany's hyperinflation.
How did war reparations contribute to inflation?
Why did the government's support for striking workers in the Ruhr lead to the collapse of the German mark's value?
German government stabilized the situation in 1923 by issuing a new mark.
Foreign help in the form of the Dawes Plan also helped stabilize the reparations problem.
Read through the document and highlight clauses that are:
a) nationalist (red)
b) socialist/anti-capitalist (green)
c) racist/anti-semitic (blue)
d) opposed to parliamentary democracy (yellow)
Which of the following groups might be more likely to be:
a) attracted by the programme b) alienated by the program
People in debt Ex-soldiers
Small business people Industrial workers
Big industrialists Generals
War profiteers Lower middle class
THE NAZIS AND THE LOWER MIDDLE CLASS
INDUSTRIALISTS
MIDDLE AND LOWER MIDDLE CLASSES
Come up with two questions you have about specific clauses in the document
THE MUNICH
PUTSCH
HOW IMPORTANT WAS IT?
WHAT WAS IT?
WHY DID IT FAIL?
Watch the dramatization of the Munich Putsch and try to use the information to answer the questions above. The part you need to watch starts at 55:00 and ends at 1:22:00
HOW DID THE WEIMAR GOVERNMENT SURVIVE THE CRISES OF 1919-24?
SPARTACIST MOVEMENT
KAPP PUTSCH
HYPERINFLATION
FRENCH OCCUPATION OF RUHR
MUNICH PUTSCH
REPARATIONS/RESTRICTIONS LOSS OF TERRITORY WAR GUILT
STRENGTH OF WEIMAR or WEAKNESS OF OPPOSITION?
The extremist forces of both Left and Right failed to attract much support and were both divided and disorganized.
Although many in the army and elite were not committed to democracy, they were not yet prepared to overthrow it as they feared this could lead to greater chaos.
President Ebert used Article 48, as intended, to take firm action against threats.
Stresemann tackled hyperinflation successfully and dealt with threats in Bavaria.
DID POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS (1924-29)
MAKE THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC MORE STABLE?
Use the reading Weimar Nazis SH CH 3 Political Economic Recovery.pdf on the Weebly to make a chart to help you answer the question above.
Evidence Supporting the Affirmative
Evidence Supporting the Negative
HOW FAR DID STRESEMANN'S
FOREIGN POLICY STRENGTHEN
THE WEIMAR REGIME?
STRESEMANN
THE DAWES PLAN
THE YOUNG PLAN
LOCARNO
LEAGUE OF NATIONS
TREATY OF BERLIN
ALLIED OCCUPATION
REPARATIONS
DAWES PLAN (1924)
YOUNG PLAN (1929)
RE ESTABLISH GERMANY INTERNATIONALLY
THE DEPRESSION
THE MOMENT OF DECISION
Read the "Moment of Decision" document along with the "Platforms in Brief"
You will be broken into groups, each group representing one of the platforms.
KDP:
NSDAP:
SDP:
CENTER:
Download "German Voter Profiles." Each of you will be assigned two or three voter roles. You need to be able to explain how the political attitudes of the voters you represent would have been affected by the economic depression.
Which fears were most likely to influence your views? How would the depression have changed their assessment of the Weimar system? Encourage dialogue among voter groups.
WHAT WERE THE MAJOR THEMES OF MEIN KAMPF?
THE FUHRER PRINCIPLE
PURITY OF BLOOD
LEBENSRAUM
PRIMACY OF STRUGGLE
"Hitler proved singularly ineffective. Nothing had been properly planned, and when Hitler was forced to recognize that von Lossow and von Kahr had resumed their freedom of action and were taking measures to suppress the rising he suffered a nervous collapse in which he passed through a whole succession of moods- anger, despair, apathy, renewed hope, hesitation. He remained shut up in the Beer Hall, isolated from the crowds from which he had always drawn strength, and unable to make up his mind whether or not to risk a demonstration. It was Ludendorff who decided for him, and at noon next day led out Hitler and the other Nazi leaders at the head of a column of several thousand men, which ... marched into the centre of the city. Eyewitness accounts strongly suggest that Hitler had already lost all faith in what they were doing. When a police cordon opened fire, 14 in the procession and 3 policemen were killed, and many more wounded. While Ludendm:ff marched on and pushed through the cordon, Hitler, qfter being pulled to the ground and dislocating his shoulder, scrambled to his feet and fled ... The chances of bringing off a coup in 1923 comparable with Mussolini's March on Rome the year before had never been more than marginal."
A. Bullock, Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives, 1992, p. I 00
Hitler comments in 1933 on the failed coup
"It was the greatest good fortune for us National Socialists that the Putsch collapsed because:
1 Co-operation with General Ludendor:ff would have been absolutely impossible.
2 The sudden takeover of power in the whole of Germany would have led to the greatest of difficulties in 1923 because the essential preparations had not even been begun by the National Socialist Party.
5 The events of 9th November 1923 with their blood sacrifice have proved the most effective propaganda for National Socialism."
Hitler talking to Kurt Ludecke in 1924, from I Knew Hitler, 1938.
Ludecke, a former supporter, broke with Hitler in 1934 and became a bitter critic
"When I resume active work it will be necessary to pursue a new policy. Instead of working to achieve power by an armed coup we shall have to hold our noses against the Catholic and Marxist deputies. If out-voting them takes longer than outshooting them, at least the results will be guaranteed by their own Constitution! ... Sooner or later we shall have a majority- and after that, Germany. I am convinced that this is our best line of action, now that conditions in the country have changed so radically."
"Hitler was shrewd enough to see that his trial would provide a new platform from which he could… for the first time make his name known far beyond the confines of Bavaria and indeed Germany itself . .. By the time it ended ... Hitler had transformed defeat into triumph ... impressed the German people by his eloquence and the fervour of his nationalism, and emblazoned his name on the front pages of the world."
William Shirer was an American journalist living in Germany in the
1930s. His book The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich was published in the US in 1960
What do the sources tell us about the Putsch?
Read the document from the Schools History Project on Stresemann and his foreign policy. Write a 200 word response to either of the following questions:
Stresemann was a "good European", working for the betterment of the international order. To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Stresemann's foreign policy strengthened the Weimar government. To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Group up by question to discuss your answers to the question. What evidence did you base your decision on?
Read through the party platform as a group and use it fill in the answers to the questions from the "Presenting Your Party's Platform" sheet. Next class, we will have a rally where you will try to convince me to join your party.
Using the sources above and your own knowledge, examine how the Depression affected Germany.
REICHSTAG ELECTIONS
PLATFORM PRESENTATIONS
THE CENTER
THE KDP
THE NSDAP
THE SDP
THE NAZIS: A WARNING FROM HISTORY
EPISODE ONE: HELPED INTO POWER
As you watch, complete a chart like the one below, with examples of how the Nazis were helped to power on one side, and how they pushed themselves to power on the other.
HELPED TO POWER
PUSHED THEMSELVES
FACTORS OUTSIDE THEIR CONTROL
FACTORS WITHIN THEIR CONTROL
HOW AND WHY DID THE NAZIS BECOME THE LARGEST PARTY IN THE REICHSTAG?
FACTORS
HITLER'S CHARISMA AND SPEAKING
NATIONAL SOCIALIST MESSAGE AND IDEOLOGY
NATIONAL SOCIALIST PARTY ORGANIZATION
NAZI PROPAGANDA AND VIOLENCE (SA)
NATIONAL SOCIALIST SUPPORTERS (WHO?)
OVERALL CONTEXT:
GREAT DEPRESSION
WEIMAR WEAKNESS & MISTAKES
WHY WAS HITLER APPOINTED CHANCELLOR IN 1933?
Leaders like President Hindenburg, chancellors Bruning, von Papen, and Schleicher, and the wealthy elite were looking to form a more authoritarian government to stabilize Germany.
Parliamentary Democracy
Presidential Government
REICHSTAG
HINDENBURG
Dictatorship
HITLER
HOW AND WHY DID THIS HAPPEN?
The Depression had a MAJOR impact on life in Germany.
Look over the documents "Hindenburg, Chancellors, and Hitler.pdf" and "Why was Hitler appointed Chancellor?.pdf" to understand the major actors and events of 1930-32. Highlight and write down any questions you have.
Create a roleplay/skit/play with these five men that shows how Hitler ended up as Chancellor.
The setting for your play can be a donut shop, Disneyland, or a dance party.
You must use the words broccoli, lebensraum, gardyloo, and bumfuzzle.
30 minutes to prepare, 15 minutes to practice, and then present.
SCHEICHER
VON PAPEN
HINDENBURG
BRUNING
HITLER
HOW DID HITLER GAIN DICTATORIAL POWERS OVER GERMANY?
In 1933 Hitler became Chancellor but he did not become Fuhrer until August 1934.
"voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country."
HOW IMPORTANT WAS THE REICHSTAG FIRE?What date does the fire take place?
Who is said to be responsible for it?
What does Hitler call those responsible to the news reporters?
What does Hitler believe must be suspended to wage war against those responsible?
Name two rights Hitler infringes.
Who does one journalist suggest started the fire?
Why do you think this event significant?
THE ENABLING ACT, ETC.
"Law for Terminating the Suffering of the People and the Nation"
Gave Emergency Powers to the government for four years.
Gave Cabinet (Hitler) power to pass laws without Presidential approval.
Needed 2/3 support in Reichstag because it was a constitutional amendment.
Passed 441 to 94, with the SDP voting against and the KDP banned
Center Party had allied with Hitler after promises to protect Catholics.
Law Against the Formation of New Parties: July 1933
Law for the Restructuring of the State: January 1934
SDP and KDP already banned. Other parties had dissolved themselves. No new parties allowed.
SA violently forced out many local governors. Elected state assemblies dissolved. Reich gov't appoints Reich governors.
Concordat with the Vatican
Church banned from political activity. Nazis promise to protect religious freedom.
Hindenburg Dies/Army takes Oath of Loyalty to Hitler: August 1934
Hitler takes position as President as well as Chancellor
THE NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES: JUNE 1934
WHY DO IT?
WHY NOT DO IT?
The left-wing of the Nazis, largely represented by Otto Strasser, was powerful & could potentially challenge Hitler.
By 1934, many of Hitler's obstacles to complete control had been removed.
However, some issues remained:
The SA had grown to nearly 3 million men and were loyal to Ernst Rohm
Hindenburg, the army and the rest of the government saw the SA as thugs and a potential threat to national stability
Hindenburg was going to die soon
Should Hitler launch an assault on the leadership of the SA? Look over the chart linked through the Weebly looking at reasons for and against this idea. Put each reason in the appropriate column.
What is the message conveyed in the cartoon?
They Salute With Both Hands Now
HITLER
GOEBBELS
GOERING
What does "they salute with both hands now!" mean? What is the joke of the cartoon?
Who are shown in the cartoon? How have they been portrayed?
Describe the appearance of Goebbels, Goering and Hitler - what point is being made?
“The Double Cross” is written on Hitler’s armband- what does this mean?
What has been discarded on the floor? What is meant by this?
Who are the people standing around the scene? Why is their presence significant?
Overall, what is the message of this cartoon?
EFFECTS
Hitler made murder of enemies acceptable
Tamed radicals in the SA and gained confidence of the elite.
The Army, relieved to have the SA gone, swore oath of allegiance to Hitler
The SS, under Heinrich Himmler, now the most powerful force in Nazi Germany
Limited future opposition to his rule through the use of fear.
Tamed his conservative critics at the same time by jailing/murdering them.
Herman Goering at the Nuremburg Trials
HISTORY ESSAYS
PAPER TWO AND THREE
WHAT MAKES A BAD HISTORY ESSAY?
WHAT MAKES A GOOD HISTORY ESSAY?
Look over the markbands & identify the major aspects of a good history essay according to the IB.
FOCUS ON THE QUESTION POSED
NOT THE QUESTION YOU WISH HAD BEEN POSED!
SCOPE
DATES
TOPICS
CONCEPTS
LOCATION
COMMAND TERM
Examine the reasons for, and significance of, foreign intervention in two 20th century civil wars, each chosen from a different region.
“Technology is a key factor in winning wars.” With reference to two wars that took place in the second half of the twentieth century, explain to what extent you agree with this statement.
Analyse the social and economic effects of one war that occurred in the first half of the twentieth century.
Assess the importance of the use of force for the establishment of totalitarian control.
Assess the importance of the cult of personality in the maintenance of power from two authoritarian states.
Compare and contrast the treatment of religious groups in two single party states, each chosen from a different region.
Assess the success of one authoritarian leader in implementing social and economic policies.
To what extent did two single-party rulers, each chosen from a different region, fulfill the promises made during their rise to power?
By what methods, and with what success, did one single-party leader try to eliminate domestic opposition?
Examine the reasons for, and results of, educational policies in the single-party state.
Analyse the impact of single-party rule upon minorities in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
“Ideological appeal was less important than social and economic distress in the rise to power of single-party leaders.” With reference to two single-party leaders, each chosen from a different region, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
With reference to one totalitarian state, analyse the nature and extent of domestic opposition and the methods used to deal with such opposition.
Assess the importance of each of the following in the rise to power of an authoritarian leader: errors made by rivals; the use of propaganda; popular support.
In what ways, and with what results, was the status of women affected by the policies of two authoritarian states.
Analyse the impact of single-party rule upon the arts in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region.
“Their rise to power was made possible because of the failure of existing governments to deal with economic and political problems.” With reference to two single‐party leaders, to what extent do you agree with this statement?
Effectively answers/reaches a judgement on the question posed
Shows firm historical knowledge and understanding of different historiographical viewpoints
Uses evidence to back up points
Uses relevant information
Includes analysis of key points (focus on why something happened, it’s consequences, its connections to other events, and/or its importance)
Is clearly structured
ANALYTICAL WRITING, NOT DESCRIPTIVE
STRUCTURE
WHAT MIGHT A GOOD INTRODUCTION DO?
SHOW YOU UNDERSTAND THE QUESTION!
OUTLINE THE STRUCTURE OF YOUR ESSAY!
DEFINE KEY TERMS
PROVIDE YOUR THESIS!
THESIS STATEMENTS
Your essay centers on your THESIS, so write a good one!
A sentence that summarizes the argument you will make in your paper.
Can include some supportive evidence/reasons you plan to use.
It is specific and arguable.
Provides a “roadmap” for the viewer of where you plan to go with your essay. 
What are the arguments related to the question?
If you do not have enough information to take a strong stand, do more research.
What is the best argument? Decide where you stand on the topic. Formulate your thesis around this argument.
Look over the sample theses for the Weimar government questions. Which ones are good, which ones are bad, and which ones are ugly?
STRUCTURING PARAGRAPHS
Each paragraph
needs
to be focussed on an idea/argument/analysis central to answering the question.
Here is a simple structure you can follow for your paragraphs:
P
E
L
E
P is for POINT
Make a, analytical point or argument related to the question posed.
"There is a flaw in the argument that the Depression was the most significant factor in the rise of the Nazis."
"Those historians that stress the role of bumfuzzle in Hitler's rise have some extremely valid points."
"Among the external factors responsible for the rise of the Nazis, the Depression seems the most significant."
"Using the Treaty of Versailles alone to explain the rise of the Nazis is wholly insufficient."
E is for EXPLANATION or ELABORATION.
This is where you explain your main point in more depth and/or explain your reasoning.
L is for LINK
This is where you link your paragraph back to the question posed AND/OR segue to the next paragraph.
"As you can see, the Depression factors largely into the rise of the fascists in Germany."
"However, factors internal to the Nazi Party also played a large role in their rise to power."
"The issues here are clearly significant to answering this question because..."
The second E is for EVIDENCE or EXAMPLES.
This is where you use your detailed historical content TO SUPPORT YOUR ARGUMENT
"When the Munich Putsch happened in 1924, Hitler's plan to...."
"The Depression caused massive unemployment and dissatisfaction with the Weimar regime. Upwards of 25% of Germans were out of work.
"The KDP, created by those angry at the treatment of the Spartacist Movement of 1919..."
"Without bumfuzzle, Hitler's appeal among the lower middle class would have been insignificant compared to that of the KDP."
"This flaw is rooted in the fact that even after the Depression began, it was by no means inevitable that the Nazis would end up in control of Germany."
"The results of the elections in late 1933 saw a 4 percent loss in the vote share for the Nazi Party due to...
Sample Essay Marking.
Read the essay.
Highlight analytical sections/arguments in GREEN.
Highlight evaluation of historical perspectives in BLUE.
Highlight detailed, accurate, relevant content used as evidence in PINK.
Highlight links back to the question in ORANGE.
Make notes on structure and areas that could be improved in the margins (confusing areas, irrelevant information, areas where more evidence is needed).
Use the markbands to assign a level.
OVERALL STRUCTURE
When answering questions, it can be helpful to think of your paper in terms of themes and concepts and organize your paper along those lines.
When answering questions, put things in categories.
For example: internal vs external factors, internal versus external opposition, long term versus short term versus immediate causes or effects, factors within control and factors outside control, economic vs political vs social effects/cause, domestic versus foreign, bumfuzzle versus gardyloo, broccoli versus non broccoli).
Doing so can help you structure your paper along these lines and also make value judgements as to which are more or less important.
COULD GERMANY HAVE BEEN STOPPED?
SHOULD GERMANY HAVE BEEN STOPPED?
Was appeasement a reasonable and morally justifiable policy to prevent the great powers from stumbling into wars over non vital issues? Or was it an admission of weakness and an invitation to further aggression?
Having read the documents on appeasement, create a role play between Chamberlain and Churchill over the issue of appeasement. The role play can include other actors, should be five minutes in length, and clearly outline the strengths and limitations of the appeasement policy (DO NOT USE ANY INFORMATION POST-MUNICH PACT).
Having read the documents on appeasement, create a role play between Chamberlain and Churchill over the issue of appeasement. The role play can include other actors, should be five minutes in length, and clearly outline the strengths and limitations of the appeasement policy (DO NOT USE ANY INFORMATION POST-MUNICH PACT).
APPEASEMENT HISTORIOGRAPHY
Chamberlain's conduct of British foreign policy was ”diplomacy of illusion".
ORTHODOX VIEW
Chamberlain's policy made the aggressive German foreign policy possible and ensured that, when the war broke out, B and F had no major allies. They were also in a very weak military position.
REVISIONIST VIEW
The complex set of domestic, international, military and economical factors made a policy of standing up to the dictators impractical, and finding peace preferable
It's wrong to blame Chamberlain exclusively - he was an able and realistic politician who realized that B and F could not keep order in Europe, and who wanted B to retain its world power status, which he believed would be lost in a second major world war
The British economy did not contain enough skilled workers to effect a large scale rearmament program without endangering the fragile British recovery
The military chiefs constantly warned that B was not prepared for a simultaneous war against Germany, Italy and Japan, and advised appeasement
Public opinion consistently opposed rapid rearmament and a strong stand being taken against the dictators
Most revisionists avoid moral judgments on Chamberlain and instead
View appeasement and Chamberlain far more sympathetically.
APPEASEMENT
READ THE APPEASEMENT DOCUMENTS & ANSWER THE QUESTIONS AFTER EACH.
HITLER'S FOREIGN POLICY
HITLER'S AIMS
SAY "BAILLES" TO THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
ARM
UNITE
R
THE GERMAN NATION
THE GERMAN PEOPLE
THE GERMAN EMPIRE
ESTABLISH
STRAIN/DESTROY
BOLSHEVISM
ADOLF WEARING HIS LEAST FAVORITE COLOR
ACTIONS
AND
Look over the sources regarding Hitler's Aims on pages 377-379 and answer the questions on 379 (see below). You may work in groups of two.
WORKING WITH SOURCES
Come to next class with a good understanding of the steps Hitler took to fulfill his aims between 33-38. There may be a quiz.
WHAT ALLOWED HITLER TO CARRY OUT HIS PLANS?
Oct 1933- Germany withdraws from Disarmament Conf & LON. Rearmament begins.
Jan 1934- Germany makes Non-Aggression Pact with Poland.
Jul 1934- Attempted Anschluss with Austria. Failed.
Jan 1935- Saar rejoins Germany after 90% vote in favour of union.
Mar 1935- Germany announces it has an air force and introduces conscription.
Jun 1935- Germany makes Naval Agreement limiting its navy to 35% Britain's.
YEARS OF CAUTION
YEARS OF ASSERTION AND EXPANSION
Mar 1936- 20,000 German troops remilitarise the Rhineland.
July 1936- Hitler sends aid to General Franco's uprising in Spain.
Nov 1936- Axis and Anti-Comintern Pact. Hitler makes alliances with Italy and Japan
Nov 1937- 'Hossbach Meeting': Hitler wants war by mid 1940s.
Mar 1938- Anschluss is achieved. German army invades and annexes Austria.
Sept 1938-March 1939 Hitler bullies Chamberlain to give up the Sudetenland. Six
May 1939- Pact of Steel with Italy. Military support to be provided if either power at war
months later Hitler takes the remainder of the country.
Aug 1939- Ribbentrop signs the Nazi-Soviet Pact with USSR: ten years of non-aggression.
REVIEW PAGES 384-399 IN THE FOREIGN POLICY SUCCESSES READING.
APPEASEMENT ACTIVITY
CHAOS &
CONSENT
The Nazis: a Warning From History
“Chaos and Consent” Questions
In what ways was the public image of the Nazi Party different than the reality of the Nazi Party? List at least four ways.
Who were the first victims of the Nazi concentration camps?
“It is impossible for somebody in ‘33 to look ahead to ‘45... you can’t... it’s only 12 years, but it seems to be too much”
-Manfred von Schroder, German Diplomat and Nazi Party member.
To what extent do you agree with this in regards to the treatment of Jews?
What were the reasons for and the outcomes of the Night of the Long Knives?
According to the video, how were decisions often made within the Nazi Party?
What, according to the video, was the problem with the Nazi economic recovery?
What was the purpose of the Nuremberg Laws?
What, according to the video, allowed the Gestapo to do its work?Hos has the historical view on this changed over time? Why has it changed?
How would you describe Resi Kraus’ reaction to the allegation that she wrote a letter denouncing Ilse Totske? What is your reaction to her reaction? Explain.
What were the reasons for and outcomes of the Kristallnacht?
To what extent can the German people be held responsible for the crimes of the Nazis?
Should people be judged harshly for not standing up to the regime?
How did the layout of the Reichstag building show the nature of the structure of the Party?
How did the Nazi euthanasia program originate?
focus on social, economic and strategic factors:
WAS HITLER A WEAK DICTATOR?
Read the two documents on the weebly to familiarize yourself with the schools of thought on this subject. Come to class prepared to discuss.
ARGUE AGAINST ME!
RULES: You will have two minutes to repond to my argument. The same person CANNOT speak more than once. EXCEPT ME!
PROPAGANDA
YOUTH POLICY
WOMEN
OPPOSITION
What, in general, does a structuralist historians believe shapes history? An intentionalist?
What 3 categories of weakness does Kershaw define in relation to Hitler?
Which historical argument do you agree with? Explain your answer.
How do intentionalists and structuralists frame these 3 areas of weakness?
What conclusions do they come to?
What do Kershaw and Williamson beieve about the question?
How is it a synthesis of the intentionalist and structuralist views?
"HITLER WAS A WEAK DICTATOR"
Full transcript