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Human Development and the Stages of Life: Death and Dying
Transcript of Human Development and the Stages of Life: Death and Dying
2) Anger: Marked by feelings of anger, resentment, and envy of
the young and healthy.
3) Bargaining: An attempt to postpone death with a promise of good behavior.
4) Depression: Over past and impending losses.
5)Acceptance: Stop struggling against death and
contemplate its coming without fear or despair. 5 Stages in Coming
to Terms with Death Different cultures have different views on death. Different Cultures aka "Mercy Killing" Euthanasia -There is an ongoing debate on the ethics of active euthanasia.
-Oregon legalized physician-assisted suicide in 1997.
-Most patients who request death cite loss of control over bodily functions, loss of autonomy, and inability to take part in activities that make life enjoyable as their main reasons.
-However, the patients in Oregon often do not fill their prescriptions for lethal doses of drugs, showing that they still have the desire to live despite their wishes to escape pain and suffering. Debate on Euthanasia Western Societies -Maintenance of individual autonomy over the dying process is very important. -Death is an enemy that must be battled at all costs. Native American
Cultures -Death is a part of nature's cycle.
-It should not be feared or fought. Mexican Culture -People's deaths are seen as reflections
of their lives. -Their behavior during the dying process reveals a lot about what type of people they were. -Also, death is discussed frequently and it is celebrated on the Day of the Dead. Passive Euthanasia -When a person (usually a physician) hastens death by not using life support systems or medication that would prolong a patient's life or by withdrawing life support or other treatment that may be keeping a patient alive. Active Euthanasia -When a physician or other individual hastens a patient's death by active means, such as by administering a fatal dose of a drug. -Period of bereavement that follows the death of a loved one and sometimes lingers long after the person has passed away.
-Some research has shown that bereaved individuals who suffer the most intense grief initially do not get through their bereavement more quickly than others.
-Other research has found that the grieving process for male caregivers whose partners have died of AIDS is very similar to that experienced by spouses. Grieving Process Hospice Care An alternative to hospitals and nursing homes. Hospices:
-Agencies that care for the needs of the dying more humanely and affordably than hospitals
-Use special facilities or the patient's own home
-Follows a set of guidelines that make it more attuned to a patient's personal needs and preferences than a hospital or nursing home "Life itself is a terminal condition, and each day of life should be treasured like a precious gift." -THE BOOK (p. 281) Critics of the Kübler-Ross Stages -Critics of the 5 stages claim that each person is unique
-They say that the reactions of all terminally ill patients cannot conform to a rigid sequence of stages Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development -Erikson states that individuals progress through eight psychosocial stages (developmental stages)
-Late adulthood: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
-Goal of this stage: An acceptance of one's life in preparation for facing death.
-Individuals review their lives:
IF SATISFIED --> Feel a sense of accomplishment and experience ego integrity.
IF NOT SATISFIED --> May sink into despair.