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VA - Rigid vs Flexible Pipe

History of Pipe, Features and Benefits

Chuck Lacey

on 31 July 2017

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Transcript of VA - Rigid vs Flexible Pipe

WHY .... ?

Is it due to handling?
Is it how long the pipe will last?
RCP – Standard length is 8 feet
PVC – Standard length is 14 feet
HP – Standard length is 20 feet

Is it due to the number of joints between structures?
Is it Joint Performance?
Have you ever given any thought as to why you specify a certain pipe type on your project?
Weight of 48” Dia PP Pipe = 42 lbs/ft
Plastic is:
Essentially Chemically Inert
Highly Abrasive Resistant

Just Face It
It’s Plastic it’s not going anywhere
HP Has TWO Gaskets
Lowers risk for leaks due to construction errors and joint offsets
Gravity Pipe Industry Joint Standard is 10.8 psi per ASTM D3212
HP Joint is third party tested to 15 psi
The vast majority of pipes, relying on a single gasket to prevent leakage
Also in the 1900s Orangeburg pipe began to evolve
By 1950 Orangeburg was the largest manufacturer of pipe in the U.S.
This pipe was made of wood fibers and impregnated with coal-tar pitch
As a flexible pipe, it had a tendency to deform when subjected to concentrated pressure over time
Pipe installation was brought to the forefront
Bedding standards for Orangeburg pipe are basically the same as flexible pipe today
Around that same time starting in Washington, D.C., pre-cast concrete also started to be used, however, it weighed twice as much as clay and was more expensive.
Reinforced Concrete Pipe
Vitrified Clay Pipe
By the early 1900s, vitrified clay pipe becomes the popular choice for sewer systems . . .
In 1857, Strickland Kreass, Chief Engineer of the Department of Sewerage for Philadelphia, made the following statement:

There should be a culvert on every street, and every house should be obliged to deliver into it, by underground channels, all ordure or refuse that is susceptible of being diluted. The great advantage in the introduction of lateral culverts is not only that underground drainage from adjacent houses should be generally adopted, but that by the construction of frequent inlets, our gutters would cease to be reservoirs of filth and garbage, breeding disease and contagion in our very midst.
Hollowed logs and wood pipe were continued to be used through the late 1800s. An advertisement for Redwood (stave) pipe from the early 1900s.
In the early years pipe joints were purposely not sealed so that groundwater could help drain soil and convey solids. Of course this was well before the EPA was established!
The Romans were the first to use aqueducts, for running water and sewer.

Today some 2,000+ years later, over 2.6 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation.
A brief history of pipe
Polyphenylene Oxide
Polyphenylene Sulfide
Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAc) and Other Vinyls
Polyvinyl Chloride
Styrene Acrylonitrile
Styrene Butadiene Latexes and Other Styrene Copolymers
Thermoplastic Polyster (Saturated)
Unsaturated Polyester
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS)
Diallyl Phthalate (DP)
Nitrile Resins
Petroleum Resins
One word: Plastics!
. . . And leaking joints start to be addressed.
In 1873 and again in 1878, Memphis, TN, was struck with the "American Plague" (yellow fever). Thus in addition to helping establish the National Board of Health, Memphis, was one of the first in the U.S. cities to have a separate sanitary sewage collection systems.
Combined Sewer Separation
Introducing laterals increased flow through the stormwater culverts. During this period many large sewers in the US were made of brick and mortar. Due to rough hydraulics, these systems were vastly oversized to accommodate intense rain events.
Cast iron was also utilized in “structural” situations such as the New York subway system.
Wood pipe systems in London have been found that date back to the 13th century. Remarkably, the City of Philadelphia also claims to still have wood pipe in service.
The City of Philadelphia was the first City in the US to use cast iron pipe exclusively, which it purchased from the first cast iron foundry located in New Jersey. By the 1900s there were 71 foundries in the U.S.
Cast Iron Pipe
A lot has changed in the past 75 years.

Engineering and material advancement make it all possible . . .
1940 vs. 2014
Plastic Pipe Enters the Scene
In the early 40's many materials are in short supply due to the war. Germany, a leader in the development of plastics, begins to use PVC in tires and other applications
By the late 60's, PVC pipe becomes the popular choice for many sanitary sewer projects
Hollowed logs and wood pipe were used through the late 1800s.

An advertisement for Redwood (stave) pipe.
The City of Philadelphia was the first City in the US to use cast iron pipe exclusively, which it purchased from the first cast iron foundry located in New Jersey. By the 1900s there were 71 foundries in the U.S.
Glass Transition Temperature
Watertight Applications
Watertight Applications
Manhole Connections
It's Just Pipe .....
What's the Big Deal?
Rigid vs Flexible Pipe
Joint Performance
Why do we choose a particular pipe material
Installation Practices
Sliplining of Biodegradable Pipe

Strength of Materials
Rigid versus Flexible Pipe
Ridge pipe can not deflect so it attracts the load
Flexible pipe deflects and transfers load to soil
LRFD Fill Height Tables for RCP
LRFD Fill Height Plastic Pipe
Biodegradable Pipe
What type of Joint do you typically specify?
"RCP pipe shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM C76" .... does not address joints at all
With increased scrutiny on water quality, joint performance downstream of BMP will become a bigger issue
Mortar or mastic joints are not water tight
ASTM C443 rubber gasket good ....
ASTM C1628 is better as it accounts for gasket compression due to lack of bell hole
Standards need to be Equitable
Inspection is critical for Pipe longevity
Mandrels are a good option for flexible pipe

Horizontal Offset Error

Backfill and Testing

In aggressive environments pipe material dramatically affects service life
Service Life

Inspect all pipe types

… is very Dangerous.

Joint - Common Air Testing…

Broken MH Top

Joint Isolation Testing is safer

The Real World
Trench Box
F2306 – 12”- 60” Dual Wall HDPE Pipe
F2648 – 12”- 60” Dual Wall HDPE Pipe
F2736 – 12”- 30” Dual Wall PP Pipe
F2764 – 30”- 60” Triple Wall Pipe
F2881 – 12”- 60” Dual Wall PP Pipe
ASTM F2418 – PP, Product Quality Standard
ASTM F2922 – PE, Product Quality Standard
ASTM F2787 – PE & PP, Design Standard (AASHTO)
ASTM F2736 – 12”-30” Dual Wall Pipe
ASTM F2764 – 30”-60” Triple Wall Pipe
Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC)
Unified Facilities Guide Specifications (UFGS)
FAA Design Standards AC 150 5320 5C

Section 33 00 00 SANITARY SEWER








Compaction Equipment

ASTM F2881 – 12”-60” Dual Wall Pipe

Pitch Angle

Pipe Profiling Robot

Bump Height

Incorrect Pipe Profile

Vertical Offset & Debris Errors
Trench Width is important for proper compaction
Perfectly Round Pipe

Joints performance and manhole connections need to be specified
Quality Backfill is needed for good pipe performing regardless of material
Inspection is critical for longevity
Slipline with HP Storm
Lining casing pipes that are jack and bored (or other) under railroads, high volume roadways, etc. are a common practice. This method of installation is often very similar to traditional slipline procedures.

Sanitary Sewer Casing Pipe

Flow Rate
Entrance Loss
Push Lengths (friction, joint force, etc.)
Joint Restraints
Head Wall
Grout Pressure, Joint Integrity
Flotation, Bracing
Grout Ports

Considerations when Sliplining Pipe

Recommend a flowable fill or controlled low strength material
Max recommended grout pressure = 5psi (can go higher)
Annular space recommended between pipes is 10% b/w OD of liner and ID of host to ensure grout is properly placed without voids
Consider lifts or anchoring pipe to protect alignment and against joint separation, can also ensure no short sticks on either end
Skids and spacers allow flowable fill to be distributed evenly around the entire pipe liner
Sand bags can be used to help mitigate floatation
Grout Installation

Supported vs Unsupported, Headwall, Flotation, Bracing, Mix Design, Grout Pressure, Grout Ports, Voids

Grouting Considerations

Joint Restraint

Reducing friction for increased push length and less total force on the pipe joints - one way to accomplish this is through the use of skids or spacers.
Friction Factor
The host pipe needs to be clean and free of obstructions
It is recommended that the O.D. of the new liner be < 90% of the host pipe I.D.

Pipe Dimensions

A “Flow Booster” reduces entrance loss coefficients
The same effect can be achieved by shaping the headwall
Entrance Loss

Best practice is to assume the host pipe has no structural integrity
PP pipe should be designed to support the entire load based on AASHTO LRFD Section 12 Note that all appropriate mechanical properties are published in this design procedure
LRFD uses a safety factor greater than 2.0 for design
Structural Considerations

Spacers can help reduce the friction factors for greater push lengths and can also help prevent flotation

Most pipe culverts are typically inlet controlled
Flow can typically be retained by downsizing from a CMP pipe to a new smooth liner
Manning's coefficient for large diameter CMP >0.024. For HP Storm <0.012


VDOT - Road and Bridge Standards
Is it Due to Price?
VDOT Bid Comparison - July 2012 to July 2014
Pipe Soil Interaction
Flexible Pipe
Rigid Pipe
Reduce life-cycle cost of infrastructure 50% by 2025
ASCE Grand Challenge
Full transcript