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Transcript of Bolshevik Revolution
assassinated 1917 February (March) Revolution 1917 October (November)
Revolution 1914-1918 WWI 1917-1921 Civil War:
Reds v. Whites 1921 Lenin`s New Economic Policy 1927 Stalin and the Command Economy:
Famine in the Ukraine
Purges 1939: Nazi-Soviet Pact
1941: Germany invades Russia (WWII) 1905 Revolution Images of the Bolshevik Revolution: Look for key leaders, groups,places, and events.
http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1681193,00.html Key People: Tsar Nicholas II Key People: Vladimir Lenin Key People: Josef Stalin Key idea: Revolutionary Socialism Marxism -- Workers (proletarians) will rise up a overthrow the capitalist (bourgeois) classes
Socialism -- government control of the economy to distribute resources more equally
Communism -- ideal: no government; all resources controlled by the people and shared in common
Not industrialized (where to get workers to revolt?)
Revolutionary Socialism-- an elite group of educated revolutionaries will lead the revolution
Command Economy -- government control of the economy
Nationalization -- government takeover of land and businesses
Collectivization -- government takeover of farms
Planned economy -- using government plans/orders,i.e. Five Year Plans, goals are set. In the USSR under Lenin and Stalin, these were enforced by purges and imprisonment in gulags January 9: Bloody Sunday in St. Petersburg begins the 1905 Revolution
October 17: The October Manifesto, issued by Czar Nicholas II, brings an end to the 1905 Russian Revolution by promising civil liberties and an elected parliament (Duma) The February Revolution begins with strikes, demonstrations, and mutinies in Petrograd (called the March Revolution if following the Gregorian calendar)
The `Provisional Government` takes power and the Tsar abdicates the throne. On March 1, 1881, Tsar Alexander II was killed by a bomb thrown by I. Grinevitskii, a student and a member of the revolutionary organization “The National Will.”
Terrorism was a tool used by a few radical groups seeking to overthrow the Tsar. Disappointment with the government’s change to a more conservative course led to the Decembrist rebellion of 1825, an unorganized revolt mostly by army officers from aristocratic families and their elite regiments. These men were liberals in the tradition of the Enlightenment and French Revolution. Their unsuccessful attempt to rebel led to their exile and the further alienation of many intellectuals.
www.PBS.org `The Face of Russia`
http://www.pbs.org/weta/faceofrussia/timeline-index.html The reign of Alexander II began with the promise of change, as he implemented administrative, judicial, and social reforms, the most dramatic of which was the freeing of the serfs in 1861. Unfortunately, he offered so many concessions to landlords that many peasants found themselves in worse economic circumstances than before.
www.PBS.org `The Face of Russia`
http://www.pbs.org/weta/faceofrussia/timeline-index.html The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, storm the Winter Palace, from where the Provisional Government ruled.
Promising the peasants `Land, Peace and Bread` the Bolsheviks move from Petrograd to Moscow and beyond. Lenin`s approach to helping the economy recover.
Lenin`s strokes and death lead to Stalin`s rise to power In 1932, the Soviet state proclaimed that all artists must embrace the Socialist Realist philosophy and style. Its three principles were: partiinost’ (loyalty to the party), ideinost’ (correct ideological stance and content), and narodnost’ (ready accessibility to the people).
www.PBS.org `The Face of Russia`
http://www.pbs.org/weta/faceofrussia/timeline-index.html Socialist Realism: Using the arts to promote the Party and a `Cult of Personality` http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/AlexPalaceNRbio.html Bolshevik Revolution 1917 Bolshevik `Reds` were opposed by several different conservative `White` generals, with some less-well-known (and less enthusiastic support) from US, Japan, Britain and France).
Bolsheviks alienate many foreign nations by creating the Comintern ("communist international" organization to spread communism worldwide
The US refuses to recognize the USSR until 1939 Hitler and Stalin work together until Germany breaks the pact and invades.
The USSR then becomes allies with the USA, Britain and France. http://www.marxists.org/subject/art/visual_arts/painting/exhibits/socialist-realism.htm Key people and groups:
Tsar -- autocrat with total power who ruled over one of the largest countries in the world, but it was quite backward
Workers -- beginning of industrialization, few jobs and poor conditions for the freed serfs who moved to the cities
Peasants -- most people are poor farmers who barely grow enough to eat
Revolutionaries -- various groups, many from educated elites; willing to use propaganda and terror to get rid of the Tsar Impacts on key people and groups:
Tsar -- he and his family are executed; nobles and those with money have lost all land and money
Workers -- the Bosheviks rule in their name, but totalitarian rule, purges and five year plans lead to many deaths, and forced labor, but also economic growth for the country
Peasants -- many have died in famines caused by collectivization, others now work on collective farms with some more technology than before
Revolutionaries -- now in power. They now have total control and use the power of the state to keep it. Russian Revolution: Background
By 1917, most Russians had lost faith in the leadership ability of Czar Nicholas II. Government corruption was rampant, the Russian economy remained backward, and Nicholas repeatedly dissolved the Duma, the Russian parliament established after the 1905 revolution, when it opposed his will. However, the immediate cause of the February Revolution--the first phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917--was Russia's disastrous involvement in World War I (1914-18). Militarily, imperial Russia was no match for industrialized Germany, and Russian casualties were greater than those sustained by any nation in any previous war. Meanwhile, the economy was hopelessly disrupted by the costly war effort, and moderates joined Russian radical elements in calling for the overthrow of the czar.
February Revolution: 1917
The February Revolution (known as such because of Russia's use of the Julian calendar until February 1918) began on March 8, 1917 (or February 23 on the Julian calendar), when demonstrators clamoring for bread took to the streets in the Russian capital of Petrograd (now called St. Petersburg). Supported by huge crowds of striking industrial workers, the protesters clashed with police but refused to leave the streets. On March 10, the strike spread among all of Petrograd's workers, and irate mobs destroyed police stations. Several factories elected deputies to the Petrograd Soviet, or council, of workers' committees, following the model devised during the 1905 revolution.
On March 11, the troops of the Petrograd army garrison were called out to quell the uprising. In some encounters, regiments opened fire, killing demonstrators, but the protesters kept to the streets and the troops began to waver. That day, Nicholas again dissolved the Duma. On March 12, the revolution triumphed when regiment after regiment of the Petrograd garrison defected to the cause of the demonstrators. The soldiers subsequently formed committees that elected deputies to the Petrograd Soviet.
The imperial government was forced to resign, and the Duma formed a provisional government that peacefully vied with the Petrograd Soviet for control of the revolution. On March 14, the Petrograd Soviet issued Order No. 1, which instructed Russian soldiers and sailors to obey only those orders that did not conflict with the directives of the Soviet. The next day, March 15, Czar Nicholas II abdicated the throne in favor of his brother Michael (1878-1918), whose refusal of the crown brought an end to the czarist autocracy.
Bolshevik Revolution: 1917
In the aftermath of the February Revolution, power was shared between the weak provisional government and the Petrograd Soviet. Then, on November 6 and 7, 1917 (or October 24 and 25 on the Julian calendar, which is why this event is also referred to as the October Revolution), leftist revolutionaries led by Bolshevik Party leader Vladimir Lenin launched a nearly bloodless coup d’état against the provisional government. The Bolsheviks and their allies occupied government buildings and other strategic locations in Petrograd, and soon formed a new government with Lenin as its head.
Lenin became the virtual dictator of the first Marxist state in the world. His government made peace with Germany, nationalized industry and distributed land, but beginning in 1918 had to fight a devastating civil war against anti-Bolshevik White Army forces. In 1920, the anti-Bolsheviks were defeated, and in 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established.
A&E Television Networks `The Russian Revolution` 2012. http://www.history.com/topics/russian-revolution Questions:
How did the Russian Revolution occur (key events/cause-effect)?
Why did the Russian Revolution occur?
What changed as a result of the Russian Revolution?
What is a turning point? Give some examples of turning points from global history.
In what ways in the Boshevik Revolution a turning point?