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Psychology Chapter 3
Transcript of Psychology Chapter 3
Moro (aka startle)
stepping Attachment Harry Harlow
contact comfort Parenting Diana Baumrind Authoritarian
Authoritative Stage theories Erikson Piaget Kohlberg Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt
Inititative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs.Despair Sensorimotor
postconventional Gender Criticisms Piaget underestimated children. Stages of cognitive development are not as rigid as Piaget thought. Carol Gilligan criticizes Kohlberg's model because of its focus on boys Gilligan thought...
Boys have a more absolute view of what is moral; girls tend to look at the situation.
However, later researchers think that regardless of gender, people's moral reasoning is inconsistent across situations. gender typing Chapter 3:
Development A deep emotional bond that an infant
develops with its primary caretaker Mary Ainsworth
insecure attachment- avoidant
insecure attachment - anxious/ambivalent http://www.longleat.co.uk/news/images/95872BN_Twins1.jpg Language Telegraphic Speech: A child’s first word combinations, which omit (as a telegram does) unnecessary words Language Acquisition Device: a feature of the human brain that allows young children to learn a language if others model it for them. BUT children must be exposed to language before the age of 12 (called the critical period) if they are to learn it . My dad gave me one dollar bill
'Cause I'm his smartest son,
And I swapped it for two shiny quarters
'Cause two is more than one!
And then I took the quarters
And traded them to Lou
For three dimes -- I guess he don't know
That three is more than two!
Just then, along came old blind Bates
And just 'cause he can't see
He gave me four nickels for my three dimes,
And four is more than three!
And I took the nickels to Hiram Coombs
Down at the seed-feed store,
And the fool gave me five pennies for them,
And five is more than four!
And then I went and showed my dad,
And he got red in the cheeks
And closed his eyes and shook his head--
Too proud of me to speak!
- Shel Silverstein
Stage changes are neither as clear-cut nor as sweeping as Piaget believed.
Children sometimes understand more than Piaget believed.
Preschoolers are not as egocentric as Piaget thought.
Cognitive development depends on the child’s education and culture
Piaget overestimated the cognitive skills of many adults. Gregory_____
Jonah_____ Preconventional Level
“I do the right thing because I don’t want to get punished.”
Moral reasoning is self-centered; what is “right” is what feels good.
“I do the right thing because I want to conform to the group.”
Moral reasoning is based on an understanding of society’s laws and justice.
“I do the right thing because my conscience tells me to.”
Moral reasoning is based on an understanding of universal human rights, even at personal sacrifice.
Read the dilemma aloud.
Read and discuss the interview questions (but do not answer them in writing!).
On one sheet of paper for your group, explain how each level (preconventional, conventional or postconventional) would respond to the dilemma.
Tends to overlook educational and cultural influences (or some cultural differences not reflected in this theory)
Moral reasoning is often inconsistent across situations
Connection between moral reasoning and moral behavior is often indirect gender identity Process by which children learn the abilities, interests, personality traits, and behaviors associated with being masculine or feminine in their culture. The fundamental sense of being male or female; it is independent of whether the person conforms to social and cultural rules of gender. Add up circles. Divide by 20.
Add up squares. Divide by 20.
The circles represent your feminine score.
The squares represent masculine score.
Subtract masculine score from feminine score (circles – squares = _____).
Multiply by 2.322. androgyny Gender Traits Scores:
Masculine-16 and under
Nearly masculine –15 to –10
Androgynous-9 to +9
Nearly feminine+9 to +15
Feminine+16 and over
Power Assertion (aka Authoritarian):
A method of child rearing in which the parent uses punishment and authority to correct the child’s misbehavior.
These parents are harsh in their discipline and rigid in enforcing rules. They do not make an attempt to understand the child’s point of view.
Induction (aka Authoritative):
A method of child rearing in which the parent appeals to the child’s own resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting the child’s misbehavior.
These parents are nurturing and responsive. When disciplining they are firm, use reason and demand maturity of their children. They likewise understand the child’s perspective. Are Adults Prisoners of Childhood? Short answer:
NO Recovery from war: Only 20% of WWII war orphans had problems after being adopted and moving to the U.S. Most of these eventually established happy lives.
Recovery from abusive or alcoholic parents: Their children are at risk for developing these problems, but the majority do not.
Recovery from sexual abuse: More emotional and behavioral symptoms, but most adjust and recover. Harry Harlow Clip