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Deeper Thinking, Deeper Reading
Transcript of Deeper Thinking, Deeper Reading
How do you get students to dig deeper?
DEEPER LEVEL READING
FOCUSING THE READER
Framing the text strategies help students tap into background knowledge and shore up knowledge before reading a text. As the teacher, our job is be a "tour guide" through challenging texts, not an "assigner"of texts.
FIRST DRAFT READING
1. Metaphors enliven ordinary language.
Surface Level Understanding
SECOND DRAFT READING
"For students, many of whom may not be good readers, the opportunity to collaborate--to have meaningful conversations when reading the hard stuff--becomes even more crucial" (106).
Why are we reading this?
Many students read and comprehend at a surface level, but they miss the deeper meaning of the text.
Framing Activities to do Before Reading a Text
Word Scramble Prediction
Framing Activities to Use While Reading the Text
Daily Focus Questions
The Word Game
One Question,One Comment
Have I provided my students with a reading focus?
"Students need a game plan when they begin reading a major work."
1. Text Frames with Gaps
2. Turn headings into questions
3. Twenty questions
4. Focus Groups
5. Character charts
6. Shift Charts
Partially completed text frames allow students to fill in the gaps.
Students generate a list of twenty questions after reading the first chapter.
Students are placed in groups--each with a specific literary element. Each group is responsible for charting their focus area.
Good for novels with many characters. Students fill out as they progress through the novel.
Students describe characters at the beginning of a novel and then again at the end of the novel.
Are my students willing and able to embrace confusion?
Students need to be taught that confusion is natural when we read challenging text.
Can my students monitor their own comprehension?
Many students don't realize when they "get lost" during reading.
Do my students know any fix-it strategies to assist them when their comprehension begins to falter?
6 Strategies for First Draft Reading
Students need to learn that re-reading is the single, most important strategy.
1. What does it say?
2. What does it mean?
3. What does it matter?
This is a higher level of comprehension. The answer is not written in the passage or the text, but MUST be supported in the text.
The real reason that we read. "Reading great literature provides young people with a practice ground to explore these issues, and by asking them 'What does it matter?' we help students see the relevance of the great themes found in classic literature" (90).
The literal level of comprehension. Students must understand at this level before moving onto the next levels.
"Collaboration plays a key role in elevating reading comprehension" (105).
Collaboration is important, but can have its challenges including student "hitchhikers," so planning effective groups is essential.
*Size matters: the smaller the better
*Consider ethnicity and gender: both should be mixed to provide optimal discussion groups
*Time and task: set a time limit and be clear on the task
*Assign specific roles and hold students accountable for their work, both individually and the group.
Metaphorical thinking provides two benefits:
1) Deeper levels of comprehension in challenging text
2) Enables students to generate their own metaphorical connections to the text and to the world
2. Metaphors require interpretation.
3. Metaphors create new meaning.
Metaphorical graphic organizers help students learn to think metaphorically and are a "springboard" for writing.
"The end goal of our teaching any novel should be to help students move through the craft and beauty of the story to areas of deeper, personal reflection" (154).
"It is a great story."
"It gives us the opportunity to recognize and appreciate the writer's craft."
Reflection pushes students to think about the big ideas...what it means to be human.
Kelly Gallagher has written a fantastic resource for teachers:
. This book is filled with dozens of ready-to-use, classroom tested strategies that teachers will turn to over and over again.
The casual fan only sees the surface level of the game--the hits and runs. However, the devoted fan sees the nuances of the game such as the secret signs player flash to each other. Many of our readers are like the casual fan. They read only at the surface level. They never experience the richer, deeper meaning that complex text has to offer.
Gallagher believes that it is our job to teach students how to dive deeper into the text because we want "readers who can move beyond the literal and who can interpret the text" (6). We can do this by "building scaffolds" for our students and by preparing them to read challenging texts.
"Reading is like baseball"
Successful Second Draft Reading
*Multi-layered time lines
*Flip Side Chart
* Positive-Negative Chart
*Responsibility Pie Charts
Using Metaphor to Deepen Comprehension
The boy's love for Miss Brown is like a _______ because ____
The chain of events in this novel is like a ____ because ____
The mood in this novel is like a ____ because ____
The writing style in this novel is like a ____ because ____
(Intangible item) is like a (tangible item) because __________. OR
(Character Name) is like a ________ because ______
Goals for Today:
Learn strategies to teach our students how to read text at a deeper and richer level.
Learn higher-level questioning strategies.
Learn higher-level thinking strategies with groupwork.
Learn how to build scaffolds for challenging texts.
Learn Web 2.0 Tools that support higher level reading.
What happened in the story?
Time for Review
SILENT EXCHANGE. At the top of your paper, write a discussion question or question you have. Then we will pass the papers, and everyone will silently respond to the questions.
Now let's practice with To Kill a Mockingbird
After you return from the break,
grab a "Mystery Envelope."
With your partner, answer the question that you have inside.
Then share your question and responses with the group.
Create a metaphor about a character from a movie.
Bonus: Think of a concept you teach. Create a metaphor.
One Question One Comment
Everyone think of one question about what we have learned (read) so far & one comment.
Each person will share. You may answer the previous person's question or make your own comments that you had prepared.
How it works: The teacher thinks of one word that has significance with yesterday's reading (or from homework.) The students must explain the significance of the word.
Let's try it.
Your word from today's session is
Word Scramble Prediction
To encourage students to predict what might happen next in their text, or to pique their curiosity about what they will be learning next... Provide them with a list of words, and they will write a prediction paragraph about the text.
Before reading chapter28 of To Kill a Mockingbird, students may be given these words:
dark afraid trembled kitchen knife reeling dying "run!" jerk backwards useless kicking dead
Watch these 2 videos and consider what they mean to us (related to our concept of encouraging students to read deeply.)
10% of what we read
20% of what we hear
30% of what we see
50% of what we both see and hear
70% of what we talk about with others.
What are some of our challenges with group work?
What do you think Gallagher means by "no hitchhikers?"
Building Effective Groups
time & task
The smaller the better--3 is great
In groups of 5 or 6, students can find places to hide
Mix up partners (appointment clocks)
Before starting the task, be sure they understand it
Set a time limit
Don't give them TOO much time. Err on the side of not enough
Send message that they need to start immediately
Literature Circles by Harvey Daniels
Having a role provides each student with a focus & gives them a framework to start talking
Examples: discussion director, illustrator, connector, summarizer, questioner, clarifier, predictor...
Reciprocal Teaching model or Lit Circles models
Individual: each student in the group has to produce a product
Group: Each group will produce one product, but select a student at random to present or share
Watch the video, describing the cooperative learning strategies for deeper thinking. During reading, let's practice DOUBLE ENTRY JOURNAL PLUS.
info from the text (video)
your thoughts, questions, reactions.
group discussion notes
(Walsh & Settes)
Stop & think...
Which type of question do you usually ask? Do you think you ask a variety of types?
Quality Questions are...
Purposeful (What is the instructional purpose of the question?)
Have a clear content focus (What facts or skills are important? What do you want students to be able to know or do?
Engage Students at Varied & Appropriate Cognitive Levels (DOK or taxonomies)
Norms to Create a Culture for Thinking and Learning
purposes of questioning
Studies show that about 25% of students do not participate in class at all, and 15% dominate class interactions.
Why? What can we do to change that??
Alternate Response Formats
numbered heads together
data on display
Strategies for Student Generated Questions
Let's do a gallery walk.
Place a sticker by the top 3 activities that you think you could use in the classroom.
Do a swap talk
Four Square Share
In groups of 3, fully read the directions on the other side. Fill out the graphic organizer together.
Read "Use of Student Responses." Think of the major ideas.
Make an appointment clock!
My Deeper Thinking Strategy Library
*Bring your packet & jot down one strategy for your deeper-thinking library.
Welcome Back from Lunch!
Add one or two strategies to your Strategy Library that we discussed before the break.
10 collaborative groupwork strats (video)