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Transcript of Practice
Began in 1980 with a surprise attack by Iraq.
Ended in 1988, both sides still locked in a stalemate, both claiming victory.
One million killed (600,000 Iranians, 400,000 Iraqis,One Trillion dollers spent by both sides.
Iraqi failed to achieve its strategic objectives, while Iran never had any major tactical success.
Iraq's Capabilites and Objectives
Major political, religious and military tensions.
Iraq wanted to replace Iran asthe dominant
power in the region
Iraq feared Iranian/Shia influence in it's own country
Iraq had been building a large modernized military, and wished to use it.
After a failed assassination attempt by Iranian sympathizers Iraq declaired war. They believed they had a superior army: 12 motorized divisons (2200 Tanks), 190,000 soilders, 450 aircraft, all armed with the best Soviet equipment petro-dollars could buy
They were confident they could use this advantage to win a short "blitzkreig"campaign
Their goal was to destroy Iran's air force, and cripple their military then capture several strategic areas forcing Iran to surrender. Their main objective was the southwestern oil-producing province of Iran called Khouzestan. As well as a important waterway called Shatt el-Arab.
Iran's Capabilites and Objectives Lacked access to latest weapons, and spare parts for current ones.
Was armed with mainly old American weapons.
Had a large pool of volunteers(45 million Iranians vs. 16 million Iraqis) anda much larger army and could afford to take losses that Iraq could not
Army split into two seperate factions: The regular army, was better trained and
led but lacked political support and the Pasdaran, who were religious fanatics.
Initially surprised by Iraq's invasion, Iran was on the defensive.
Khoramshahr, Abadan, Dezful and Ahvaz
These were the main battle grounds of the first stage. As they were Iraq's main objectives.
Iraq occupied Khoramshahr after a costly battle losing over 6000 men.
Iraq surrounded and laid siege to the other cities by the winter of 1980.
Over the next year Iran counter-attacked retaking the cities.
Human-Wave Attacks! Stalemate After retreating out of Iran, Iraq built massive defensive lines to protect itself from Iranian invasion.
The most crucial point of the Iraqi lines was Basra.
Iran would spend 1983-1987 trying to break through these lines, only making small gains in exchange for high casualties
Iraq was unwilling and unable to go on the offensive at this point.
The End Game By Late 1986 Iran amassed an army of 200,000 men to commit one final offensive on the area around Basra, Iran stated it would have a breakthrough by the Iranian New Year (January 21)
This was called the Karbala Campaign, and was the decisive moment of the war.
The Iraqis had time to perpare a new, better trained and effective force to respond to the Iranian threat. Conclusion Iran lost 70,000 men at Karbala, the fanatical spirit that served them so well disappeared. The Iraqis began mopping up the exhausted Iranians, taking back lost territory.
Iran reluctantly gave up and the original borders were restored.
The economies of both countries were utterly destroyed.
Iraq had built up an impressive army of over one million battle hardened troops (4th largest in the world).
These troops had no jobs to go home to due to the ruined economy, contributing to the invasion of Kuwait in 1990.
General Facts Causes