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Advanced Physics Concepts-Waves, Sound, & Light

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Olivia Chow

on 3 May 2015

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Transcript of Advanced Physics Concepts-Waves, Sound, & Light

Waves
Waves
Waves
Sound
Sound
Sound
A wave is a disturbance that transfers energy from place to place
Transverse waves
are waves that move at the medium at right angles to the direction in which the waves travel
Longitudinal waves move the medium parallel to the direction in which the waves travel
Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves that transfer electrical and magnetic energy
A Standing wave is a wave that appears to stand in one place, even though it is really two waves interfering as they pass through each other
Sound
is a disturbance that travels in
sound waves
through mediums.
The speed, wavelength, and frequency of a wave are related to one another by a mathematical formula:
Interference is the interaction between waves that meet.
Two types of interference:
Constructive
and
Destructive
Constructive interference- Waves combine to make a wave with larger amplitude
Destructive interference-Two waves combine to make a wave with smaller amplitude
All sounds travel through air at the same speed.

The speed of sound depends in the
elasticity
,
density
, and
temperature
of the medium the sound travels through.

Elasticity
: the ability of a material to bounce back after being disturbed. Solids are more elastic than liquids, and gases

Density
: how much matter or mass there is in a given amount, or volume.

Loudness
describes your perception of the energy of a sound.

Loudness
depends on two factors: the amount of energy it takes to make the sound, and the distance from the source of the sound.

Intensity
is the amount of energy a sound wave carries per second through a unit area.

Decibel (dB)
: the unit used to compare the loudness of different sounds.
Created by Olivia Chow, Katherine Raykova & Morgan Potoski
Waves, Sound, and Light
Light
Light
Light
Speed= Wavelength X Frequency

Frequency= Speed/Wavelength

Wavelength= Speed/Frequency
An
opaque
material
reflects or absorbs

all light
that hits it.

A
transparent
material
transmits

most light
that hits it.

A
translucent
material
scatters
the light as it passes through.

The color of an
opaque
object is the color of the light it
reflects
.

The color of
transparent
and
translucent
objects is the color of the light they
transmit
.


Regular reflection
is when parallel rays of light hit a smooth surface and reflect at the same angle.

Diffuse reflection
is when parallel rays of light hit an uneven surface and reflect at different angles.

An
image
is a copy of an object formed by reflected rays of light.
Sound waves
begin with vibrations.

Compression
: created when air particles are pushed together.

Rarefaction
: created when air particles spread out.
You hear sounds when the energy in the sound waves, from the source, reach your ears.

Sound waves
can travel through air, solids, and liquids.

Sound waves

reflect
off objects,
diffract
, and
interfere
with each other

Refraction
is when light rays enter a
medium
at an angle and bend.

A material's
Index of Refraction
is a measure of how much a ray bends when refraction occurs.

The

higher
the Index of Refraction,
the more light it bends.

A
mirage
is an image of a distant object
caused by refraction.
Light
A
lens
is a curved piece of glass used to
refract light and form an image
.

Convex lenses
have
thicker glass in the center than around the edges
and cause
more refraction
.

Concave lenses
have
thinner glass in the center than around the edges
and have
less refraction
.

Concave lenses
only create
virtual images
because
the light waves that pass through never meet
.
Waves
Diffraction- when a wave moves around a barrier or through an opening in a barrier

Refraction- the bending of a wave due to change in speed

Light
An object is
illuminated
if you see it by
reflected light

An object is
luminous
if it gives off its
own light.
The
moon
is an example of an
illuminated object
while
lightbulbs
are examples of
luminous objects.
There many different kinds of waves
Sound
The End
Sound
The
Doppler

Effect
is the effect produced by a
moving
source of sound waves
If source is
approaching
you --
higher

frequency
, and
higher pitch
If source is
receding

from you --
lower

frequency
, and
lower

pitch
Full transcript