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APWH- Post-Classical Asia

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Marci Ward

on 25 January 2016

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Transcript of APWH- Post-Classical Asia

Post-Classical Asia

Sui Dynasty

After collapse of the Han dynasty in 200s --> Era of Division
collapse of bureaucracy
decline of scholar-gentry
conflicts over land and power
Buddhism gained power

Sui dynasty rises to reunite China- short-lived, but paved way for Tang/Song

Built Grand Canal to connect food producing regions to growing cities

China rose again (unlike Rome) mostly due to continuity of Confucianism and Chinese culture
Tang Dynasty
Extended empire's borders, had to deal with nomadic tribes to the north
Established hegemony in region- conquered Korea and collected tribute
rebuilt Confucian bureaucracy, reinstated civil service exam
scholar-gentry > aristocracy
redistributed land using the equal field system
trade grew, thanks to Grand Canal
Tang Culture
influenced by both traditional Chinese and Turkic (nomadic) culture
valued both Confucian ideals and nomadic expertise (ex- stirrups)
Influence of Buddhism grew
Chan (Zen) Buddhism- focused on meditation and artistic beauty, popular among elite
Mahayana Buddhism- focused on salvation, popular w/ mainstream
Supported by Empress Wu
Monasteries were tax exempt=threat to Confucian govt. elites, led to persecution and destruction of temples
After this, Conf will remain central ideology of China until 20th century (Budd will remain strong in SE Asia and tribute states)
Song Dynasty
Economic Developments
Tang collapses due to rebellions and conflicts w/ nomads to the north --> Song reunifies China
Had to maintain huge military and pay tribute to keep nomads at bay (very costly)
Strong revival of Confucianism and centralized govt, put emphasis on scholar-gentry and intellectual pursuits over military
Over-inflated bureaucracy put strain on treasury--> made them vulnerable, led to peasant rebellions
Song Culture
Neo-Confucianism- emphasized tradition and ethnocentrism, reasserted patriarchy, drew inspiration from Buddhist teachings

Footbinding- widespread practice to keep girls' feet small and limit their mobility, primarily an upper-class thing
Silla dynasty est. tribute relationship w/ Tang China
Korea sent emissaries to exchange gifts at royal court, paid tribute to maintain peace
Sinification- adoption of Chinese culture (ex- Conf and Budd diffused from China)
aristocracy maintained control (no bureaucracy)
Budd > Conf
Expanded on Chinese inventions (better pottery, block printing)
Est tribute system w/ Chinese during Tang dynasty, though they want independence
Absorbed Chinese culture and technology (ie- Budd and Conf)
When Tang falls, Vietnam gets independence (keeps it until French colonize)
Developed in relative isolation
Early Japan- developed in isolation, clan-based, limited trade w/ China, Shintoism (animistic faith based on nature)
Yamamoto clan- centralizes power, models govt. after China
Budd spreads to Japan (Shintoism remains)
Feudal system developed (similar to W. Euro) during Heian era

Moveable type- increased literacy, made books/printing cheaper
Grand Canal- connected N and S agricultural lines, linked internal trade networks, allowed for more efficient control of empire
junk ships- best in the world at the time, allowed Ch merchants to dominate Asian seas
Flying money/credit vouchers- paper currency, expanded trade
gunpowder- used for primitive weapons, later adapted by other Eurasian societies
coal/iron production- best manufacturing in the world (esp. tools and weapons)
magnetic compass- would completely transform maritime exploration/travel
champa rice- high-yield, fast-growing variety, from Vietnam (tribute state), allowed for population boom
W Euro
Both: decentralized govt., codes of honor (influenced by religions), well-trained warriors, economic stagnation
more emphasis on written contracts (loyalties can change)
knights could own land
honored women (somewhat) w/ chivalry codes
emphasis on loyalty and family ties
no land ownership, only rights
declining rights for women
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