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Coal and Natural Gas actual

Presentation for EDFI 6420: Research in EducationThis presentation gives a brief overview about experimental designs for research. It covers what experimental designs are, when to use them, characteristics of an experiment, and factors to keep in mind wh
by

Lisa Chiapetta

on 12 May 2010

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Transcript of Coal and Natural Gas actual

What are its uses? How is it obtained? There are two main ways in which coal is extracted - through surface mining and underground mining



Natural Gas What are its uses? Natural gas is a combustible fossil composed primarily of methane, with traces of butane, propane, ethane, and carbon dioxide. Physical: odorless

colorless

tasteless

lighter than air

non-polar - insoluble in water

boiling point = -161*C

melting point= -182.5*C





What is it? What are its properties? How Does it Form? Natural gas is a fossil fuel - like coal, it is made from decayed organic matter

Over millions of years, compression and heat have broken carbon bonds in the organic matter, creating coal, oil, and natural gas



What are the advantages and disadvantages of natural gas? What environmental concerns are associated with natural gas? Natural gas is often described as the cleanest fossil fuel, producing less carbon dioxide per joule delivered than either coal or oil Burning methane releases carbon dioxide, another greenhouse gas Through the process of natural gas combustion, water used becomes hot and polluted and is often dumped into rivers or streams. How is it obtained? natural gas is found underground. It must be trapped within pourous rock called reservoir rock (which acts like a sponge), as well as an additional layer of seal rock, (which acts like a ceiling.)



the gas is sent to the consumer or power plant through pipelines - in warm months, it is often stored underground drilling begins on land/offshore - once gas is reached, its pressure helps it rise to the surface
As a liquid, its volume is reducted about 600 times, and is easy to ship in trucks, and on tankers natural gas can be stored as a liquid. extracted gas is sent to processing plant where it is cleaned, & methane is separated from other gases Natural gas is a major worldwide source of energy.

In 2008, about 25% of U.S. energy came from natural gas How does natural gas become electricity? The gas is burned in a boiler, producing steam
The steam powers a turbine The turbine powers a generator, creating electric energy 1. 2. 3. Coal Coal is a combustible sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon. It is a fossil fuel, and is the second largest source of world energy. The physical and chemical properties of coal are dependent on the coal type Physical: black or brownish black

typical density of about 1.2 g/ml

moisture content







What is it? What are its properties? How Does it Form? Coal is a fossil fuel, meaning it is made of ancient, decayed organic matter

Decaying organic material found in swamps layers, and forms thick peat

Over time, peat is buried by sediment, often as a result of tectonic activity






What are the advantages and disadvantages of coal? What environmental concerns are associated with the use of coal? The coal industry has a long history of negative impacts on the environment How does coal become electricity? Burned in furnace. The burning coal heats water
in a boiler, creating steam The released steam powers a turbine 1. Electrical power is coals primary use. About 40% of world electicity is from coal

Coke (coal heated without air) is used for the production of steel

Coal tar is used to pave roofs and roads






Surface Mining: When a coal seam is located on Earth's surface, heavy equipment clears trees and shrubs

Once the seam is exposed, it is drilled, mined in strips, and sent on a conveyer belt to a processing plant. At the plant, it is cleaned in order to remove rocks, ash, and unwanted materials


used when the coal seam is located more than 200 feet underground

Underground Mining: miners ride elevators underground, where they operate machinery
that digs out the coal. Then it is sent to be processed


some of the coal is left behind to help support the mines
walls and roof historically, underground mining has been
dangerous due to chemical leaks, dust, and collapse Pulverizer grinds the coal into a fine dust 2. 3. The turbine powers a generator, converting
the energy from mechanical to electric 4. Other processes used to convert coal to electricty include fluidized bed combustion: coal particles are suspended in air during combustion

reduces sulfer and nitrogen oxide emissions

is more effecient in transferring heat from boiler

coal production releases waste into air, streams, and ground water such as:
sulfur dioxide/nitrogen oxide - causing acid rain
fly ash, bottom ash, and desulfurization sludge, which contain uranium, thorium, arsenic, etc.
mercury - highly toxic if in water
carbon dioxide - a greenhouse gas carbon dioxide emissions from coal are slightly more than those from petroleum and about double the amount from natural gas

U.S. environmental laws and regulations have been established to reduce the harmful effects of coal on the environment

The most notable being the
which requires a mining site be restored after use

Scentists have found ways to reduce the amounts of Sulful and Mercury released in smoke

Research to find ways to reduce CO2 emmision is currently underway

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977
Coal is very abundant and widespread it is available in almost every country, and is mined in over 50

there is enough worldwide to last over 200 years at current production rates coal energy is very reliable
coal can be transported easly by truck, barge, or slurry pipeline
can be stockpiled for emergency use
more affordable than oil and natural gas can also be formed by microorgansims called methanogens

these organisms live in oxygen-free ecosystems and create methane as a byproduct



use seismic surveys to locate drilling locations methane propane carbon dioxide electricity
industrial production (paints, fertilizer, medicine.
furnaces
pool and spa heaters
clothes dryer
outdoor lights
barbeques
water heaters
stove/ranges


Methane is a greenhouse gas, and can be released into the atmosphere, and harm the environment cleanest burning fossil fuel

eliminates the need for underground storage tanks

cannot spill and harm the environment like oil

less expensive than gasoline

enough to last about 75 years

it is nonrenewable

highly flammable - detection can be very difficult

constructing and managing piplines are expensive


Chemical: quite unreactive, except with halogens (fluorine, iodine, chlorine, etc.)

burns in air with a blue flame

Chemical: heat value

carbon content

flammable

toxic










Over time, pressure and temperature increase,
and the peat becomes a sedimentary rock
called lignite. brownish black



high moisture content high sulfur content crumbly about 30% carbon content low energy 7% of U.S. coal lignite bituminous the lignite is transformed to sub-bituminous coal sub-bituminous 40% carbon content medium moisture black low sulfur content soft crumbly heat content: 8,300-11,500 btu/lb 50% of U.S. coal soft heat content: 4,000-8,300 btu/lb black 11,500-15,500 btu/lb 46% U.S. coal little moisture low sulfur content 70% carbon content alternating shiny & dull bands anthracite 86-96% carbon content hard high luster <1% U.S. coal "cleanest" coal - low sulfur low moisture >15,000 btu/lb black finally, the coal becomes fully matured anthracite Additional temperature and pressure make the coal bituminous
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