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Prime Ministers of Canada
Transcript of Prime Ministers of Canada
of Canada Robert Borden 1911- 1917 (Conservative)
1917-1920 (Unionist) Arthur Meighen 1920- 1921 (Unionist)
1926-1926 (Conservative) William Lyon Mackenzie King 1921- 1926, 1926- 1930, 1935- 1948 (Liberal) Richard Bedford Bennett 1930- 1935
(Conservative) Louis Stephen St. Laurent 1948- 1957
(Liberal) John George Diefenbaker 1957- 1963
(Progressive Conservative) Jean Chrétien 1993- 2003
(Liberal) A. Kim Campbell 1993- 1993
(Progressive Conservative) Martin Brian Mulroney 1984- 1993
(Progressive Conservative) John Napier Turner 1984- 1984
(Liberal) Charles Joseph Clark 1979- 1980
(Progressive Conservative) Pierre Elliot Trudeau 1968- 1979, 1980- 1984
(Liberal) Lester Bowles Pearson 1963- 1968
(Liberal) Elected to HOC in 1896
Succeeded Charles Tupper as Conservative Party Leader, 1901- 1920
Leader of the Opposition (1901- 1911)
President of the Privy Council (1912- 1920)
Minister of External Affairs (1912- 1920)
Prime Minister of Canada throughout WWI (1914- 1918)
Borden imposed the War Measures Act in 1914
Proposed Conscription during WWI after traveling to Europe to talk to Canadian Soldiers on the front (1915)
Conscription issue divided Canada and Borden's Cabinet because Quebec refused to support it.
Borden proposed a coalition government between the Liberals and the Conservatives
Since the Liberals we split in regards to conscription, some joined Borden's Cabinet to form the Union Party.
Union Government won the 1917 election
Quebec had no representation in the cabinet
War Measures Act denied Canadians of foreign backgrounds the right to vote
Enacted the Income Tax Act, the Military Service Act, and the Wartime Elections Act (1917)
Principal author of Resolution IX of the Imperial War Conference (1917
Leader of the Canadian delegation at the Paris Peace Conference (1919)
Participated in the establishment of the League of Nations
Borden resigned as PM due to health concerns (1920) Born: June 26, 1854, Grand Pré, Nova Scotia.
Education: Acacia Villa Academy, Horton, Nova Scotia.
The Academy designated Borden as a Assistant School Master at age 14.
Taught at Horton, Nova Scotia, 1868-1872.
Taught at Matawan, New Jersey, 1872-1874.
Called to the Nova Scotia Bar, 1878.
Set up successful partnership with Charles Hibbert Tupper, (Son of Charles Tupper, the future prime minister)
His association with the Tupper family sparked his interest in politics.
Marriage: Laura Bond (1863- 1940) in 1889
Died: June 10, 1937, Ottawa, Ontario, of heart failure. Fun Fact: Borden, Australia, is the only Australian community named after a Canadian prime minister Born: June 16, 1874, Anderson, Ontario.
Education: at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
BA in Mathematics, 1896.
Teacher in Caledonia, Ontario, 1897-1898.
Called to the Manitoba Bar in 1903.
Marriage: Isabel J. Cox (1882-1985) in 1904.
Two sons and one daughter
Died: August 5, 1960, Toronto, Ontario, of heart failure. Conservative Party Leader (1908-1921, 1925-1926)
Solicitor General (1913-1917)
Secretary of State (1917)
Minister of the Interior and Superintendent General of Indian Affairs (1917-1920)
Nationalized the railways and created the Canadian National Railroad (1919)
Played a large role in ending the Winnipeg General Strike (1919)
Minister of Mines (1919-1920)
Succeeded Borden as Unionist Prime Minister (1920)
Successfully argued against the renewal of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1921)
Signed Trade Agreements with France and the West Indies (1921)
Created the Armistice Day Act (1921)
Lost the election of 1921.
Became Leader of the Opposition (1921-1926)
Won a majority 116 seats in the 1925 election, however the Liberals formed an alliance with the new Progressive party, giving them 129 seats and thus retaining power.
Liberals were threatened by a vote of 'no confidence' in June, 1926, so King asked Viscount Byng (Governor General) to dissolve parliament. When Byng refused, King's government resigned. Byng then asked Meighen to form a new government, but 4 days later, the Conservatives lost a vote in the HOC and Meighen had no choice but to ask Viscount Byng to dissolve parliament and call an election. He resigned from the party the next year.
Appointed as Senator (1932-1942)
Minister of External Affairs (1920-1921, 1926)
President of the Privy Council (1926)
Minister Without Portfolio (1932-1935)
Resumed leadership of the Conservative party (1941)
Failed to gain a seat in the HOC during a by-election. (1942) Born: December 17, 1874, Berlin, Ontario.
University of Toronto: B.A., 1895; LL.B., 1896; MA, 1896.
University of Chicago, 1896-1897.
Harvard University: MA Political Economy, 1898; PhD, 1909
Canada's first Deputy of Labour and editor of the Labour Gazette (1900-1908)
Labour Consultant for the Rockerfeller Foundation (1914-1918)
Died: July 22, 1950, Kingsmere, Québec, of pneumonia. Fun Fact: King believed very strongly in crystal balls and rarely ever made a serious decision without first consulting with his psychic. The Industrial Dispute Investigation Act (1907)
Appointed Minister of Labour by PM Laurier (1909-1911)
Leader of the Opposition (1919-1921, 1926.)
Liberal Party Leader (1919-1948)
Liberal party was still divided between the Unionist government and the Opposition.
King rebuilt and re-united the Liberal Party.
Prime Minister, 1921-1926.
King lowered tariffs and freight rates, but not enough for the prairie farmers who gave their support to the new Progressive party.
Following the election in 1925, King lost a vote of confidence (1926)
Governor General Viscount Byng refused King's request to dissolve parliament and call for a new election. Instead, Byng called upon Opposition leader Arthur Meighen to form a government
Four days later, King called for a vote, questioning the constitutional right of Meighen to govern. The Conservatives lost the vote and Byng was forced to disssolve parliament again and call an election.
Minister of External Affairs (1921-1930, 1935-1946)
Re-elected Prime Minister (1926-1930)
Used the post-WWI prosperity to rebuild the nation and reduce the war debt.
Created the Old Age Pension (1926)
Appointed first female senator, Cairine Wilson (1930)
Leader of the Opposition (1930-1935)
Prime Minister throughout World War II (1939-1945)
Canada contributed food, finances, the 'British Commonwealth Air Training Plan', ships and aircraft, tanks, and many troops to the Allies.
The Natural Resources Mobilization Act (1940)
Unemployment Insurance (1940)
National Plebiscite on Conscription (1942)
Oversaw construction of the Alaska Highway (1942-1943)
Family Allowances Act (1944)
King retired from politics. His successor, Louis St. Laurent, won the next election and kept the Liberals in power for another 8 years Born: July 3, 1870, Hopewell Hill, New Brunswick
Education: New Brunswick Provincial Normal School, Fredericton, 1886; Dalhousie University, LL.B., 1893.
Teacher in Irishtown New Brunswick, at age 16, (1886-1888)
School principal in Douglastown, New Brunswick (1888-1890)
Moved to Calgary, Alberta, to become a law partner of Conservative Senator, James A. Lougheed.
President of the Calgary Power Company (1910-1920)
Died: June 26, 1947, in Mickleham, Surrey, England, of heart failure. Member of Alberta's Provincial Assembly for the Northwest Territories (1898-1905)
Member of the Legislature, Alberta (1909-1911)
Director-General of National Service (1914-1917)
Appointed Minister of Justice (by PM Arthur Meighen) (1921)
Attorney General (1921)
Conservative Party Leader (1927-1938)
Minister Without Portfolio (1926)
Minister of Finance and Receiver General (1926, 1930-1932)
Minister of Mines and Minister of the Interior (1926)
Superintendent General of Indian Affairs (1926)
Secretary of State for External Affairs; President of the Privy Council (1930-1935)
Elected Prime Minister (1930)
Created the Relief Act in 1932 to help the growing numbers of unemployed. Camps were established to provide single, unemployed men with an income.
Unemployed families received relief at the municipal level. (attempts to co-ordinate welfare on a federal and provincial fell through.)
Bennett was inspired by American President Roosevelt's 'New Deal' and gave a series of radio broadcasts promoting minimum wage, health, unemployment insurance, government regulation of banks and trade, and other reforms, but it was too little to late. The Depression became forever associated with the Conservatives, and the Liberals won the election(1935)
Created the Canadian Wheat Board (1935)
Leader of the Opposition (1935-1938) Born: February 1, 1882, Compton Québec.
His father was Québecois and his mother was Irish. He grew up speaking French to his father and English to his mother. This allowed him to gain support from both cultures as PM.
Education: St. Charles Seminary, Sherbrooke, B.A., 1902; Laval University, LL.L., 1905.
Marriage: Jeanne Renault (1886-1966) in 1908.
Two sons and three daughters born.
Professor of Law, Laval University (1914)
Batonnier of the Quebec Bar (1929)
President of the Canadian Bar Association (1930-1932)
Counsel to Rowell-Sirois Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations (1937-1940)
Died: July 25, 1973 in Quebec City, Québec, of heart failure.
Near the beginning of WWI King was looking to replace Ernest Lapointe (Minister of Justice and Quebec lieutenant) who had just died. King searched for a suitable replacement in his caucus. None of those who approached King could handle the responsibility but many recommended Louis St. Laurent. lacking political experience, St.Laurent was very hesitant. He soon discovered the importance of the position being offered and accepted with the stipulation that he would retire as soon as the war was over. He won a by-election in 1942 and took his seat in the HOC and in the Cabinet.
Minister of Justice and Attorney General (1941-1946, 1948)
Involved in the creation the United Nations following WWII.
Minister of External Affairs (1946-1948)
PM Mackenzie King persuaded St. Laurent to postpone his retirement to stand as a candidate in the Liberal leadership convention (1948) St. Laurent won.
President of the Privy Council (1948-1957)
Created the Trans-Canada Highway Act (1949)
Instrumental in Canada becoming a member of NATO (1949)
Over-saw the joining of Newfoundland into Confederation (1949)
Over-saw Canada's UN participation in the Korean War (1950-1953)
Appointed Vincent Massey as the first Canadian-born Governor General (1952)
Began construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway (1954)
Established equalization payments to all provinces and improved pensions and health insurance (1956)
Established the Canada Council (1957)
The Pipeline Debate (a natural gas pipeline from Alberta to central Canada) would lead to the defeat of the liberals. Attempts to pass legislation were met with serious disagreement in the House and it ultimately discredited the Liberals in the public eye.
Leader of the Opposition (1957-1958)
St. Laurent finally retired from politics and resigned his party leadership in (1958) Born: September 18, 1895, Neustadt, Ontario.
Education: University of Saskatchewan, B.A., 1915, M.A. in Political Science and Economics, 1916, and LL.B. 1919.
Marriage: Edna Bower (1901-1951) in 1929.
Second Marriage: Olive Palmer (1902-1976) in 1953.
Lieutenant of the 105'th Saskatoon Fusiliers.
Criminal lawyer in Wakaw, near Prince Albert.
Leader of the Saskatchewan Conservative Party (1936-1938)
Died: August 16, 1979 in Ottawa, Ontario, of heart failure. Failed to get a seat in the HOC (1925 and 1926)
Failed to get into Saskatchewan legislature (1929 and 1938)
Lost an election for Mayor of Prince Albert (1933)
Elected Conservative Party Leader (1936)
Won a Commons seat in the Opposition (1940)
Began his campaign for the rights of average Canadians and ethnic minorities.
Criticized the Liberals for the way they treated Japanese-Canadians in WW II (1942)
Lost attempts at Conservative Party Leadership (1942 and 1948) Succeeded in 1956.
Leader of the Opposition (1956-1957)
Discredited the Liberals in the eyes of Canadians during the Pipeline Debate..
Progressive Conservative Party Leader (1956-1967)
Won a minority government (1957)
Introduced legislation improving Canada's social programs.
Minister of External Affairs (1957)
Appointed Ellen Fairclough as Canada's first female Cabinet Minister (1957)
Won a majority government the greatest number of seats in Canadian history (1958)
Established the Canadian Bill of Rights (1958)
Appointed James Gladstone as Canada's first Aboriginal senator (1958)
Previous prime ministers had attempted to reconcile the French and English cultures in Canada. Diefenbaker attempted to include other ethnics in the 'national identity'.
Diefenbaker also drew attention to the rights of Canada's indigenous population. For the first time, Aboriginals were allowed to vote in federal elections.
Acting Minister of External Affairs (1959)
Franchise extended to all Aboriginals (1960)
Established the Royal Commission on Health Services (1961)
Created the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act to help Canadian farmers. (1961)
Fought for human rights by supporting Commonwealth countries in gaining independence.
Contributed to South Africa withdrawing from the Commonwealth (1961)
Refused to support the actions of the US against Cuba.
Reduced to a minority government as a result of high unemployment, a devalued dollar, and the cancellation of the Avro Arrow project (1962)
President of the Privy Council (1962-1963)
Created the National Productivity Council (1963)
Leader of the Opposition (1963-1967) Born: April 23, 1897, Newton Brook, Ontario.
Education: University of Toronto, B.A., 1919. Oxford University, England, B.A., 1923, M.A., 1925.
Marriage: Maryon Moody (1902-1991) in 1925.
One son and one daughter.
Lieutenant in the Canadian Army Medical (1914-1917)
Flying Officer in the Royal Flying Corps (1917-1918)
History lecturer at the University of Toronto (1923-1928)
Department of External Affairs (1928-1948)
Under-Secretary of State for External Affairs where he played a key role in Canada's joining NATO (1946)
Chairman of the NATO Council (1951- 1952)
President of the United Nations General Assembly, where he attempted to resolve the Korean conflict (1952- 1953)
Winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace, for his efforts in creating the United Nations Peace-Keeping Force (1957)
Professor and Chancellor at Carleton University (1969- 1972)
Died: December 27, 1972, in Ottawa, Ontario, of cancer. Minister of External Affairs (1948-1957)
In 1956, in the midst of the Suez Crisis, Pearson met with the UN and proposed a peace-keeping force comprised of soldiers from all nations to be set up. The UN readily agreed upon the proposal and the first United Nations Peace-Keeping Force, led by Canadian troops, entered the Suez conflict and brought it to a successful end.
Leader of the Opposition (1958-1963)
Liberal Party Leader after St. Laurent retired as PM (1958-1968)
Pearson won a minority government (1963) and tried to win a majority government, and failed (1965)
Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, leading to a bilingual civil service (1963)
Created the Canada Pension Plan (1965)
Signed the Canada-United States Automotive Agreement Pact (1965)
Unveiled Canada's new national flag (1965)
Universal Medicare for all Canadians (1966)
Oversaw Canada's Centennial celebrations (1967)
Pearson was great at recognizing talent in people. Three future prime ministers were all members of Pearson's Cabinet in 1965 (Pierre Trudeau, John Turner and Jean Chrétien) Born: October 18, 1919, Montréal, Québec.
Education: Jean-de-Brebeuf College, B.A., 1940; University of Montreal, LL.L., 1943; Harvard University, M.A. in Political Economy, 1945; Ecole des Sciences Politiques, Paris, France, 1947-1947; London School of Economics, 1947-1948.
While attending University of Montreal, Trudeau was required to join the Canadian Officers Training Corps (WWII). However, Trudeau, like most other Québècois, opposed the conscription.
Marriage: Margaret Sinclair (1948-____) in 1971.
Advisor to the Privy Council (1949-1951)
Co-founder and Co-Director, Cité Libre newspaper (1950)
Associate Professor of Law, University of Montreal (1961-1965)
Researcher, Institut de Récherches en Droit Publique (1961-1965)
Trudeau's youngest son, Michel, an avid outdoorsman, was killed when an avalanche swept him to the bottom of British Columbia's Kokanee Lake. (1998)
Died: September 28, 2000, of cancer. Minister of Justice (1967-1968)
Reformed the divorce laws and had liberalized the laws on abortion and homosexuality
President of the Privy Council (1968)
Liberal Party Leader (1968-1984)
Following Pearson's retirement, Trudeau was invited to submit his candidacy. He won the Liberal leadership convention and immediately called a federal election. He won a majority government in the June election.
Trudeau was very popular with Canadians. The press called it"Trudeaumania".
Official Languages Act (1969)
October Crisis (1970):
The Front de Libération de Québec (FLQ) were a terrorist group which kidnapped a British diplomat.
Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa, requested that Trudeau implement the War Measures Act which he did.
The British diplomat was rescued and the terrorists were captured, but Quebec Cabinet Minister Pierre Laporte (who had also been kidnapped) was murdered.
Liberals returned with a minority government (1972)
Appointed Muriel McQueen Fergusson as the first female Speaker of the Senate (1972)
Liberals regained majority government (1974)
Implemented Wage and Price Controls,in order to combat high inflation (1975)
However, a sense of alienation in Western Canada lead to the Liberal defeat (1979)
Leader of the Opposition (1979-1980)
During this time, Trudeau decided not to serve as Leader of the Opposition and announced his retirement. However, the Conservative come-back lasted only 6 months and their minority government was defeated.
Trudeau was convinced to return as Liberal Party Leader and won the election the following year.
Appointed Jeanne Sauvé as Canada's first female Speaker of the House (1980)
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982)
Trudeau needed the co-operation of all the provinces to achieve this. Negotiations continued for 18 months as ministers, rulings from both the Supreme court and provincial courts served as obstacles.
Despite the lack of co-operation from Quebec Premier René Lévèsque, consent was finally given.
Patriated the Canadian Constitution (1982)
The Constitution Act was signed by Queen Elizabeth II in a special ceremony on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, April 17, 1982.
Appointed Jeanne Sauvé as Canada's first female Governor General (1984) Born: June 5, 1939, High River, Alberta.
Education: University of Alberta, B.A., 1960; M.A. in Political Science, 1973.
Marriage: Maureen McTeer (1952-____) in 1973.
Director Organization, Alberta Progressive Conservative Party, 1966-1967.
Special Assistant to Davie Fulton, M.P., 1967.
Executive Assistant to Robert Stanfield, M.P., 1967-1970.
Author. Progressive Conservative Party Leader (1976-1983)
Clark's first order of business was to reunite the Conservative Party, which split following the Diefenbaker years.
Clark reorganized the Party's structure
Leader of the Opposition (1976-1979)
Won a minority government. At the age of 39, Clark became Canada's youngest prime minister (1979)
Reorganized the structure of Cabinet committees.
Introduced a system of government spending controls
Drafted the Freedom of Information Act, but did not have time to introduce it into the HOC. The Act was adopted by the Liberals in the next government.
Appointed Lincoln Alexander, Canada's first black cabinet minister (1979)
Clark's main goal in office was to repair the care-free spending of the previous Liberals and proposed a very tight budget of program cuts and tax increases.
Leader of the Opposition (1980-1983)
Delayed Trudeau's constitutional reforms until the federal and provincial governments were in agreement and until a judicial review had been reached.
Clark called a leadership convention but lost to Brian Mulroney
Clark remained with the Conservative Party as an M.P. and continued his fight to preserve party unity.
Minister of External Affairs (1984-1991)
President of the Privy Council and Minister Responsible for Constitutional Affairs (1991-1993)
Instrumental in drafting and gaining approval of the Constitutional Accord (Charlottetown Agreement) (1992)
Clark retired from politics in 1993 and returned to teaching. In November 1998, Clark once more became leader of the Progressive Conservatives replacing Jean Charest. He earned a seat in the House of Commons in September 2000. Born: June 7, 1929, Richmond, Surrey, England.
Emigrated to Canada in 1932.
Education: University of British Columbia, B.A., 1949; Oxford University, Rhodes Scholar, B.A. in Jurisprudence, 1951, B.C.L., 1952, M.A. 1957; University of Paris, 1952-1953.
Marriage: Geills McCrae Kilgour (1937-____) in 1963.
One daughter and three sons. Minister Without Portfolio (1965-1967)
Registrar General (1967)
Minister of Consumer and Corporate Affairs (1967-1968)
Lost Liberal Party Leadership to Pierre Trudeau.
Solicitor General (1968)
Minister of Justice (1968-1972)
Criminal Code Amendment (1970)
Appointed Bora Laskin as the first Jewish Justice of the Supreme Court (1970)
Created the Law Reform Commission (1971)
Directed the Justice Department under the War Measures Act during the FLQ Crisis.
Minister of Finance (1972-1975)
As a minority government, Turner's budget required acceptance by at least one of the opposition parties. He succeeded in 1973, but was voted down by the New Democratic Party (NDP) in 1974.
Turner resigned from politics in 1976 and returned to practicing law in Toronto.
When Trudeau resigned in 1979, Turner had no interest to return to politics and declined nomination as party leader.
The Conservatives were soon defeated in the HOC and Trudeau returned to resume his place as party leader for the Liberals.
Liberal Party Leader (1984-1990)
When Trudeau retired once again, Turner was convinced to return. He was elected Liberal Party leader and, therefore, prime minister.
Turner gambled and called an early election and the Liberals suffered an overwhelming defeat in the 1984 election.
Leader of the Opposition (1984-1990) Born: March 20, 1939, Baie-Comeau, Québec.
Education: St. Francis Xavier University, B.A., 1959; Laval University, LL.L., 1964.
Mulroney became involved in politics during his university days and joined the Conservative Party.
Mulroney was a student advisor to Prime Minister John Diefenbaker (1961)
Marriage: Mila Pivnicki (1953-____) in 1973.
One daughter and three sons.
Member of the Cliche Commission of Inquiry (1974-1975)
The Commission was set up by Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa in 1974 to investigate the Quebec construction industry.
The Commission discovered unprecedented violence and corruption, and because of the report that followed, Mulroney became very well-known in Quebec.
Vice-President of the Iron Ore Company (1976-1977)
President of the Iron Ore Company (1977-1983)
Author. Lost the Conservative leadership race to Joe Clark (1976)
Progressive Conservative Party Leader (1983-1993)
Leader of the Opposition (1983-1984)
Mulroney led the Conservatives to the greatest majority in Canadian history, 211 seats in the HOC
The Constitutional Accord (Meech Lake Accord) (1987)
Canadian Multiculturalism Act (1988)
Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (1988)
Canada's Green Plan for a Healthy Environment (1990)
Oversaw Canada's participation in the Gulf War (1991)
Implemented the Goods and Service Tax (GST) (1991)
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (1992)
The Constitutional Accord (Charlottetown Agreement) was a second attempt to secure constitutional unanimity. A national referendum was called, but the Accord was ultimately defeated (1992)
The Nunavut Settlement Agreement with the Inuit, set into motion the division of the Northwest Territories into a new territory, Nunavut. (1993) Born: March 10, 1947, Port Alberni, British Columbia.
Born "Avril Phaedra Douglas Campbell", but her parent's marriage was not a happy one. Mrs. Campbell left the family when Kim was only 12.
Avril changed her name to 'Kim' shortly after her mother left.
Education: University of British Columbia, B.A. in Political Science, 1969, LL.B. in 1983; London School of Economics (scholarship), Soviet Studies (left with thesis unfinished), 1970-1973.
Marriage: Nathan Divinsky (1925-____) in 1972. (Divorced: 1983)
Second Marriage: Howard Eddy (1937-____) in 1986. (Divorced: 1993)
Political Science lecturer at the University of British Columbia, (1957- 1958)
Political Science and History lecturer at the Vancouver Community College (1978-1981)
Trustee of the Vancouver School Board (1980-1984)
Chairman of the Vancouver School Board (1983)
Vice-Chairman of the Vancouver School Board (1984)
Political Advisor to Premier Bill Bennett of British Columbia (1985- 1986)
MLA British Columbia (1986-1988)
Teacher. Minister of State for Indian and Northern Affairs (1989-1990)
First female Minister of Justice and Attorney General (1990-1993)
Criminal Code Amendment for firearms control (1991)
Following the Montreal massacre of student nurses in 1989, there was a public outcry for more restrictive gun laws.
Criminal Code Amendment for sexual assault (1992)
In 1983, the Supreme Court of Canada struck down a "rape shield" law as unconstitutional. Campbell consulted with women's groups, law associations, and ministry officials before drafting a new law, Bill C-49.
Focus was placed on the principal of consent. The bill remained constitutional and still protected the rights of victims.
Bill C-49 passed second reading in the HOC with a unanimous vote by all three federal parties.
Minister of National Defence (1993)
Minister of Veterans Affairs (1993)
Progress Conservative Party Leader (June 13 - December 13, 1993)
When Brian Mulroney announced his retirement, Campbell was encouraged to run for party leader. Campbell who won became Canada's first female Prime Minister.
Unfortunately for Kim, the Conservative mandate to govern had expired and she was obliged to call an election for October, 1993 where the conservatives suffered an extraordinary and unprecedented defeat in which Conservative seats in the House of Commons were reduced to two. Born: January 11, 1934, Shawinigan, Québec.
Eighteenth child of a paper mill machinist.
Education: St. Joseph Seminary, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec, B.A. in 1955; Laval University, LL.L in 1958.
At Laval, Chrétien joined the campus Liberal Club. By the 1950's, Liberals in Quebec were an endangered species, but Chrétien persevered and campaigned for Liberal candidates in both provincial and federal elections.
Marriage: Aline Chaine (1936-____) in 1957.
One daughter and two sons.
Director of the Bar of Trois-Rivieres (1962-1963)
Author. Chrétien spent his first two years in Ottawa as a backbencher hoping to improve his english..
By 1960, Chrétien was the principal organizer for Jean Lesage, leader of the Quebec Liberal Party. Lesage became Premier of Quebec that same year.
Appointed as a parliamentary secretary by PM Lester Pearson.
Minister Without Portfolio (1967-1968)
Appointed as Minister of National Revenue by PM Pierre Trudeau (1968)
Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (1968-1974)
Created 10 new National Parks (1968-1972)
Created the White Paper on Indian Policy (1969)
Set up the Berger Commission to make recommendations on a proposed pipeline in the Mackenzie River Valley (1972)
Established an office to settle native land claims (1972)
President of the Treasury Board (1974-1976)
Minister of Industry, Trade and Commerce (1976-1977)
Financed the development of the Challenger aircraft.
Minister of Finance (1977-1979)
Oversaw the removal of wage and price controls which had been in place since 1975.
Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada (1980-1982)
Entrenched the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms into the Constitutional Act (1982)
Appointed Bertha Wilson as the first female justice of the Supreme Court of Canada (1982)
Responsible for the "No" forces in the Quebec Sovereignty Referendum.
Minister of State for Social Development (1980-1982)
Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (1980-1982)
Deputy Prime Minister (1984)
Following Trudeau's resignation, Chrétien ran for party leadership against John Turner but Chrétien was ultimately defeated.
He served as Deputy Prime Minister for 2 months before retiring in 1986 and returning to practicing law.
Secretary of State for External Affairs (1984)
Leader of the Opposition (1990-1993)
When John Turner retired from politics in 1990, Chrétien announced his leadership candidacy and won. Chrétien's first order of business was to rebuild and reunite the Liberal Party which had been divided since Trudeau retired.
By 1993, Canadians were protesting against PM Kim Campbell by voting for the new Reform and Bloc Québècois parties. The Liberals ran a strong campaign and won a majority of 176 seats, and thier traditional opposition was reduced to two seats.
Chrétien faced the greatest challenge of his career. With the Conservatives out of the picture, the Liberals were now faced with a "separatist" opposition (Bloc Québècois) with the extremely right-wing Reform Party following very closely behind. By: Prezi's are cool... THE END Fun Fact: Bennett was a known to be a very generous man. He gave $25, 000 every year to various charities and during the depression many of the letters he received asking for help he answered personal. Included in each envelope was money which came out of Bennett's pocket. Fun Fact: Little Diefenbaker peddled his bike miles, farm to farm selling books to pay for law school, Fun Fact: After graduating in 1919, Pearson worked for 2 years in a meat processing plant named "Armour and Company". Years later, he joked that the Russians claimed that he had once worked for an armament manufacturer. Fun Fact: While vacationing in Barbados with his wife in 1965, Turner saw a old man in the water who appeared to be in serious trouble. Putting his own life in jeapordy, Turner who was a a former competitive swimmer saved the man. The old man was John Diefenbaker. Fun Fact: Chrétien shares a birth date with Canada's first prime minister, Sir John A. Macdonald