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Supervision

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Ian Harris

on 22 November 2016

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Transcript of Supervision

Supervision
Definitions
Supervision sessions are a place for the coach to reflect on the work they are undertaking with another more experienced coach.
It has the dual purpose of supporting the continued learning and development of the coach,
as well as giving a degree of protection to the person being coached.
References
Bernard, J. and Goodyear, R.; (1992); Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision; Needham Heights, MA; Allyn and Bacon.
Bluckert, P.; (2004); Coaching Supervision; Fenman Publications
Borders, L. and Leddick, G.; (1987); Handbook of Counseling Supervision; Alexandria,VA: Association for Counselor Education and Supervision.
Christian, C. and Kitto, J.; (1987); The Theory and Practice of Supervision; Centre for Professional Studies in Informal Education, YMCA National College
Thompson, B.; (2013); Non-Directive Coaching: Attitudes, Approaches and Approaches; Critical Publishing; Cheshire
Cooper, A.; (2013); Containing Chaos: Relationship Based Practice for Our Times; Relationship Based Social Work: Singer or The Song? conference; at Centre for Education and Social Care; University of Essex
Hawkins, P. and Shohet, R.; (2006); Supervision in the Helping Professions; Maidenhead; Open University Press
Kagan, N.; (1980); Influencing Human Interaction: Eighteen Years with IPR in Hess, A. (ed.); Psychotherapy Supervision: Theory, Research and Practice; New York; Wiley
By way of contrast consider how Bluckert adds the protection of clients to the concept in his definition as it applies in coaching practice.
Develop their capabilities to enhance their effectiveness when working with clients and service users.
Supervision denotes a role, not a person. The supervisor's job is to show that the questions the worker has brought [to the supervision session] can be thought about, and maybe to show ways in which they can be though about. Supervision is a process whereby one person enables another to think better.
Better
This suggest 3 essential functions of supervision
Development
Developing the skills, understanding and capacities of the supervisee, through reflection on their practice.
Maintenance
Clients
Clients
Feelings
Feelings
Commitment
Honesty
Integrity
Providing quality control for the work of the supervisee, ensuring the work is appropriately ethical.
?
?
?
Monitoring
The rapport that enables one person to help another
to see how they can think about the questions they have.
Describing what supervision is
Describing what supervision does
Functions
Supervision: a relationship of rapport and trust in which
the supervisor assists the supervisee to reflect on their practice in order to:
Process their emotional responses to their work with clients and service users.
Helping the supervisee to become aware of and deal with their reactions to the emotional intensity of their work with clients.
Compare this with Christian and Kitto's
So, what is supervision like?
There are many models of supervision that we could examine. The ones included here are intended to illustrate the range of ways in which supervision functions can be realised.
A model is a formal description of something it usually includes definitions of specialist terms or concepts and key assumptions that have been made. Models are supposed to help us understand how a theory would apply in a particular instance. In the case of supervision we have different models depending on what theory of social work practice is being used.
Hawkins and Shohet (2006) 7 Eyed Model of Supervision
1. Client
What and how the service user or client presents. This may include case details, referral history, etc.
4. Service Provider, e.g. case worker
How is the service provider being affected by the work with the client?
6. Supervisor
The supervisor's experience of the current session.
The strategies and interventions being tried to support the client/service user.
2. Interventions
3. Relationship with Client
Level of trust and confidence; history and development; normal dynamic (e.g. parent-child or adult-adult ego states), etc.
5. Supervisor - Service Provider Relationship
This includes the possibility of there being a parallel between the relationship between the client and the service provider and the service provider and the supervisor
7. Context
The wider socio-economic, cultural and organisational situation that all these relationships, roles and interventions occur within.
We all need others
Kagan (1980) Interpersonal Process Recall
Built on broadly psycho-dynamic lines:
Differences in power in our earliest experiences of this need make us anxious
Need
+
Anxiety
=
Approach-Avoidance
The tendency we all have to be diplomatic in order to avoid confrontation and causing distress to others
Kagan argues that approach-avoidance can be seen at work in the relationship to the client when we:
Feign
Tune
Out
Naivete
Usually taken as an indicator of unwillingness to become involved with the client at a certain level. This may be because the client is presenting something that aught to be challenged but the service provider thinks is inevitably going to result in irreconcilable conflict.
Kagan sees this as a feature of the inexperienced practitioner who allows themselves to become absorbed in their own thinking processes focusing on next steps rather than attending to the current interaction with the client.
What do we do about this in supervision?
IPR Process
Before Supervision Session
Record interactions with client and share with supervisor
Supervisor to select key sequences in the interaction.
During Supervision Session
The supervisee retains authority over the experiences in the interaction and it is their role to decide what meanings are disclosed by the behaviours being reviewed.
The supervisor acts as an inquirer using open questions to facilitate an examination of the interaction in order to promote critical reflection on the supervisee's part about their feelings and reactions to the client.
As an inquirer the supervisor will challenge the supervisee and may even adopt a confrontational stance with respect to what is taking place in the interaction.
The supervisor introduces the session emphasising that the material that has been selected will inevitably include content that the supervisee did not completely process at the time as no one can attend to every level of interaction at once.
What do you think he/she wanted from you?
How do you think he/she would have reacted if you had said that?
What do you wish you had said to him/her?
Were those feelings located physically in some part of your body?
What did you want him/her to tell you?
Questions can be worded to enhance supervisees’ awareness of their blind spots at their own level of readiness and capability
What would have been the risk in saying what you wanted to say?
How did you want the other person to perceive you?
If you had the chance now, how might you tell him/her what you are thinking and feeling?
Were you aware of any feelings? Does that feeling have any special meaning for you?
Were there any other thoughts going through your mind?
Did he/she remind you of anyone in your life?
(Borders & Leddick, 1987). For example, focus on the non-verbal signals from the client rather than the supervisee's emotional reaction. The above questions are provided as examples only and have been taken from
various sources (Bernard & Goodyear, 1992; Borders & Leddick, 1987; Kagan, 1980).

There is concern that the tradition of deliberate, reflective social work practice is being put in danger because of an overemphasis on process and targets, resulting in a loss of confidence amongst social workers. It is vitally important that social work is carried out in a supportive
learning environment that actively encourages the continuous development of professional judgement and skills.
(Laming; 2009; 32)
Supervision should be open and supportive, focusing on the quality of decisions, good risk analysis, and improving outcomes for children rather than meeting targets
Social work contains crises so that clients can make the necessary adjustments for them to be able to carry on.
Supervision is the organisation emulating this practice.
Supervision as Containment
This sketch is based on Professor Andrew Cooper's key note address to the Relationship Based Practice (The Singer or the Song?) conference hosted by the Centre for Education and Social Care at the University of Essex (June 2013).
There are an increasing array of factors putting pressure on the professional practice of supervision
The organisation as container of anxiety
The Task
Performance and Audit anxiety
Fear of Failure
The Psycho-Social Intersection of Task Anxiety and Environmental Demands
Andrew Cooper
Professor of Social Work at the Tavistock Centre and University of East London
Regular, high-quality, organised supervision is critical, as are routine
opportunities for peer-learning and discussion. Currently, not enough time is dedicated to this and individuals are carrying too much personal responsibility, with no outlet for the sometimes severe emotional and psychological stresses that staff involved in child protection often face.
Professional anxiety
Rationing anxiety
The 'coal face'
Anxiety and Containment in Organisations - A short History
Partnership anxiety
Rationing anxiety
Performance anxiety
Threat of Failure
Professional Self in hiding
Managerialism impinges on front line
Task anxiety
In the pre-”Purchasing /Providing days there was roughly a fit between the anxieties generated by the professional task i.e. the stuff that comes from working with clients, and the capacity of the organisation to contain it through the hierarchical structure, i.e. the pattern of supervision.
However, in the eighties, it was realised that there are not enough resources to support the continuing expansion of the welfare state.
Increasing proportion of elderly,
smaller families at the other end
therefore smaller tax generating base
Medical progress good, but each advance increases costs exponentially eg heart transplants. Cost benefit analysis resisted.
Therefore a new kind of anxiety enters the system – Rationing Anxiety. Just as big in its own way as professional anxiety. Yet the capacity of the system to contain anxiety remains the same.
Partnership Anxiety
Survival Anxiety
In the pre-”Purchasing /Providing" days there was roughly a fit between the anxieties generated by the professional task i.e. the stuff that comes from working with clients, and the capacity of the organisation to contain it through the hierarchical structure, i.e. the pattern of supervision.
However in the eighties, there was a realization that there are not enough resources to continue the indefinite expansion of the welfare state.
Increasing proportion of elderly,
smaller families at the other end therefore smaller tax generating base
Medical progress good, but each advance increases costs exponentially eg heart transplants. Cost benefit analysis resisted.
Therefore, a new kind of anxiety enters the system – Rationing Anxiety. Just as big in its own way as professional anxiety. Yet the capacity of the system to contain anxiety remains the same. You can’t fit a quart into a pint pot.
Then over the last few years another kind of anxiety enters the system – Audit/Inspection anxiety
Senior management deal with this by unconsciously splitting off the Professional anxiety and focusing unconsciously on the Rationing and Audit/Inspection anxieties. The impact of this is that the professional anxiety gets pushed down the hierarchy and is held in a much less contained way by coal face staff, and their first line managers.
The challenge is to contain both kinds of anxiety simultaneously. Good quality supervision is the mechanism by which this has to happen.
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