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Japanese Cinema

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Joangela (Chunsa/Jyoanu)

on 6 February 2013

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Transcript of Japanese Cinema

"NIHON EIGA/HOGA" 日本映画 "I WAS BORN BUT..." 「大人の見る絵本  生れてはみたけれど」 YASUJIRO OZU {Silent Film} 1932 "RASHOMON" 「羅生門」 KUROSAWAAKIRA // MIYAGAWAKAZUO {Jidaigeki} 1950 RASHOMON DIRECTOR :: KUROSAWA AKIRA CINEMATOGRAPHER :: MIYAGAWA KAZUO 「羅生門」 {   } 1950 BACKGROUND SLOW FADE IN 1896-1917 1894, New York ::::: HE EDISON Kinetoscope, T a peepshow apparatus which allowed films to be viewed by an individual at a time, was unveiled. It allowed George Eastman's recently perfected nitro-cellulose film to move noisily past the eyepiece. sent 1987
+ films :: Baignade en Mer
:: L'arrivée d'un train en gare de la ciotat above: Cinématographe Lumière Edison Vitasope
+ films :: The Death of Mary Queen of Scots
:: Feeding Pigeons projection of moving pictures on screen > (JAPAN + FRANCE RELATIONS) 1897 KANDA Vitascope screenings in Tokyo 90 cents
45 cents
12 cents
6 cents special
upper-class
middle-class
students SCREEN TIME :: 2時と7時|ACTUAL FILM DURATION ::
20 分 | SCREEN TIME DURATION :: 2~3時間 KINKIKAN * Pouring of water on screen * Benshi * Hyoshigi :: film commentator, lecturer, compère -- a master of ceremonies whose appearance was an assumed part of early Japanese film showings { } "Theatre of the well-to-do, interested in the Occident" [*"TIME-TAKERS"] THE BENSHI After 1910 :: "Dialogue-scripted" Benshi Tradition FOREIGN FILMS : CHARACTER NAMES Woman :: Mary
Man :: Jim
Villain :: Robert usually subtitled
if not, words treated as color SHIBATA TSUKENICHI Mitsukosai Department Store
Photographic Department STREET SCENES (GINZA) GEISHA SCENES FROM POPULAR PLAYS 1903 DENKI KAN permanently constructed film theatre NO "REAL" DIRECTORS "directors" direct the actors by reading the benshi dialogue CAMERA NEVER MOVED actors hold positions when reached the end of the roll of film until camera is reloaded RENKI GEKI "chain-drama" 1904 stage drama which used film as an adjunct outdoor scenes filmed
projected on screen between indoor scenes
actors dub behind the scenes If it became popular, everything was spliced together and released as a feature film 1914 KOBAYASHI KINEMACOLOR KISABURO Experimentation with color :: night :: orange (west - blue)
spring :: pink [sakura] After WW1 back to monochrome high cost/more raw materials needed ENTERTAINMENT COMPANIES TENKATSU NIKKATSU close-ups
more cutting
50-70 cam set-ups in 40 mins long-shots
15-30 cam set-ups in 40 mins KAERIYAMA NOMIMASA ESTABLISHING SHOT : 1917-1923 movement to put his theories into practice long -
medium -
close - SHOTS REALISTIC ACTING WOMEN ACTRESSES INSTEAD OF OYAMA "SNOBBISM" AND JAPANESE NATIONAL CHARACTERISTIC tendency to place things foreign in one class and things Japanese in another Works by Heinosuke Gosho and Yazujiro Ozu "far too Japanese for export" "The Neighbor's Wife and Mine"
Heinosuke Gosho, 1931
first Japanese narrative film to fully employ sound WIPE: 1923-1927 1923 September 1. A 7.9 magnitude earthquake struck the Kantō plain on the Japanese main island of Honshū at 11:58:44 am JST. MOVIES SHOWN IN TENTS AND MAKESHIFT THEATRES GENDAI GEKI films about contemporary life JIDAI GEKI period drama MURATA MINORU fought against star systems relied on foreign films for inspiration, never copied 1924 "SEISAKU'S WIFE"
tragedy of a man and wife parted by war "As a boy he had saved her from prostitution. Married, they had to struggle against the prejudices of society. When he returns wounded she is afraid of losing him and binds him so that he will need her." often verges on the sentimental SHOMIN GEKI drama about ordinary people SHIMAZU YASUJIRO comedies "Otousan/Father" 1923. a baseball champion dad and a simple country girl character mood > slapstick ABE YUTAKA worked in Hollywood and on his return created films which brought about new comedy speed, sharpness in editing, and sophistication NONSENSE FILMS COSTUME AND PROPERTY : 1927-1931 films reflected unrest pure escape search for nihilistic hero search for violent solution to economic ills PERIOD DRAMA TENDENCY FILMS GOLDEN AGE OF PERIOD FILMS ITOU DAISUKE violent realism MAKINO MASAHIRO 1929-1931 THE TALKIES : 1931-1939 popularity of foreign subtitled talkies "The Neighbor's Wife and Mine"
Heinosuke Gosho, 1931
first Japanese narrative film to fully employ sound no re-recording or dubbing facilities during shooting, everything had to be recorded at the same time on the final track A writer can't work because the woman next door has a jazz band practicing in her house. He protests, they become friendly, and a triangle situation develops involving the neighbor's wife. { } STUDIOS NIKKATSU soon to disappear,
though not for good SHOCHIKU had suffered emergence of TOHO SHOOTING SCRIPT : 1940-1959 SENIKOYO EIGA "National Policy Films" (even appeared as early as 1932) Motion Picture Law Order, 1939 "the human face of war" Tasaka Tomotaka : "Five Scouts" 1938 Post-1941 (Attack on Pearl Harbor, Pacific War Start) even greater emphasis upon the attractive camaraderie of military life, and the spiritual of such an education HISTORICAL conscious move back to whatever Japan still retained of a 'national' style public objections to noticeably 'foreign styled' films Sugata Sanshiro / Judo Saga. Akira Kurosawa. A strong stubborn youth, Sanshiro, travels into the city in order to learn Jujutsu. However, upon his arrival he discovers a new form of self-defence: Judo. PAGEANTS "Rekishi/History" Uchida, 1940 & "The Battle of Kawakajima" by Kinugasa, 1941 SATIRE "The Broken Drum" Kinoshita Keisuke, 1949. deflated the authoritarian father; ex-rounin Bando Tsumasaburo as the newly impotent parent KUROSAWA AKIRA realism + Japanese aesthetic Akutagawa Ryunosuke's "Rashomon" "In a Grove" discharged servant shelters himself from the rain
waits in the loft, sees a woman who takes hair from dead bodies to sell into wigs
servant becomes a thief himself
general description of the ruined gate
conversation about the devastation of Kyoto
atmosphere : complete desolation
beginning sequence : rain testimonies of woodcutter, priest, police, old woman (mother of the raped girl), bandit, the girl herself, and a dead man (through a medium) Beginning sequence Priest
Woodcutter
Commoner (essentially uninvolved; moral/amoral chorus) Abandoned baby and the cynical yet inquisitive commoner DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF THE STORY bandit's woman's man's raped the woman, wasn't supposed to kill man but the woman pleaded, "my honor demanded you fight" man spurned her after the rape, she killed him accidentally after she was raped, his wife ordered the bandit to kill him KUROSAWA-ESQUE usage of the wipe transitional effect impressionism contrasting shots "silent-film technique" focus on composition 2 kinds of time : ostensible and psychological short cuts simplification/stylization 1960s-present LONG SHOT: Horror, Tokusatsu, Kaiju, Pink films, Yakuza films, Gendaigeki, Shomingeki, Anime, Mecha, Science fiction, Cyberpunk TECHNIQUES Production schedule pre-production about 10 days Crew director, assistants (focus, magazine change, light readings, errand runner), producer, business officemen, cameraman, propertymen, greenman, continuity man + 4 assistants, lightning supervisor, script man, one to take stills, costume fitters, dolly pushers, stylists multiple-cam set-up composer has no control over which part of composition is cut *not bringing out strong emotions, but actually suppressing them HORROR Noroi/The Curse. Shiraishi Koji. 2005. Jigoku/Hell/Sinners from Hell.
Nakagawa Nobuo. 1960. ギニーピッグ/Guinea Pig. (series of seven gore-slasher films). 1980-1990. TOKUSATSU Salvage Mice. Tasaki Ryuta. 2011. Virus. Fukasaku Kinji. 1980. PINKFILMS Night in Japan : Story about Women, Women, and Women. Takechi Tetsuji. 1963. YAKUZA Battles Without Honor and Humanity. Fukasaku Kinji. 1973. Showa Zankyoden. SCI-FI Cyborg-She/My Girlfriend is a Cyborg. Kwak Jae-yong. 2008. SPEC: Heaven. Tsutumi Yukihiko. 2012. CYBERPUNK Tetsuo: The Iron Man. Tsukamoto Shinya. 1989. Rubber's Lover. Fukui Shozin. 1996. ANIME My Neighbor Totoro. Miyazaki Hayao. 1988. Neon Genesis Evangelion. 1997. SOURCES :: Anderson, Joseph and Donald Richie. The Japanese Film: Art and Industry. Tokyo: Charles Tuttle Company, 1959.
Richie, Donald. Japanese Cinema: An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Richie, Donald. The Films of Akira Kurosawa. California: University of California Press, 1998. "WHAT MADE HER DO IT?" 「が彼女をそうさせたか?」 SHIGEYOSHI SUZUKI {Tendency Film} 1930 "GODZILLA" ゴジラ HONDA ISHIRO {Kaiju Film} 1954 "THE IDIOT" 「白痴」 KUROSAWA AKIRA {Gendai geki} 1951
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