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Teaching Games for Understanding (TGFU)
Transcript of Teaching Games for Understanding (TGFU)
Places a different focus on the teaching of games opposed to the "traditional" technical approach.
Games for Understanding
Games Concept Approach Traditional Teaching 3. Tactical Awareness The Learner 1. Game 2. Game
Appreciation 4. Making Appropriate Decisions 5. Skill Execution 6.
Performance TGFU places the student in a game situation where tactics, decision making, problem solving and skills are developed at the same time. TGFU Lesson Plan Video Using skill and drill progression
Sports are broken down into their components and the skills are taught
Method assumes only ONE right way to perform a skill
Asks " How is the skill performed?"
Focuses on teaching skills before practicing them.
Correction of movement patterns
Not joy of being active = lessens motivation TGFU Model Guided Discovery
Begins with the game, not the skills
Focuses of developing problem solving skills
Nature of the game is taught first
Skills are added at a pace manageable for the students
This allows for skills and strategy to be taught at once
Student is skilled in a broader sense of understating the game, not a single skill.
Asks instead " Why are we doing this? How can we do it better?" References Cons Pros -enables teachers to integrate their approach within a category and across categories
-cognitively engaging for students and teachers
-creates an environment where students can formulate their own opinions and answers through critical thinking and problem solving
-breaks games skills down into step-by-step movements that allow the students to be more successful at complicated skills
-As students begin to develop their skills in a given task it can increase the amount of active participation and, “promote enjoyment for participants”
-educators can remove the aspect of varied skill levels and therefor create an equal playing ground for the whole class
-Many skills, technical and tactical, can be transferred from game to game
-students understand transfer process and therefore can increase game competence
-recognizes differences in developmental levels and allows student/athletes to work at their own rate
-Assessment can be done more effectively by pin-pointing the specific area that needs more improvement.
-"Gives the students an opportunity to gain essential knowledge and skills, which allows them to be able to participate in a variety of games" (Mandigo et. al., 2007) Develop GOOD GAME PLAYERS
What is a good game player?
-have both technique and tactics
Why develop good game players?
-contribute to a physically active lifestyle TGFU Objectives Engage students at a high, hollistic level
-More potential for learning
-Potential for a broader contribution
-High engagement increases student motivation Hopper, T.,& Bell, R. (1999) Can we play that game again? Strategies, 14(6), 23-27.
Hopper, T. & D. Kruisselbrink. (2002). “Teaching Games for Understanding: What Does It Look Like and How Does It Inﬂuence Student Skill Learning and Game Performance?” AVANTE, 1-29.
Mandigo, J. , Butler, J. , & Hopper, T. (2007) What is Teaching Games for Understanding? A Canadian perspective. Physical & Health Education Journal, 73(2), 14-20.
Ellis, Margaret. Rethinking Games Teaching. England: Nene Litho, 1986. 61-65
Pill, S. (2007) Teaching games for understanding. Sports Coach, 29(2), 27-29.
Rink, J. (2010) TGFU Movement in an International Context. Human Kinetics, 1-33.
Webb, P ., Pearson, P and Forrest, G (2006) Teaching Games for Understanding( TGfU) in primary and secondary physical education. Paper presented at ICHPER - SD International Conference for Health, Physical Education Recreation, Sport and Dance.
Webb, P., & Pearson, P. (2008) An integrated approach to teaching games for understanding (TFGU). 1st Asia Pacific Sport in Education Conference.
TGFU is a learner-based approach where the goal of the physical educator is to create physically literate students
Some teaching points include:
1. To provide rules for the students that will ultimately affect attributes of the game such as the number of players for the game or the type of equipment.
2. A set of rules that the teacher presents in which the student chooses from, such as type of ball used or scoring rules.
3. Conditions that the teacher puts in place as well as student involvement on how the conditions are met such as the area of play or “what happens if the ball hits the net” (Ellis, 1986).
4. Presenting suggestions that can be in the form of a question such as how can you position your body to intercept the ball or look for open spaces. Teaching Implications for TGFU · Sampling - provides students with situations to realize that skills, rules and tactical solutions can be transferred between different games. For example, rolling a bowling ball and doing an underhand serve in volleyball are similar skills. Students will be able to make connections like this.
· Game Representation - educator creates developmentally appropriate game-like situations to demonstrate how to use a certain skill in a game.
· Exaggeration - focus on one particular point in a game and based on this a game is created so that the students can learn about this scenario. For example, altering the dimensions of the court in net/wall games exaggerates the importance of strategic implement placement.
· Tactical Complexity - demonstrates that there should be developmental progression of tactical solutions. Butler's four pedagogical principles that are used when teaching this model: "A physically literate person moves with poise, economy and confidence in a wide variety of physically challenging situations, is perceptive in reading all aspects of the physical environment, anticipates movement needs of possibilities and responds appropriately with intelligence and imagination" (Whitehead, 2001) 1. Introduction- Lead up game
2. Skill & Tactical Development
3. Application/ Cumination TGFU Lesson Summed Up Different TGFU approaches Full sided: begin with minimal rules, and gradually integrate rules and techniques into the game.
Small sided: begin with 1 on 1 situations and gradually add more members.
Games for Outcome: emphasizes a specific outcome. -Teaching level/experience dictates effectiveness.
-Additional training/education needed for teachers.
-Requires deep understanding of many different games.
-Time consuming, involves a large amount of planning
-Teachers must be prepared to develop innovative and creative lesson plans
-May not elicit the intended response/outcome "The successful implementation of the Teaching Games for Understanding model revolves around the use of key questions to guide the conceptual, strategic and tactical requirements of the game, combined with game modifications that allow players to learn the game without having to excessively attention technique. When sport specific skill acquisition occurs, players understand the significance of the skills within the game because they understand the game first."
(Pill, Shane) -Looking at the execution of skills being assessed over the outcome of the game.
-Being able to perform a skill really well and to the best of your ability should be more important than the "winner" or "loser" or outcome of game play. Categories of Games -Invasion Games
-Net and Wall Games
-Target Games 1. Game: Introduction of the game, always an opposition
2. Game Appreciation: understand the rules and purpose of the game (gradual)
3. Tactical Awareness: gradual understanding of strategies and tactics to be used in the game, particularly in relation to some of the rules.
-Transfers across games, much like skills
4. Making Appropriate Decisions: what to do, how to do it and when to do it?
-Understanding = greater ease of application.
5. Skill Execution: ability to perform a skill at their personal best in game setting
6. Performance: Observed outcome, independent of the learner.