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Genetic Screening

About Genetic Screening

David Najda

on 7 March 2011

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Transcript of Genetic Screening

Genetic Screening Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetic Screening Social, Legal and Ethical Implications of Genetic Screening How can Genetic Screening Increase or Decrease the Genetic Diversity of a Species? Catholic Church’s view on Genetic Screening Why Is Genetic Screening Important Advantages Disadvantages Social Legal Ethical Decreases Genetic Diversity
A process to examine the genetic code of a person or involves looking at an inherited trait that is associated with a specific problem

Genetic tests are performed on a sample of blood, hair, skin, amniotic fluid (the fluid that surrounds a fetus during pregnancy), or other tissue.
For example, a procedure called a buccal smear uses a small brush or cotton swab to collect a sample of cells from the inside surface of the cheek.
The sample is sent to a laboratory where technicians look for specific changes in chromosomes, DNA, or proteins, depending on the suspected disorder.

Eg. A person may want to find out if she has a gene for a high risk disease (eg breast cancer gene)
The screening results showed she has the breast cancer gene
From previous statistics she is informed that her risk of having breast cancer is higher than other females GENETIC SCREENING How Genetic Screening Works Results can be used for many purposes: prenatal testing a diagnosis can be made on a suspect fetus, which allows time for decisions to be made about treatment

Couples can decide if the risk of having a child with a certain genetic makeup outweighs the advantages

Prior knowledge = changing lifestyle = increase life span

Being aware allows you to have the knowledge of having a child with or without genetic disorder

Find out if the child could be at risk of inheriting diseases Leads to abortion
Finding out you have a genetic disorder that may shorten your life span and there is no cure for
Initial shock can harsh against yourself and your family
Effects individuals emotionally and physically, planning a life on predetermined schedule (hard to cope with)
Information can be used against the individual if it gets into the wrong hands
No guarantee that your test results will remain private
Face discrimination for health, life, disability, and other insurance
Testing positive for a gene that indicates genetic disorder but never develop it (unesscessary worrying)
Risk of passing on to children Concerns about protecting the privacy of the patient and the confidentiality of information
Genetic testing requires informed consent
Evaluation of the risks and benefits of genetic testing is an important factor in the process of considering the ethics of its use.
May have implications for employment and insurance
Informed Consent
Confidentiality Insurance
Discriminated between applicants based on the principle of "equal premiums for equal risks"
Access to this genetic information
Those at greatest risk seek the highest levels of cover
A) Prevent unintended disclosures to insurers, and
B) Prevent an incentive for "genetic discrimination"
Discussion 1) Should testing be done for susceptibility genes?

(Many common diseases that affect many millions of people worldwide arise through complex interactions between the environment and a number of genes known as susceptibility genes)

Role of environmental factors in disease development

2) Should parents have the right to have their children tested for potential diseases passed on from their parents?

3) Are current genetic tests reliable and interpretable by the medical community? The Church applauds every medical advance that promises healing without violating moral law
Although, this scientific breakthrough could affect our moral decisions in the future
Genetic screening will open up a range of choices that never existed before, many of them matters of conscience
The Church must be ready to help people apply such permanently valid principles as respect for life, respect for human dignity, promotion of the common good, and love of neighbour as they strive to live Christian lives Genetic diversity is the variation of heritable characteristics present in a population of the same species. It serves an important role in evolution by allowing a species to adapt to a new environment and to fight off parasites. It is applicable to domesticated species, which typically have low levels of genetic diversity. 1) Create a species that is perfect
2) Causes us to worry about diseases that may be in a specific species that is near extinction
3) Less popular genes are lost due to genetic screening Increases Genetic Diversity 1) Create many different species that are perfect
2) People have their own perceptions on species
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