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Transcript of Indira GANDHI
Born into a very political family
Attended primary schools in both India and Europe
Spent a lot of time alone as a child
Indira later recalled she felt 'insecure'
Married Feroze Gandhi in 1942 in Allahabad
Had two sons, Sanjay and Rajiv Political Family Father Jawaharala Nehru, first Prime Minister of India
Grandfather Motilal Nehru, Indian nationalist leader.
Both parents involved in the Indian Independence movement
'Friends' with Mahatma Gandhi
Indira's early involvement
Formed the "Monkey Brigade" at age 11 Education 1936 Indira enrolled at Oxford University. United Kingdom
Unusual for a female to study
1941 left Oxford without completing her studies
Excelled in history, political science and economics What influence did Indira Gandhi have on India? Congress Roles During the 1950's Indira acted as her Father's unofficial political adviser
After Nehru's death in 1964, Indira was given his seat in Congress
She became the Minister for Information and Broadcasting- instituted an Indian TV system
1966 Gandhi was elected Prime Minister after friend and colleague Lal Bahadur Shastri passed away. 3rd Prime Minister
of India Split of Congress 1967 Indian National Congress Congress split
Morarji Desai, opposition leader won over several Indian states in the Hindi Belt
Indira and Desai couldn't agree
Indira led the Socialists "New Congress"
Morarji Desai led the Conservatives Foreign Policy Pakistan President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
peacefully resolve the Kashmire dispute On January 24. 1966, Indira Gandhi became India’s first female Prime Minister Nuclear Weapons Program Jawarharalal Nehru's wishes
1967 development of nuclear weapons was authorised
1974 Dr Raja Ramanna announced that India's first Nuclear weapon was ready to be tested
18th May 1974 "Smiling Buddha" was detonated at the Indian Army Pokhran Test Range Green Revolution 1943 India experienced the Bengal Famine
4 million people died of hunger
Dr. M.P. Singh and Indira started the revolution
the program was based on four premises
1) New varieties of seeds
2) Acceptance of chemicalization; fertilizers
3) A commitment to national and international cooperative research to develop seed varieties
4) Development of agricultural institutions Operation Blue Star The attack, initiated on May 31st 1984
The Golden Temple
Sacred Temple for the Sikhs
Pilgrims gathered to celebrate the anniversary of Guru Arjan
"There are many reasons why the Indian government attacked the Golden Temple, but among them the main reasons for the attack was simply to destroy Sikhism at its roots". (Asri Akai Takhat , 1996)
Indian Army used tanks to knock down the front of the Temple Malpractice 1971 Indira was re-elected as Prime Minister, her slogan was "Garibi Hatao" or Eradicate Poverty
12th June 1975 Indira removed from office on grounds of 'malpractice'
Indira refused to step down
Announced State of Emergency
Ordered the arrest of the opposition
Lasted 21 months June 1975 to March 1977
Indira ruled by decree with the help of her party
March 1977 Indira calls for re-elections Bank Nationalizations Assassination "I am alive today, I may not be there tomorrow. I shall continue to serve till my last breath and when I die every drop of my blood will strengthen India and keep a united India alive."
(Indira Gandhi, 30/10/84) Focus Question What influence did Indira Gandhi have on India? Bibliography Bibliography
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Maria Ulicny. (Updated 2004). Indira Gandhi. Available: http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/igandhi.html. Last accessed 19/11/12.
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N/A. (Updated 2012). Indira Gandhi. Available: http://www.answers.com/topic/indira-gandhi. Last accessed 20/11/12.
N/A. (Updated 2012). State of emergency. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_of_emergency. Last accessed 20/11/12.
N/A. (2002). Nuclear Weapons . Available: http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/india/nuke/. Last accessed 20/11/12.
G. Giridhar Prabhu. (2001). Some thoughts on Bank Nationalization. Available: http://www.ourkarnataka.com/politics/bank_nationalize.htm. Last accessed 20/11/12.
N/A. (N/A ). Nationalisation of Banks in India. Available: http://finance.indiamart.com/investment_in_india/nationalisation_banks.html. Last accessed 20/11/12.
Saby Ganguly. (N/A). From the Bengal Famine to the Green Revolution. Available: http://www.indiaonestop.com/Greenrevolution.htm. Last accessed 20/11/12.
N/A. (N/A). Operation Blue Star. Available: http://www.sikhmuseum.com/bluestar/chronology.html. Last accessed 20/11/12.
N/A. (N/A). The Emergency (India). Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Emergency_%281975-1977%29. Last accessed 20/11/12
Asri Akai Takhat. (1996). Operation Blue Star. Available: http://www.khalistan.net/?p=566. Last accessed 20/11/12.
On the 31st October 1984 Indira Gandhi was shot dead by her two Sikh bodyguards.
Satwant Singh and Beant Singh fired 30 shots at Indira as she walked through her garden. 1969 14 banks nationalized
The banks owned and managed by independent businessmen
"The nationalizations of Banks in 1969 has been one of the significant economic, political and social events of post India".
(G.Giridhar Prabha, 2001) (Agricultural District Program) The number of people who lost their lives will never be known.