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Sophie Davies

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of Animation

Uses of animation
History of animation
I think that our stop motion went well but I think that with more time it could have been better. The lighting needed to be set up properly with a constant light source so that there were no changes in light from where people had moved around in the room etc. Other than this, I think that it went well. There are times when the characters seem to jump a bit because we had moved them too far at one time, where they needed to be moved small spaces. I think that the final animation was successful though.

I don’t think that we have many seconds worth of the final animation as we only took about 30 images. To make this longer, we could copy some of the frames and have less frames per second or carry on with the shooting another time to increase the number of shots that we took. We had about 15 minutes of shooting and setting up.

The good points of producing a stop motion is that it is cheap and easy to make. You only need simple equipment and objects, depending on what you want to do and it is easy to edit and put all together. You should shoot to have the images as they are, not to edit. There is no time to edit all of the photos afterwards as it would change the lighting etc within the images, making them all different from each other.

The drawbacks of creating a stop motion is that it is very hard to keep everything in the same place. If you move something too far or quickly, then it will look like the subject is jumping and will decrease the quality of the animation.

Next time, I would make sure that we spent longer on the animation to make it a lot longer and I would include more frames per second to make it flow better. I would also use one source of light throughout to make sure that the lighting is the same in each image produced.

Animation Types
Animation software & formats
Animated GIFs
Computer animation combines the arts of computer graphics and hand-drawn, two-dimensional (2D) animation to create computer-generated characters, settings and surroundings. The two common uses of computer animation in films are fully computer-animated projects (such as the Pixar films) and the use of computer-generated imagery in live-action films (such as the cyborgs in the Terminator films.)
Animation is used within promotional adverts, games, T.V etc. It is used to make it look more appealing so that you are convinced to buy/try the new products. Promotion is a method of making people aware of a product/organization (e.g. a business) to increase sales and public awareness. Animation is used within this so that all ages are drawn to it and to catch their attention. How they use animation also depends on the product/organization that they are trying to promote.

An example of how animation is used within adverts includes: Change4life

This is a good example of a promotional advertisement/animation because it is suited to the target audience. They have thought about who it will be aimed at and therefore they have used bright colours and made the animation fun so that it would appeal to the younger generation as well as parents/carers. It targets the whole of the family and is very family orientated, looking at the values of family life and therefore health and welbeing.

Using powerful computers, animators and digital effects artists at companies like Industrial Light & Magic can construct fictional worlds and virtual characters that are so lifelike, so convincingly real, that the audience suspends its disbelief and enjoys the show.

Computer animation is an evolved form of stop motion as It still uses frame by frame in order to give the illusion of movement, however unlike stop motion this process is done on the computer and either uses 3D models, or 2D illustrations. The upside of using the computer is that the models are more controllable. Also it is easier for a single graphic artist to make a game without a large budget for set pieces, actors, etc.

One of the first “computer games” ever created was PONG a game similar to tennis. This was created before Flash and was made in the days of arcade machines. The animation in this however is purely the use of pixels, lighting up at various points in order to create the illusion of movement. These days it is easier to create video games, a large production crew is not required. Many “Indie game” (independent games) developers have reached success on a low budget. Most of these games have low graphics but use it in their advantage as it adds a Retro charm.

Instructions are shown in an animation form because it is a lot easier to understand and it is better for people who are physical learners because it shows in image for in what to do. Instructional animations are animations that are used either to provide instructions for immediate performance of a task or to support more permanent learning of subject matter. While both of these uses can be described as instructional animations, when the goal is to support learning, the term educational animation may be preferred. This is a lot more easier for people to read and understand than huge paragraph of text

The persistence of vision - 1650.
- This is the thought of by where your
eye makes up the images between each stop.
For example, if you had two images moving really quickly after each other, your eye would make your brain think that the two images were together in one. One of the earliest examples of this is the bird in the cage.
Thaumatrope - 1824
A thaumatrope is a toy that was popular in Victorian times. A disk or card with a picture on each side is attached to two pieces of string. When the strings are twirled quickly between the fingers the two pictures appear to combine into a single image
The phenakistoscope (1831) used a spinning disc attached vertically to a handle. Arrayed around the disc's center were a series of drawings showing phases of the animation, and cut through it were a series of equally spaced radial slits. The user would spin the disc and look through the moving slits at the disc's reflection in a mirror. The scanning of the slits across the reflected images kept them from simply blurring together, so that the user would see a rapid succession of images that appeared to be a single moving picture.
Zoetrope - 1834
A zoetrope is a device that produces the illusion of motion from a rapid succession of static pictures.
Flip books (1868) are essentially a primitive form of animation. Like motion pictures, they rely on persistence of vision to create the illusion that continuous motion is being seen rather than a series of discontinuous images being exchanged in succession. Rather than "reading" left to right, a viewer simply stares at the same location of the pictures in the flip book as the pages turn. The book must also be flipped with enough speed for the illusion to work, so the standard way to "read" a flip book is to hold the book with one hand and flip through its pages with the thumb of the other hand. The German word for flip book—Daumenkino, literally "thumb cinema"—reflects this process.
In 1872, when Muybridge was hired by Leland Stanford (later the founder of Stanford University) to photograph horses. Stanford reputedly had made a bet that for a moment, all four of a racehorse's hooves are off the ground simultaneously, and he hired Muybridge to take the pictures to prove him right. He set up a row of cameras with tripwires, each of which would trigger a picture for a split second as the horse ran by. The results settled the debate once and for all: all four hooves do leave the ground at once, as the top middle image in this sequence demonstrates.
1906. Stuart Blackton's Humorous Phases of Funny Faces is released. It is a three-minute short in which Blackton's hand can be seen animating drawings of faces and people against a plain blackboard.

Gertie the Dinosaur is a 1914 animated short film by American cartoonist and animator Winsor McCay. It is the earliest animated film to feature a dinosaur. Gertie the Dinosaur is the earliest animated film to feature a dinosaur. Its star Gertie does tricks much like a trained elephant. She is animated in a naturalistic style unprecedented for the time; she breathes rhythmically, she shifts her weight as she moves, and her abdominal muscles undulate as she draws water. McCay imbued her with a personality—while friendly, she could be capricious, ignoring or rebelling against her master's commands.
Steamboat Willie is a 1928 American animated short film directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks. It was produced in black-and-white by the Walt Disney Studios and released by Celebrity Productions. The cartoon is considered the debut of Mickey Mouse,[2] and his girlfriend Minnie, but the characters had both appeared several months earlier in a test screening of Plane Crazy. Steamboat Willie was the third of Mickey's films to be produced, but was the first to be distributed.[3]
The film is also notable for being one of the first cartoons with synchronized sound. It was the first cartoon to feature a fully post-produced soundtrack which distinguished it from earlier sound cartoons
Stop motion - 1928
Stop motion is a form of animation by which
a series of photographs are taken one after each
other to present a moving image. The character is moved small amounts each time to make it look like they're moving. Dolls with movable joints or clay figures are often used in stop motion for their ease of repositioning. Stop motion animation using plasticine is called clay animation or "clay-mation". Not all stop motion requires figures or models; many stop motion films can involve using humans, household appliances and other things for comedic effect. Stop motion using objects is sometimes referred to as object animation.

This video shows behind the scenes of wallace and gromit. - 'Clay-mation.'

(1995) Computer-generated imagery (CGI) the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, films, television programs, commercials, and simulators. The visual scenes may be dynamic or static, and may be two-dimensional (2D), though the term "CGI" is most commonly used to refer to 3D computer graphics used for creating scenes or special effects in films and television.
What Controls the Effectiveness of Educational Animation?
There are a couple of factors that act as catalysts, making animation either more or less effective by their presence or absence, respectively. Mere animation may not always deliver the intended lesson, but when accompanied with text notes or other verbal cues, learning can happen faster.
Another element of effective educational animation is the ability to give over control to the learner. When trying to teach complicated processes, it helps when the user can control one or more elements in the animation. For example, being able to zoom in on a particular set of actions within the whole, or being able to control the speed at which a repetitive process loops over - these are just some ways in which user involvement can make the learning experience a memorable one.

This is a changing advertisement used in at the side of debenhams home page. It constantly changes on its own. This shows moving animation in text which displays information.

This is showing a navigation bar displaying information on what google offers, as you scroll over each link the text goes bold and if on a link it turns red and underlines.
Scrolling text
Scrolling text is used in order to catch the eye of the reader. The majority of scrolling texts would come in from the left and go to the right, This is because the eye is more focused to look at the top left first which is where the animation will begin.
Inside the scrolling text will be important information that might not be picked up at first glace such as a perticular sale that is on
Animation is used in a variety of ways to help display information to people on the web, it helps to show readers information without the hassle of clicking a variety of links to find certain things, it helps readers to be attracted to whatever they are presenting on the animation itself such as offers, specials and new releases.
Traditional Animation
Flip books -
A flip book is a collection of combined pictures intended to be flipped over to give the illusion of movement and create an animated sequence from a simple small book without machine.
Stop motion -
Stop motion allows people to easily create animations of their own by photography. A picture is taken of ever small bit of movement in the animation. This takes a lot of time as the image has to be recreated each time with just a very small change made to it. When put all together, it creates a type of moving image.
Claymation -
This is a type of stop motion animation. It is made by photographing tiny movements of clay models bit by bit and putting them all together. Very much like the flip book and the post-it note video. The downside to this method is that it takes a very long time to create.
CGI animation
2D CGI animation -
This means that the animation being put across to you is only displayed from one angle. This is where 2D animation and 3D animation are different. It looks as if it has been drawn on the page.
CGI is an amazing new technology that allows you to create worlds and environments that only exist in people's minds. It enables people to come up with new and exciting new concepts and ideas for animation. CGI was first started off properly in 1997 and has increasingly advanced to what it now is today. The quality of animation that is able to be created today is a lot different to what it used to be. 2D and 3D animation can be used in different ways to create different effects and feelings. For example, 2D CGI is usually used for comedy sketches etc whereas 3D CGI is mainly used for feature films and serious animations, showing off the new technologies.
Linear Animation Generator is a form of animation by using static picture frames installed in a tunnel or a shaft. The animation illusion is created by putting the viewer in a linear motion, parallel to the installed picture frames. The concept and the technical solution, were invented in 2007 by Mihai Girlovan in Romania.
Linear animations demonstrate the exact steps a user needs to take to perform a certain task. Since the animations look highly realistic, there is a clear resemblance between the documentation and the actual situation the user is faced with.

Interactive Animation
Interactive animations allow the user to view exactly those technical product features that he/she wants or needs to see, depending on the situation. The animations look highly realistic so they are easy to comprehend.
Because the animation is interactive, users have direct access to the information they are looking for. Interactive animations will always transfer exactly the information that is needed by the viewer: your documentation will be tailored to meet the users' needs.

We created our own stop motion videos using plasticine to model with...

- They have relatively small file sizes; this means that they can be used easily online as they can load quicker and still have a good quality.

- As well as small file sizes GIFs also support transparent backgrounds and therefore can help show a professional look to a website with an animation over a different background.

- Another advantage of GIFs is that can show something in a better way than would normally be possible as they can show emotions and movement which a still image may not be able to, this might also be helpful when creating tutorial animations. This also ties in with the fact that using GIF files can entice different, younger audiences as the children may be amused by these animations.

- Although animated GIFs have advantages they also have their disadvantages as they only have a maximum colour palette of 256 colours so therefore can sometimes look of a poorer quality than other types of file or image. This can lead to the images having more ‘blocky’ colours and also looking slightly pixelated.
- Another disadvantage of using animated GIFs is that once the animation has been coded into the actual GIF file there is no way to go back and edit the image. This may lead to having to start all over again to make a minor adjustment to an image.
- Although these images have small file sizes and therefore should run smoothly online they are also dependant on internet connection and could lead to the site they are used on looking less professional.

In conclusion using animated GIFs can be very successful or very unsuccessful, it depends on how they are used. if they are used in the right way and are simple and effective they are very good and give the site a very professional look. However, if they are not used well and are spammed onto a site they make the website look very unprofessional and a poor quality.
Javascript is a computer language which people can use to create applications which are run by Java it is usually used in web browsers. It is very popular and is used across the internet. Not only the internet however; Java script is used in phones, game consoles,scientific calculators, etc. Javascript coding is rather complicated and can take a long time to master.

Java applets

- They have relatively small file sizes; this means that they can be used easily online as they can load quicker and still have a good quality.

- As well as small file sizes GIFs also support transparent backgrounds and therefore can help show a professional look to a website with an animation over a different background.

- Another advantage of GIFs is that can show something in a better way than would normally be possible as they can show emotions and movement which a still image may not be able to, this might also be helpful when creating tutorial animations. This also ties in with the fact that using GIF files can entice different, younger audiences as the children may be amused by these animations.

Some browsers, notably mobile browsers running Apple iOS or Android do not run Java applets at all.
It requires a Java plug in
Some organizations only allow software installed by the administrators. As a result, some users can only view applets that are important enough to justify contacting the administrator to request installation of the Java plug-in.
As with any client-side scripting, security restrictions may make it difficult or even impossible for an untrusted applet to achieve the desired goals. However, simply editing the java.policy file in the JAVA JRE installation, one can grant access to the local filesystem or system clipboard for example, or to other network sources other than the network source that served the applet to the browser.
Some applets require a specific JRE. This is discouraged.

If an applet requires a newer JRE than available on the system, or a specific JRE, the user running it the first time will need to wait for the large JRE download to complete.
Java automatic installation or update may fail if a proxy server is used to access the web. This makes applets with specific requirements impossible to run unless Java is manually updated. The Java automatic updater that is part of a Java installation also may be complex to configure if it must work through a proxy.
Unlike the older applet tag, the object tag needs workarounds to write a cross-browser HTML document.
There is no standard to make the content of applets available to screen readers. Therefore, applets can harm the accessibility of a web site to users with special needs.

Flash Including adobe air/flex

Advantages of Using Flash Animation
Flash and animation can help communicate messages effectively. Adding animation will increase the value of your website, not only in terms of interactivity and aesthetics but also in getting your message across to your readers. Because flash animation is so visual, visitors quite often get the gist of your message without having to read any written content.
Promote your products and services. Animated visuals can also be an effective medium for the promotion and advertisements of products and services. You can highlight important elements of your site using animated flash.
Flash and animation is more appealing to visitors. Animated websites always grab visitors’ attention – they learn and are entertained at the same time. Websites that offer information in plain text tend to bore visitors. You should aim at creating a cynamic ‘infotainment’ site rather than just a plain ‘infosite’.
Faster communication transfer. Using animated flash, you can quickly tell your visitors what your website is all about. Good marketing copy combined with flash animation will help increase your websites conversion rate.

The Drawbacks
Flash animated websites may be great for human visitors, but search engines can't index them so your website won't show up in Google search results.
Following are some key points that you should consider before deciding to embed flash elements in your site:
Search engines can’t index the content of a flash file
Flash files don't work on iPhones and iPads which are extremely popular
Text and information needs to be shortened as the content capacity of flash file is limited
Websites with heavy flash and animation tend to load slowly and may cause visitors to leave
Flash animation is only viewable to visitors with the right Flash player and plug-ins installed
Flash files are very hard to update

broadband and 4G
4G - fourth generation of cellular communication.
The fastest speed of 4G is 100 MB per second, allowing more complex animations to be uploaded and downloaded from the internet. Better sounds and effects are able to be added to make it even better, due to the faster speed of the internet. This eliminates the buffering and waiting for things to load.
ADVANTAGES; main advantages will be that the internet will load so much faster which will make it easier to play games as it wont freeze and it will flow properly, this is the same for adverts and animations which will run smoothly. More people having better connections means that business and adverts can be bigger and much larger as it wont take so long for the web page to load. Websites and the internet in general will run faster for people.
Animation considerations; you need to check the file size when uploading animations to the internet because of people's data speed coverage. People on 4G, living in big cities will get a much faster broadband service, while people living in rural areas, with 2G or 3G coverage, will have a much slower speed. The comparability of file sizes is important as they need to open on all devices and browsers. For example, FLASH files wont play on mobile phones or iPads. Including flash animations on your website for example, would not be effective as it almost halves your audience, with most people using iPads or phones for internet searching.
The content needs to be thought about and must be appropriate for the audience being targeted. For example, is it's purpose is either to inform someone, to entertain someone etc. If it is targeted at children, it should be age appropriate.
1024 x 763 is the most popular screen size for animation, so most of them are based around this. The most popular screen size for mobiles is 320 x 480 so this needs to be thought about when designing animations.
This is a good example of an animation used for entertainment puposes, as the designers have clearly thought about their target audience and had them in mind when making it. They use bright colours and relateable characters that children can image and see well within the animation. It is able to interact with the audience and keep them aware and 'entertained.'
This is an example of a good instructional animation. It clearly shows everything that you need to do to assemble to product. It is in a numerical order, therefore allowing you to follow it simply and clearly and allowing you the chance to pause and rewind, if it has gone too quick. The product has been simplised by changing it to hand drawn pictures to make it easier for the audience to understand.
This is an example of a good animation to tell information because it is all split up in to0 bulletpointed information, making it easy for the audience to read and understand, however, there is a voice over saying all of the extra information, meaning that you can take the information in auditorally and visually. The animation that comes with it all relates to what is being said and therefore allows you to follow it through the animation. You can clearly get the information by watching the clip alone, without the sound. It is very informative and allows you to take it in through a number of different ways. It all flows very well all together, allowing there to be a clear path of listed events that happen. There is a lot of information in the animation, but by presenting it in this way, it means that it can be clearly put across to the audience and taken in well.
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