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Transcript of Lev Vygotsky
Tools of Intellectual Adaptation
Clip of ZPD Example
1. Social Interaction
Philosophy of Vygotsky
How Tools are Passed
2. More Knowledgeable Other
Refers to someone who has a higher level of the concept being taught.
MKO may be a teacher or adult, but also could be a peer student.
Could even be an electronic support system.
Three Themes of Social Development Theory
3. Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky's Social Development Theory is the work of Russian Psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), who lived during Russian Revolution.
His work was largely unknown to the West until it was published in 1963
Social Development Theory
Social interaction leads to continuous changes in children's thought and behavior.
Development of a child depends on interaction with people and tools.
Imitative Learning- Child imitates or copies another child
Instructed Learning- Remembering instructions for self-regulation
Collaborative Learning- Group of peers working together to learn a specific skill
1. Social Interaction
2. More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)
3. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Emphasis on social contributions to the process of development.
Child seeks to understand the actions or instructions given by the peer tutor.
Concept explaining what a
child can achieve independently, and what he or she can achieve with guidance from a peer.
Area where most sensitive instruction should be given.
Helps develop higher mental functioning.
Anna Burgess - FALL 2014
Contributions to Education
Reciprocal Teaching - Used to improve students' ability to learn from text
Four methods used in
Adult helps motivate students to learn.
Contains several key points.
Key Features of Scaffolding
1. Setting a common goal- Adult and student share goal
2. Adaptive support- The adult is constantly evaluating the progress
of the child and adapting as needed.
3. Interactions- The child is an active part of the learning process,
4.Transfer of responsibility- Final feature reduces support needed
so the student takes control.
Using ZPD in the Classroom
Instruction should be planned to provide practice in the ZPD.
Create groups for cooperative learning activities- Peers help each other learn.
The teacher should be aware of where the child is developmentally and what skills will come next.
Private Speech- Children talk to themselves.
Used as a way to plan activities and strategies.
Language develops from social interactions.
-Vygotsky developed multiple applications of his theory to general and special education.
-New applications were and continue to be developed by later generations of Vygotskians in Russia as well as in the West - constructivism and sociocultural theory.
-The major emphasis in the Vygotskian approach is on helping children acquire the tools of their culture.
-The Vygotskian approach to early childhood education focuses on the activities and interactions that are most beneficial to young children in learning their first “tools of the mind.”
1. Learning and development is a social, collaborative activity.
2. The Zone of Proximal Development can serve as a guide for
curricular and lesson planning.
3. School learning should occur in a meaningful context and not be
separated from learning and knowledge children/students develop
in the 'real world'.
4. Out-of-school experiences should be related to the child's