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The Garbage Can Model by Victoria Pevkina

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victoria pev

on 23 November 2015

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Transcript of The Garbage Can Model by Victoria Pevkina

organized anarchies
streams (4 types)
In their article, Cohen et al., explain the elements of an organization. Also known as "streams," these are the abiding elements that are present at all times within the organization, which help the process of decision-making.
Variables (4)
As seen on page three of their article, Cohen, March, & Olsen describe the distinct variables of the decision-making process.These variables are aspects of an organization that can affect the streams and their potential to be chosen.
the model
Cohen, March, & Olsen describe the Garbage Can model as revolving around a non-linear and non-rational process of decision-making. For example, rather than starting with a problem and creating a solution, the model proposes that an organization may start with a solution and then seek out an issue/problem.
garbage can theory
(A simplified explanation)
In 1972, Michael D. Cohen, James G. March, and Johan P. Olsen created a model illustrating how organizations make decisions.
The Garbage Can model illustrates the decision-making process of an organization.
They called it the Garbage Can Model.
It includes the simultaneous presence of many different variables, such as problems, solutions, and decision-makers.
introduction
Solution
problem
In other words, there are existing solutions that are seeking out problems to which they might be the answer.
When created, this model focused on "organized anarchies," like universities, hospitals, and libraries.
BUT
This process is also observable in private organizations, such as privately owned businesses, establishments, and foundations.
David Maister expands by observing that these "organized anarchies" have three things in common:
Problematic Preferences
There are ambiguous ideas and preferences that are only discovered through action (they are not predetermined and universally known to the members of the organization).
Unclear Technology
Regular activities, such as teaching or consulting, can only be learned through experience or trial and error.
Fluid Participation
The time and effort devoted to a specific concern differs from member to member in an organization. So, the level of participation is not predetermined, but measured by the present issues, choices, perspective, and timing.
In their article, Cohen, March, and Olsen refer to organized anarchies as public, educational, and illegitimate organizations.
organizations
Cohen et al, focused their studies on universities and characterized these organizations as:
A COLLECTION OF CHOICES
PROBLEMS
ISSUE AND FEELINGS
DECISION SITUATIONS IN WHICH THEY MIGHT BE AIRED
SOLUTIONS
ISSUES TO WHICH THEY MIGHT BE THE ANSWER
DECISION MAKERS
WORK
LOOKING FOR
LOOKING FOR
LOOKING FOR
LOOKING FOR
1
2
3
4
Problems or Issues
These are the concerns of people, inside
and

outside of the organization.
Also:
The timing of these problems and issues.
Solutions
A solution to a problem does not necessarily have to be an idea. It can be somebody's product. For example, a technological innovation, or gum.
Participants
The people involved in the decision-making. Usually members in the organization or ones who are affiliated with it.
Choice Opportunities
Also called "decision situations," are the instances when the organization produces behaviour that we can call a decision
Often ambiguous
1
2
3
4
Lets assume this garbage can represents the organization uOttawa (not literally)
revenue
find more students
admit more students
faculty
lack of funding
administration
reach out to alumni
security
on-campus safety
hire more professors
offer more services
expand geographically
All four streams are simultaneously existing in the organization, relying on luck or chance to be randomly selected in the process of decision-making.
STREAM OF PROBLEMS
RATE OF FLOW OF SOLUTIONS
STREAM OF ENERGY FROM PARTICIPANTS
DECISION STYLE
PROBLEM ACTIVITY
PROBLEM LATENCY
DECISION MAKER ACTIVITY
DECISION DIFFICULTY
SUMMARY
slack
Slack is the difference between the resources of an organization and the demands made on the organization.
The Garbage Can Model

has the capacity to
study
slack as it
decreases
in an organization.
1
2
MONEY + OTHER RESOURCES GIVEN
TO THE ORGANIZATION BY ITS
EXTERNAL
ENVIRONMENT
THE CONSISTENCY OF
DEMANDS MADE
ON THE ORGANIZATION
BY PARTICIPANTS

It relies on two major factors:
It has four variables:
2
NET ENERGY LOAD
The difference between the energy required and the effective energy available (within an organization)
ACCESS STRUCTURE
Taking advantage of the benefits of delegation and specialization
DECISION STRUCTURE
The way decisions are made in an organization (more authoritative or more relaxed)
ENERGY DISTRIBUTION
Energy available for use and allotment in an organization
organizationalSTRUCTURES
Cohen, March, & Olsen mention five organizational structures that may help the process of decision-making.
Decisions can be made in three different ways:
Resolution
Choices resolve problems after some period of working on them (not the most common method)
Oversight
There is energy available to make the decisions before new problems appear. This decision will be made with minimal energy.
Flight
If problems have not been resolved after some period of time, decisions can be made if the problems leave the choice opportunity
The measure of the degree to which problems are active (based on the level of conflict and understanding of problems within the organization).
Degree of problem activity
Level of conflict/understanding of problems
Problems that are active in an organization but solutions have not been found yet.
The total period of time that a decision maker is attached to a choice. It is measured in four ways:
The total time a decision maker is attached to a choice.
The total number of times a decision maker goes from one choice to another.
The total amount of effective energy available, and the amount that is used.
The
excess
amount of energy required to make the choices that were made
A
B
C
D
There are two ways of measuring decision difficulty within an organization:
1
2
The total number of choices
not
made
The total amount of time that a choice is
active
STREAM OF CHOICES
Choices are characterized by:
Entry time
(when the choice appears/becomes available)
A decision structure
(participants able to participate in making that choice

Problems are characterized by:
Entry time
(when the problem appeared)
Energy requirement
(energy needed to resolve the problem)
Access structure
(the choices to which the problem has access
Matching specific solutions with specific problems and solutions
The rate at which solutions are flowing into the system
The rate may vary based on the energy and time required to come up with solutions
Each participant is characterized by:
The amount of potential energy available for organizational decision-making
The difficulty of the decisions needed to be made in an organization.
SOLUTIONS ARE LINKED TO PROBLEMS
PARTICIPANTS ARE LINKED TO CHOICE OPPORTUNITIES
The final decision-making process looks something like this:
PROBLEMS, SOLUTIONS, AND ENERGY ARE PRODUCED
PARTICIPANTS DUMP THEM INTO THE "GARBAGE CAN" AS THEY ARE PRODUCED
ONCE FULL, THE GARBAGE IS TAKEN OUT AND A DECISION IS MADE
1
2
3
take the quiz!
access structure
On page five, Cohen et al., illustrate the access structure of an organization as the
organizational arrangement
in relation to the accessible problems and choices. There are three types:
UNSEGMENTED ACCESS
Any
active problem
has access to any
active choice
HIERARCHICAL ACCESS
Problems and choices are arranged in a hierarchy. Important problems have access to many choices and important choices are only accessible by important problems
SPECIALIZED ACCESS
Each problem has access to only one choice
Each choice is only accessible to TWO problems that can be associated with it
1
2
3
DECISION STRUCTURE
UNSEGMENTED DECISIONS
Any decision maker can participate in any active choice opportunity
Similarly, organizations also have a decision structure. Cohen et The al., describe this as the
link between decision makers and choices.
There are three visible types:
HIERARCHICAL DECISIONS
Decision makers and choices are arranged in a hierarchy. Important decision makers may participate in many choices and important choices may only be made by important decision makers.
SPECIALIZED DECISIONS
Each decision maker is associated with only one choice and each choice has only one decision maker
Video!
References

Cohen, M., March, J., & Olsen, J. (1972). A Garbage Can
Model of Organizational Choice. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(1), 1-25.


Maister, D. (1983). Garbage Can Decision Making.
Retrieved October 27, 2015, from http://davidmaister.com/articles/garbage-can-decision-making/

(Cohen, March, & Olsen, 1972)
(Maister, 1983)
(Cohen et al., 1972, p. 12)
How organizations make decisions using the garbage can model
The different characteristics of organized anarchies
The four different streams that are permanently present in an organization
The final decision-making process
Existing variables during decision-making
Access structure
Decision Structure
Organizational structures of decision-making
How slack is measured
In this presentation you saw:
https://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=mtmynjyznguo2p
LETS START BY WATCHING THIS VIDEO
Conclusion
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2
3
(To take the quiz you need to click escape on this presentation)
Full transcript