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IB Biology HL - Gene Transfer

IB Biology HL class presentaion on biotechnology and the method of gene transfer
by

Sarah Quattrocki

on 5 November 2011

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Transcript of IB Biology HL - Gene Transfer

Gene Transfer By: Sarah Quattrocki, Morgan Conover, Abby Schneider, Lauren Merlino, Jeta Krasniqi Plasmids DNA Ligase Sticky Ends Segment of DNA from "donor" cell with desired gene Restriction Site Bacterial Cell (E.Coli) "Donor" Cell Bacterial DNA DNA Recombinant DNA
(plasmid) Recombinant Bacteria 1. Plasmid isolated 2. DNA is isolated and purified 3. Gene is inserted into the bacterial plasmid 4. Plasmid is inserted into bacterial cell 5. Bacterial cell divides and clones gene of interest 1. Restriction enzymes are used to cut both sources of DNA 2. Mix plasmid DNA and DNA fragments; will join by base pairing 3. Add DNA ligase to bond desired gene to plasmid DNA (covalent bonds) Plasmid DNA Objectives 4.4.7 and 4.4.8 All known living organisms use
ADENINE
THYMINE
CYTOSINE
GUANINE
as the nitrogenous bases of DNA. The sequences of the bases code for the same amino acids, resulting in the same polypeptide chains, regardless of what organism they are being produced by. Therefore, it is possible to put one species’ genes into another’s genetic makeup because the proteins formed in the host organism will be the same ones formed in the donor organism. 0:00 - 1:05 1:34 - 1:52 A plasmid is an independent, circular, self-replicating DNA molecule that carries only a few genes. The number of plasmids in a cell generally remains constant from generation to generation. Plasmids are autonomous molecules and exist in cells as extrachromosomal genomes, although some plasmids can be inserted into a bacterial chromosome, where they become a permanent part of the bacterial genome. It is here that they provide great functionality in molecular science. Copies of the gene can be isolated and transferred to other organisms

(i.e. gene from a bacteria for the production of a protein that is lethal to certain larvae is transferred into corn plants to make them resistant to crop-eating insects) Copies of the protein produced can be isolated and used for medical purposes

(i.e. E.coli can be programmed to produced human insulin. Previous method involved using pig carcasses, which could cause allergy problems.) The 3 "tools" needed for genetic engineering:
-restriction enzymes
-vector (i.e. plasmid)
-host organism (i.e. E.coli) Restriction enzymes protect bacteria against intruding DNA from other organisms such as viruses, by cutting up foreign DNA (restriction). Each enzyme is specific to certain short nucleotide sequences in the DNA molecule and cut at specific points within the sequence. Hundreds of restriction enzymes have been identified and isolated since they were discovered in the 1960's. Gene of Interest Ethical Implications? Pros Cons Transgenic animals and plants can help to decrease food shortages in certain parts of the world
The use of gene transfer to synthetically create drugs can help millions of people with serious diseases and medical conditions
Can create consistency of output in food and livestock industry to help boost the economy Is it right to "play God" by manipulating an organism's DNA?
Increased avaiability of certain medications and vaccines can decrease our natual immune responses to certain bacteria and viruses
Is it irresponsible to attempt to by-pass the natual selection of our own species and others by providing us with more ways to fight disease and famine?
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