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Plant virus diseases in the Philippines

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by

Clarizza Dioso

on 30 September 2012

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Transcript of Plant virus diseases in the Philippines

by Clarizza Dioso Plant Virus Diseases in the Philippines VIRUS DISEASES IN RICE VIRUS DISEASES IN CORN VIRUS DISEASES IN TOMATO Symptoms:
Severe stunting
Excessive tillering
Erect growth habit
Short, narrow, pale green leaves Rice grassy stunt Also called Rice rosette Philippines virus
Genus: Tenuivirus

Shape: filamentous
950-1350 nm long; 6 nm wide

Genome:
single-stranded, linear RNA
Size: 15.46 kb, tetrapartite caused by: Rice grassy stunt virus Transmission:
via insect vectors in a persistent manner
Can multiply inside the vector Nilaparvata lugens Rice Ragged Stunt Symptoms:
Stunting
Enations on veins of leaves and leaf sheaths
Ragged leaves
Flower suppression Caused by: Rice ragged stunt virus
Family: Reoviridae
Genus: Oryzavirus
Type species: Reovirus
Shape:
Isometric
Not enveloped
Size:
65 nm diameter
Genome:
Double-stranded RNA;
Multipartite (10 segments)
26.66 kb Transmission:
Via insect vector
Nilaparvata lugens
In a persistent manner
Virus multiplies inside the vector Rice Tungro Symptoms:
Moderate to severe stunting
Mottled, yellow to yellow orange leaves
Slightly reduced tillering Caused by:
Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV)
Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV)
RTBV
Shape: bacilliform
100-300 nm in length
8002 base pairs
Circular dsDNA
Family: Caulimoviridae
Genus: Tungrovirus
RTSV
Shape: spherical
12175 base pairs
Linear, (+) sense ssRNA
Family: Secoviridae
Genus: Waikavirus Transmission:
Via green leafhoppers (Nephotetix virescens)
Semi-persistent manner
RTSV is independently transmitted
RTBV needs RTSV to be transmitted Rice dwarf Symptoms:
Moderate to severe stunting
Slightly reduced tillering
Dark green leaves with whitish streaks Caused by:
Rice dwarf virus (RDV)
Family: Reoviridae
Genus: Phyteovirus
Shape:
Isometric
Size:
70 nm in diameter
Genome:
dsRNA, linear
Multipartite (12 parts) Transmission:
Via green leafhoppers (Nephotetix nigropictus)
persistent manner; trans-ovarial Symptoms:
Mosaic and/or ringspot
stunting Sugarcane Mosaic Caused by:
Sugarcane mosaic virus
Family: Potyviridae
Genus: Potyvirus
Type species: Potyvirus
Shape:
Filamentous
Not enveloped
Flexous
730-755 nm long
Genome:
ssRNA; 9.5 kb
Monopartite Transmission:
Via insect vector (aphids)
Dactynotus ambrosiae
Hysteroneura setariae
Rhopalosiphum maidis
Toxoptera graminum
Non-persistent transmission
Other means of transmission:
Mechanical
Seed
grafting Maize Dwarf Mosaic Transmission:
Via insect vectors (aphids) in a non-persistent manner
Can also be mechanically transmitted and through seeds Caused by:
Maize dwarf mosaic virus
Family: Potyviridae
Genus: Potyvirus
Shape:
Flexous
Not enveloped
770 nm long
Genome: Symptoms:
Mosaic on top of leaves
Stunting
Reddening Maize Stripe Symptoms:
Fine chlorotic stripes between leaf veins (early infection)
Continuous long chlorotic stripes (late infection)
Presence of inclusion bodies in infected cells Caused by:
Maize stripe virus
Genus: Tenuivirus
Genome:
ssRNA, linear
Multipartite (5 segments)

Shape:
Bullet-shaped/filamentous/spiral-shaped
12 nm wide; 709 nm long Transmission:
Via insects (corn delphacid) in a persistent, propagative manner
Peregrinus maydis
Also transmitted through the egg of P. maydis Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Symptoms:
Upward curling of leaves
Mottling
Reduced leaf size
Stunting
Flower abscission Caused by:
Tomato yellow leaf curl Philippines virus
Family: Geminiviridae
Genus: Begomovirus
Type species: Begomovirus
Shape:
geminate
Genome:
Circular, ssDNA; mono/bipartite Transmission:
Via whiteflies in a persistent manner
Bemisia tabaci Tomato Mosaic Symptoms:
Light and dark green mottling in leaves
Upward leaf roll
Stem streak
Necrotic fruit lesions Caused by:
Tomato mosaic virus
Genus: Tobamovirus Transmitted via:
mechanical transmision
grafting
seed Shape: rods
size: 300 nm
Genome: ssRNA; linear
6.395 kb Tomato Spotted Wilt Symptoms:
Small, dark brown spots on young leaves
Dark brown streaks
Chlorotic or necrotic spots on leaves Caused by: Tomato wilt virus
Genome: tripartite
Shape: spherical
(-) ssRNA; linear
Genus: Tospovirus
Family: Bunyaviridae Transmission:
By thrips
TWSV must be acquired during larval stage to be transmitted
TWSV persists from larval to adult stage
Virus replicates in thrips Pseudo Curly Top Symptoms:
Chlorosis especially at leaf edges
Vein-clearing
Leaf curling
Cupping
Shot proliferation
Severe stunting Caused by:
Tomato pseudo curly top virus
Family: Geminiviridae
Genus: Hybrigeminivirus
Genome:
Circular, single stranded DNA Transmission:
By an insect vector: Micrutalis malleifera
Semi-persistent manner VIRUS DISEASES IN SQUASH Squash Leaf Curl Symptoms:
Severe systemic
stunting
Leaf curl Caused by:
Squash leaf curl virus
Family: Geminiviridae
Genus: Begiminivirus
Shape: geminate
Size: 22 x 38 nm
Genome:
Circular ssDNA; bipartite Transmission:
Via insect vector: Bemisia tabaci
Persistent manner, circulative Squash Mosaic Symptoms:
Systemic mosaic
Ringspots
Leaf deformation Caused by:
Squash mosaic virus
Family: Comoviridae
Genus: Comovirus
Type Species: Cowpea mosaic virus
Genome:
Shape: hexagonal
ssRNA, linear
11.2 kb Transmission:
Via insect vectors
Acalymma trivittata;
A. thiemei thiemei;
Diabrotica undecimpunctata
Non-persistent manner
By mechanical transmission
Transmitted by seed VIRUS DISEASES IN AMPALAYA Ampalaya namamarako Symptoms:
Shiny thickened leaves
All male flowers
Stunted growth
Flower abortion Caused by:
Cucurbit aphid borne yellows virus (CabYV)
Family: Luteoviridae
Genus: Poleovirus
Genome:
(+) ssRNA Transmission:
By aphids in a non-persistent manner VIRUS DISEASES IN SWEET POTATO Sweet Potato Feathery Mottle Symptoms:
vein clearing
vein feathering,
chlorotic spots Caused by:
Sweet potato feather mottle virus
Family: Potyviridae
Genus: Potyvirus
Type species: Potato virus Y
Shape: flecous
Size: 830-850 nm long
Genome:(+)ssRNA, linear Transmission:
by aphids in a non-persistent manner
can be mechanically transmitted or by seed Sweet Potato Chlorotic Stunt Symptoms:
Reddening or
chlorotic yellowing of middle and lower leaves
May be very mild or absent Caused by:
Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus
Family: Closteroviridae
Genus: Crinivirus
Genome:
Single-stranded (+)RNA
Bipartite
Localized in phloem cells Transmission:
Via whiteflies in a persistent,
non-propagative manner VIRUS DISEASES IN POTATO Potato Leaf Roll Symptoms:
Necrotic leaf margins
Brownish or purplish inward curl
Leaf roll
necrosis Caused by:
Potato leaf roll virus
Family: Luteoviridae
Genus: Polerovirus
Genome:
(+) ssRNA Transmission:
Via seeds
Insect vectors
Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae)
Persistent, circulative, propagative manner Potato spindle tuber Symptoms:
Stems are upright
longer internodes
Elongated tubers
Tubers develop knobs and swellings
Caused by:
Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)
Small circular RNA
No capsid
361-364 nucleotides
Replicate via asymmetric rolling cycle

Transmission:
By vegetative propagation: by tubers
Mechanical transmission
By seed and pollen
Via aphids
VIRUS DISEASES IN PAPAYA Papaya Ringspot Virus Symptoms:
Vein clearing
Ringspot on fruits
Mottled and malformed leaves
Systemic mottling and mosaic
Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)
Family: Potyviridae
Genus: Potyvirus
Type Species: Potato virus Y
Shape:
Flexous rods
Genome:
(+) ssRNA, monopartite
760-800 nm Transmission:
Via aphids
Non-persistent manner
Amorphous inclusion protein (AI) is required as the helper component for transmission
Can be mechanically transmitted
VIRUS DISEASES IN BANANA Banana Bunchy Top Dark green streaks
Dark green hook like extensions of leaf lamina veins
New leaves appear wavy
Yellow chlorotic leaf margins
“bunched” leaves on top
Caused by:
Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV)
Family: Nanoviridae
Genus: Babuvirus
Genome:
Mulipartite, circular ssDNA
18-20 nm
With four satellite-like DNA
Shape:
Round Transmission:
Via banana aphids in a
non-persistent manner
Pentalonia nigronervosa
Banana streak Symptoms:
Chlorotic streaks on leaves
Splitting on pseudostem
Necrotic streaks Banana Streak Caused by:
Banana streak virus (BSV)
Family: Caulimoviridae
Genus: Badnavirus
Genome:
Monopartite, circular dsDNA
7389 base pairs
Shape:
bacilliform Transmission:
By mealybugs in a semi-persistent manner
Through seed Banana Bract Mosaic Symptoms:
Green or red streaks on leaf petioles
Dark red/brown mosaic pattern
Leaf sheaths on pseudostem covered by dead outerleaves
Chlorotic streaks on bunch stems Banana Bract Mosaic Caused by:
Banana bract mosaic virus (BBMSV)
Family: Potyviridae
Genus: Potyvirus
Known as Kokkan virus in India
Shape:
Filamentous/ flexous rods
Genome:
(+) ssRNA Transmission:
Aphid transmitted in a nonpersistent manner
Pentalonia nigronervus
Aphis gossypi
Rhopalosiphum  maidis Banana Mild Mosaic Symptoms:
fine silvery continuous or discontinuous streak, which are more pronounced at the leaf, tips  Banana Mild Mosaic Caused by:
Banana mild mosaic virus (BanMMV)
Family: Flexiviridae
Genus: unassigned
Shape:
Flexous rods
Genome:
Linear (+) ssRNA, 7352 nucleotides Transmission:
Via aphids in a nonpersistent manner
Was first to be brought to the Philippines by contamination of planting materials VIRUS DISEASES IN ABACA Abaca Bunchy Top Caused by
Abaca bunchy top virus (ABTV)
Family: Nanoviridae
Genus: Babuvirus
Genome:
Circular ssDNA, multipartite
Shape:
spherical Transmission:
Via aphids in a nonpersistent manner Symptoms:
Leaves don’t expand normally and remain bunched at the pseudostems
Stiff and erect leaves; shorter and narrower than normal VIRUS DISEASES IN CITRUS Citrus Tristeza Caused by:
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)
Family: unassigned
Genus: Closterovirus
Size:
2008 nm long
Shape:
Genome:
(+) ssRNA,
Flexous rod Transmission:
Via aphids Aphis centriculum
Persistent transmission Symptoms:
decline (quick and slow)
stem-pitting
seedling yellows Citrus Tristeza THANK YOU! :) THAT'S ALL.
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