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LS F.4 1st term

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Bernice Cheong

on 7 May 2014

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Transcript of LS F.4 1st term

Charactierised by combustion of fossil fuel --> coal
--> oil Major economic restructuring drastic decline in industrial energy consumption steady growth of residential end use spatial conditioning (heating/ cooling) use of other electrical appliances increase in commercial energy consumption (65%) + growth in subsectors:
energy consumption by cars and motor cycles people become affluent
i.e. improvement in living standard afford to buy more cars development in sub-urban areas overall growth in end use energy demand energy fuel mix i.e. substantial increase in per capita domestic energy consumption decrease in coal consumption (54%)
after 1993 23% nuclear (Daya Bay) 23% natural gas
since 1996 i.e. shift energy supply Mandatory energy standards setting:
to encourage generation and use of additional renewable sources for electricity generation and install energy efficient technology Law and legislation Mandatory labelling:
electrical appliances (e.g. refrigerators, air-con, washing machine) vehicles and other products become more efficient in energy consumption Building Energy Efficiency Ordinance:
lighting, air-con, escalator, lift, heat insulator etc. R&D (the Electrical & Mechanical Services Department Investigation into use of renewables in HK Study of district cooling system:
reduce energy consumption for cooling by 40% Waste-to-energy study:
generating energy by burning waste and
reducing methane emissions from landfills Collaboration & cooperation explore possibility of importing clean energy from Mainland China Solutions? Management & planning Energy management by Gov.:
energy consumption reporting system, energy saving plan, heat metering Energy auditing system setting:
inspection/ survey/analysis of energy flows for energy conservation in a building or a process
reduce energy input without negatively affecting output building efficiency: develop technologies to improve energy efficiency in buildings:
more efficient energy management systems
reduce energy requirements (e.g. improve overall thermal transmission value of buildings)
e.g. by automatic blinds (block sunlight --> less air-con/energy needed/ f.f. burned/ GHG emitted)
e.g. install wind turbines--> generate electricity by wind power process efficiency:
includes technologies used in industril processes to reduce energy consumption Economic incentive/disincentive i.e. investments, subsidies, financial aid, tax credit gov. financially support use of LPG (liquefies petroleum gas) in taxis and possibly minibuses:
further reduce particulate emissions loans and financial aid to encourage researchers on use of renewables Fiscal incentives:
tax credits & tax reduction on energy saving equipments Education Action Blue Sky Campaign Advertisement Motor Vehicle Idling Scheme:
drivers turn off engine when idling (avoid fine)
emit less GHG Waste of energy Lack of civic mind and environmental concern
Allocate top priority to personal enjoyment
(X cost they need to pay, X environment) reliance on different types of electrical appliances --> digitalised lifestyle high consumption in 3rd sector Renewable energy Push factors: problems of current energy use pattern Depletion of fossil fuel and nuclear energy:
Rate of energy consumption > regeneration of f.f. increased population (transport etc.) + growing economy
=increased energy demand v.s. adequate energy supply by r.e. Heavy pollution by f.f.
vs. 'clean' energy Pull factors:
r.e. +ve Obstacles of
developing r.e. argument
against obstacles Stake holders
(concern?) solved by advance technology
also noise: can be built away from residential area as tourist attraction --> econ development worth it for long term
pay less once built Government:
enlist public support
balance different parties' interests
(site selection)
(ensure enough stable energy supply) NGOs (environmental groups)
suggest applying r.e. (f.f. damage env.) by:
education and publicity
pressurise gov. Commercial/ business sector
reduce energy use to reduce cost (=maximise profit)
e.g. use of heat-insulated glass ceilings
PRACTISE CSR Community/ public
air pollution
(health problem+ waste $ for medication)
impact of r.e.
(construction noise+ scenery damage)
supply stability Power companies
i.e. HK Electric Company & CLP
cost vs. pricing charged to consumers i.e. for public, not only schools <-- students are of small portion of the whole society Energy Consumption In Hong Kong Energy Consumption In China High demand of energy economic growth Local level
International level (Foreign policy) Open Door Policy
lenient requirement/ lax enforcement of env. regulations and laws
attract foreign investment-> set up factories -> earn foreign exchange -> develop inland provinces i.e. positive relation between GDP & total energy use energy intensive economy
/f.f. driven economy joined WTO (World Trade Organisation) in 2001
increased trade/ more factories/ increased total energy (coal) consumption
further encourage foreign investment into China
(tariff removed) World Factory
Logistic industry, container terminals surpassed USA, becoming global leader in total energy consumption
v.s. energy use per capita below world average rise of middle class--> purchase electrical products Growth in Coal Consumption Accidents in coal mine
due to over-production
(to push GDP by supporting energy intensive industry) SOC
sacrifice lives Air pollution By products of fossil fuel combustion Construction activities, cement production
coal-powered cargo ship
(negligible) other industrial processes ENV + SOC
atmospheric pollutants production health impact
(SOCIAL COST) ECONomic development hindrance Global warming Human activities:
burning fossil fuels
(low efficiency --> over-consumption of energy)
deforestation Most developed/ industrialised countries
Developing countries with rapid development
i.e. increased use of fossil fuels acid rain low visibility
(econ. lost) Over-depletion --> Impede Economic
Development --> Degrade Living Stnadard increased GHG NOx, SO2 ENV:
acidic lakes and rivers
threaten lives of marine organisms and low-level species -> food chain
acidity of soil -> affect plants, crops growth [ECON] [SOC] ECON:
less income from farming
increased acidity of cropland [ENV] [SOC]
less income from tourism
corrosion of historical heritage [SOC] SOCIAL
lower living standard
lack of food [ENV] [ECON]
food safety, health threatened
corrosion of buildings [ECON]
lower social stability
farmers have less income [ECON] ECON
spatial mismatch energy production @ west/ central area
vs. energy consumption areas @ coastal area (SEZs)
with heavy industry & large population coal: bulk and heavy
lower railway capacity (logistic problem)
lower energy efficiency, higher cost 70% coal, 20% oil, gas 3%, others 7%
45.6% world coal consumption SO2+ water droplets smog Air pollution By products of fossil fuel combustion Construction activities, cement production
coal-powered cargo ship
(negligible) other industrial processes ENV + SOC
atmospheric pollutants production health impact
(SOCIAL COST) ECONomic development hindrance Global warming Human activities:
burning fossil fuels
(low efficiency --> over-consumption of energy)
deforestation Most developed/ industrialised countries
Developing countries with rapid development
i.e. increased use of fossil fuels acid rain low visibility
(econ. lost) Over-depletion --> Impede Economic
Development --> Degrade Living Stnadard increased GHG NOx, SO2 ENV:
acidic lakes and rivers
threaten lives of marine organisms and low-level species -> food chain
acidity of soil -> affect plants, crops growth [ECON] [SOC] ECON:
less income from farming
increased acidity of cropland [ENV] [SOC]
less income from tourism
corrosion of historical heritage [SOC] SOCIAL
lower living standard
lack of food [ENV] [ECON]
food safety, health threatened
corrosion of buildings [ECON]
lower social stability
farmers have less income [ECON] SO2+ water droplets smog Solutions? Education and publicity e.g. energy-saving campaign
e.g. common understanding on need of cleaner energy
Beijing International R.E. Conference: future target of 15% r.e. Go West Policy introduced by Jiang Zemin (general Secretary of C.P.) encourage industries and ppl move westwards
develop 12 provinces in central and western China reduce production cost (esp. power oriented industries)
transporting fuel + cheaper land rent and labour cost
encourage economic development
improve QoL of ppl in rural China (job opportunities)
maintain political stability environmental damage
over-exploit resources
little market potential in the West
(lack of purchasing power of ppl) Rezoning relocate factories to outskirts of town (i.e. separate residents with industries)
improve air quality in city
e.g. Chongqing Iuohuang Industrial Zone Research and Development i.e. development new technology
e.g. Tianjin GreeGen- clean coal technology
coal is turned to gas, pollutants are removed before burning (desulfurization) Advantage:
cut acid rain-causing SO2 emmissions by >90%
cut smog-forming NOx by 75% Legislation China 2005 Renewable Energy Law
provide a feed-in tariff for some technologies
impose obligation on (regional or even national) power companies to buy r.e. sources to offset pollution produced
sharing of good practices
creates new financing mechanisms
support rural uses of r.e. Wind power
2nd largest wind power producer after US
Solar power
0.01% of national power generation capacity
planned for raid expansion
energy capacity= HEP x2/ wind power x3.5
Tidal power
China has built most tidal power stations (global)
energy capacity= HEP x2/ wind power x3.5
R&D on practical use of ocean- energy ENV: Pollution-free Wind power
Solar power
Tidal power
CO2 produced absorbed by new plants grown
methane produced can generate electricity SUSTAINABILITY:
Inexhaustible Wind power
Solar power
Tidal power
plants can be grown
reduce waste ECON: Low construction cost Wind power
cheap wind farm
fast and easy construction
Tidal power
cheap offshore turbine
*Solar power
quick and convenient construction
(small solar cell with diff. combination)
BUT high construction cost (large no. of solar panels+ advance storage technology for higher energy efficiency) ECON: Low operation cost/
low electricity generation Wind power
Solar power
Tidal power (needs no fuel) SOC: Unstable/ fluctuating supply Wind power
wind affected by temperature
Solar power
X continuous supply (limited daytime) (affected by weather) -> storage system
Tidal power
provide power for 10 hrs/day
BUT predictable tides -> switch station when no tides TECHNICAL: Location limitation Wind power
large piece of land needed
broad region with high wind speed
BUT can be placed above sea
BUT land beneath turbine: farming, raising livestock
Solar power
require large space for collecting heat and light
due to climatic limitation
Tidal power
few suitable sites for tidal barrage
Deliver difficulty: large volume of fuel SOC: supply to remote areas Wind power
high mt. areas, outlying islands
Solar power
flexible use:feasible large/small scale production *Biomass: easy storage v.s. vs. ENV impact Wind power
affect bird
(in migration route of migrating birds)
(windmill at coastal areas block wind to inland -> species inland face extinction)
Tidal power
damage coastline
drastic change of current in estuary -> affect ecosystem
deforestation for land for biomass energy
soil fertility reduced -> soil erosion HARD TO ENLIST PUBLIC SUPPORT v.s. v.s. SOC: Low energy efficiency Solar power
low (<40%)
low (10-30%)
due to high water content of fuel
* Wind power
high (50%) + SOC: other impacts Wind power
noise:turbine operation
affect world food supply stability (reduce farmland, irrigation) -> poor countries X afford food price rise -> famine R.E. development of China Statistics R.E. industries are growing rapidly meet energy demand
lower carbon emission -> more env. friendly
! X decrease amt. of GHG (increasing energy demand)
BUT slower rate of GHG increase
less spatial mismatch (and logistical) problem
(uranium located @ SE China)
less bounded by energy demand in diplomacy & less subjected to geopolitics of energy supplying countries (esp. Middle East)
create more job opportunities { still 4% less than US by 2020,
with coal still representing 2/3,
the rest being nuclear and HEP rising population better living standard Hydroelectric power:
The Three Gorges Dam ECON +ve 1. (vs.1) Power Generation
low operation cost + stable supply+ high energy efficiency (reach full power in short time)
->sustain energy intensive econ. growth
->supply for place with insufficient energy -> econ. dev.
2. Navigation benefit (i.e. a v. long waterway)
->better transportation system -> lower transportation cost & #4
-> increase trading
3. Flood control @ middle/ lower sections
->less medical expenses, $ for rebuilding saved -> econ. loss avoided
->less farmland flooded -> X affect crop yield -> stable econ. dev.
4. (vs. 3) Tourism growth
as tourist attraction
more tourist spot reachable
5. (vs. 4) Job opportunities
stimulate econ. growth
6. Less social cost
less air pollution -> lower medical expenses ECON -ve 1. (vs.1) Huge construction cost
2. Cost for post-construction project
env. protection, support relocated residents, geological hazard control etc.
3. (vs. 4) Decline in tourism
tourist attraction and scenic spots flooded
4. (vs. 5) slow down econ. dev.
farmers lose job -> can't contribute to econ. growth when in SOE (with no relevant working skills) ENV +ve 1. Provide r.e.
replace coal
-> (cleaner energy) reduce carbon emission i.e. less pollution
2. (vs. 4) Increase biodiversity
Gov. initiates/ more aware of species protection ENV -ve (i.e. Geological disasters) 1. landslides
deforestation + fluctuation of water level = soil erosion
riverbank slides down slope= landslides
->silting (sediment and alluvium deposited) -> flooding
-> affect normal operation of hydro power station/ lower electricity generation
2. flooding
silting (sediment trapped) + insufficient spillway
-> block sluice gates (essential to water level control) -> increase flooding chance in upstream area
-> loss of natural scenery and landscapes and habitats (#4)
-> worsen water quality (factories, mines, dumps, potential toxic waste sites flooded)
3. water pollution
pollutants can't escape = slower water flow + block rubbish and pollutants from entering the sea
increased amt. of pollutants (landslides) (e.g. increased concentration of nitrates, phosphates, algal bloom)
-> damage ecosystem, loss of biodiversity
-> endanger quality of drinking water -> infectious disease
4. damage ecosystem
flooding -> loss of habitats
fish cannot travel upstream to reproduce -> lower population+ (vs. #2 ENV +ve) failed past attempts of species relocation
disturb aeration (water flow)
-> loss of precious species (rare, near-extinction, of great scientific study value) SOC +ve 1. (vs. 4)Health
slower rate of coal increase -> less pollution
2. (vs. 3) Flood control
-> save lives and land + feels secure
3. (vs.2) Job opportunities
-> more income -> higher living standard
-> East and West brought together (less income difference)
-> lower W. ppl discontent to gov.
4. Sense of identity
China is strong with completion of this mighty project SOC -ve (1+2) Displacement of villagers and farmers
1. No money to rebuild house
-> live in tents, facing rat problems
2. (vs. 3) unemployed
a. no relevant working skills for jobs in city
b. less arable land at high altitude -> crop production drop
-> worse living standard
-> higher discontent with gov.
3. (vs.2) Safety problem/ lives threatened
dam construction cause landslides, flooding, more severe consequence of earthquake
4. (vs. 1) Water quality and quantity affected
-> water pollution -> quality of drinking water-> infectious disease
-> reduce fertility downstream -> less income in farming -> lower living standard +ve #2 +ve #3 -ve #2 +ve #3 +ve #1 +ve #1 +ve #3 -ve #3 +ve #3 +ve #1 -ve #1 -ve #2 +ve #5 +ve #4 +ve #5 +ve #4 +ve #3 -ve #2 -ve #3 -ve #2 -ve #2 +ve #2 -ve #3 -ve #4 CUL +ve 1. More cultural relics are discovered
2. increase funds for cultural conservation
3. revitalisation and relocation of local culture
4. increase public awareness on cultural conservation CUL -ve Loss of culture
1. intangible: living style
2. tangible: 80% landmark flooded
3. (vs. 3) relocation-> loss of original location meaning
details are not well-preserved -ve #2 -ve #2 Nuclear Power HEP case study Highlighted
Problems Low efficiency a lot of energy input/ consumption (20% global) for GDP generation (8.5% global) High pollution of current energy use in China 70 % coal High energy demand expected how to sustain future econ. growth? Insufficient energy source reliance on external energy source
expensive, costly
fluctuates with political situation -> affect diplomatic decisions Spatial mismatch Primary
abundant in earth crust
radioactivity -> easy detection
decommissioning of nuclear warheads by US, RUS
further disarmament agreement 2010 Supply: conversion: uranium converted to gas uranium
fuel fabrication: gas uranium converted to uranium oxide powder and pressed in to small pellets Processing Reactor uranium fuel assemblies (uranium pellets inserted into long, vertical tubes/ fuel rods, which are carefully bound together into fuel assemblies)
control rods(to stop chain reaction)
pressure vessel Chain Reaction
Fission Radio active uranium atom split
-> release energy in form of heat
-> release >2 neutrons from nuclei
neutrons hit other uranium atoms Steam generator heat from fission transferred to high pressure steam
-> turn turbine in electricity generator Low-level Waste slightly radioactive
return to normal level with 300 yrs
coolant (water) and components/ equipment which come in contact with coolant
(filters, cleanup rags, lab supplies, discarded protective clothing) High-level waste used/ spent nuclear fuel (uranium pellets in metal fuel rods)
i.e. fragments of fission
cleared out every 18 months (lower efficiency of fission) Waste treatment in special ponds:
lower radioactivity and temperature
(water as barrier + disperse heat)
OR dry stored in engineered facilities, cooled by air
longer the storage, easier to handle (decay of radioactivity) temporary storage Waste treatment dry powder produced by heating liquid h.l. waste strongly, incorporated into borosilicate glass
-> immobolise waste
glass poured to stainless steel canisters vitrification reprocessing 96% of spent fuel can be reused for fuel fabrication final storage Waste treatment metal canisters buried deep underground in solid rock formation
prevention of leakage into underground water
repository site needs proof that public health and safety can be protected License needed To build a nuclear power plant cleanout -> shutdown -> decommissioning
used fuel in reactor removed, stored
facilities decontaminated, dismantled Decommission (points below lower sustainability)
SOC- of future generations as well
health /death -> social cost [ECON]
food source (land, crops, animals)
contaminate underground water/ soil [ENV]
poorer living standard due to less income (companies, factories closed down+ loss of tourism, exporting) [ECON]
psychological damage: victims worry about their future
ENV- regional disaster (radioactive fallout blown away by wind) + long-term damage (long half-life)
animals, plants: chromosomal damage
contaminate soil hence crops /water [SOC]
ecosystem! food chain! extinction!
less income due to loss of farm production
less income form tourism (afraid of radiation)
social cost (medical expenses on cancer etc) [SOC]
less income from exporting (food and goods contaminated by radiation) Safety problem/ Risk Political used for weapons instead
BUT UNODA (United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs) human factor (operator's error)
e.g. operator steal used machinery, repackaged as new for sale -> polluted with radiation + overestimate machinery life
e.g. delay of reporting accidents -> X take prompt actions
e.g. wrong decisions (accidentally turn off pumping system of backup water)
! maybe due to rate of expanding> training of new operators (X ensure worker quality)
education of operators
e.g. extensive training -> provide continuous professional dev.
e.g. introduced to safety inspections & devising emergency guidelines
e.g. [HK Daya Bay] reassessed regularly even after acquiring qualifications -> competent operators up to internaitonal standard
(aa.) increased requirement of human performance: more stringent licensing procedures (=increased staff requirement) + revamping operator training, emergency training for plant operators, wider info sharing on emergency management systems
system malfunction BUT [China] fail-safe design
e.g. water supply for cooling is cut off -> overheat -> explode
e.g. control rod X drop ->fail to stop fission process
! if increase capacity of Daya Bay-> questionable safety since built with 1970s tech lv
design flaw
e.g. water for boiling and cooling is the same -> risk in radiation leakage
(aa.)upgraded and strengthened plant design and equipment requirements (fire protection, containment building isolation, reliability of individual components, automatic shut down ability of plants)
maltreatment/ leakage of waste
e.g. multi-layer container X strong enough to prevent leakage
1 multiple barriers disposal concept
prevent radioactive wastes leakage-> no significant env releases in long period after disposal
insoluble matrix (immobilise waste) -> sealed in corrosion-resistant container -> container surrounded with bentonite clay (inhibit any underground water movement) -> located deep underground in stable rock structure
2 (@) modest volume of wastes -> effectively, economically isolated
lack of safety standard/ loose safety standard
international standards (INES= international nuclear event scale) set by IAEA (=international atomic energy agency) + regular safety inspections by local gov., central authority, reputable and experienced international organisation
natural disaster (e.g. earthquake/ tsunami)
protection of workers:
ventilation systems (low (not exceeding established safety lv) exposure to radon gas and its radioactive daughter products) + effective dust control + radiation detective equipment with personal dose badges
locate new plants outside of densely populated areas
technological advancement (fusion power) -> less radioactive residuals in reaction chamber > fission reactor, insignificant amt of effluents produced (helium) -> smaller possibility of radioactive release in electricity generation process ENV: GREEN energy source,
less GHG in steam generator -> sustain
CO2: 7-10 bill. tonnes vs. 2.4 tonnes
because X burning fuel to heat water
hence less greenhouse effect/ global warming/ air pollution (lower SOC and ECON cost caused as well)
produce GHG in plant construction, operation, uranium mining, plant decommissioning- still in smaller rate than f.f. though!
ECON sustain living standard/ econ growth [A+B]
A- Less fuel consumption
higher energy efficiency (3 million tonnes vs. 27 tonnes per year) (nuclear 500 000 MJ/kg vs. <50 MJ/kg)
96% recycled = more SUSTAINABLE
less fuel need to be extracted from nature
less reliance on f.f. -> slower depletion
Waste (@): smaller in volume -> easier treatment, occupy less space
*X less waste because can't compare diff. types Vs. f.f. consequence: (in HK/ CHINA's context)
worsen consequence:
X immediate reporting/ try to hide accident -> unsuspecting public
[HK] gov. X direct supervision over plant
[HK] contingency plan for accidents!
[China] corruption of officials, commercialised, pro-fit making nuclear power -> threaten safety
[China] fail-safe design!
if happened...
[HK] densely populated -> hard to evacuate ppl
[HK] tourism- important pillar of ECON! Cost ALL costs (including those in green) > R.E.
High (> f.f.) capital cost =high construction+ modification cost
Safety requirements/ standards + purchase of safety related equipments
Redundancy of safety systems
design flaws -> fixing them causes masssive cost overruns + construction delay and deter energy production process
Licensing cost =needed for building and operation of plants
may cost operation delay (time waiting for license> f.f.)
fail to get operation license -> extra cost for building useless plants
Operation and maintenance costs (>f.f.) (labour, material, property tax)
Waste-disposal costs (>f.f.)
Decommissioning cost (>f.f.)
TO CHINA: increased production cost may lower comparative advantage in international market
Lower fuel cost > f.f. (see supply)
Lower transportation cost > f.f. ( bulk of coal)
(less time and cost required -> faster to satisfy pressing energy demand
Standardised designs of plants) ECON sustain living standard/ econ growth [A+B]
B- Supply (UBIQUITOUS for China)
solve problem
[independent= X rely on foreign energy supply /stable supply= X fluctuating price]
vs. RE: X affected by weather/climate
Still non-renewable -> X sustainable
will be depleted one day+ increasing consumption= future generations cannot enjoy
Easy to be detected/ searched due to its radioactivity
Decrease in uranium discoveries, esp. high graded ores
Stable power supply (v.s. RE.)
Cheaper electricity produced-> encourage ECON growth
BUT construction cost Supply Overview:
limited to small no. of countries (16% of UN)
half located in EU
Specific examples:
France - leader (esp. in Europe- 49% of EU), 74.1%
Italy- once banned, PM. now talks openly, 25%
Denmark- buy from Sweden, 0% (2010)
Sweden- 38.1% (2010), gov. (Parliament vote to) close down, 1/3 public support
Germany- phase out 17 nuclear reactors by 2022
US- sign energy bill to provide subsidies and incentives for nuclear reactors, safety review for reactors
UK- plan for nuclear comeback, 19 plants connected to grid
JP- (2010 target) to build 14 plants by 2030, (now) abandon plan, 'start from scratch' to create new energy policy China intend to increase n.p. output at least fourfold by 2020
at least 4% of country's energy in 15 years
temporarily suspended approval process after Fukushima (fully grasp importance and urgency of nuclear safety =top priority) -> restart half year later
self-reliant design and project management CLP- 25% share
Daya Bay: 14 bill kWh per year, 70% supplied to HK (= 3% of HK energy supply)
Gov plan by 2020, 50% mainland nuclear + 40% local gas + 3% RE Past examples:
1979 US Three Miles Island Accident
1986 Ukraine Chernobyl Incident
2011 Mar 11 JP Fukushima Accident

aa.: some countries hold back (aggressive) dev.
restart afterwards -> 15% by 2020
-> reduce reliance on f.f.
-> more diversed energy fuel mix half of rail system for coal transportation NUCLEAR!!!!!!!!!!!!!! HK The world Biomass Basic info = Organic material made from plants and animals/ micro organisms
contain stored energy from sun (plant absorb sun's energy by photosynthesis-> chem energy passed from plant to animals)
e.g. food (corn straw, sugar cane), wood, crops, manure, garbage, rice hull, bagasse, cotton stalk, coconut shell
Biomass converted to:
methane gas/ landfill gas/ bio gas -> main ingredient of natural gas
ethanol (fermented from crops like corn and sugar cane)-> transportation fuel
bio-diesel (produced from left-over food products like vegetable oils and animal fats) -> transportation fuel Bio-fuel production (2008): US, Brazil, France, Germany, China
bio-ethanol production (2005): Brazil, US, EU, China, India
bio-diesel production (2005): Germany, France, Italy, rest of Europe, US Bio-fuel in Brazil
leader of biofuel industry, help African countries to develop such skills
most advanced biofuel markets
mass biofuel production from sugar cane (half!) for motor vehicles
(2006) 300 sugar-ethanol mills
(2011) 21.1 bill litre bioethanol produced- >1/3 of world's supply (2nd to US), the only large-scale biofuel programme without gov. subsidies
US $100 bill saved from oil import+ reduced CO2 emission by 10% from 1975 lv + export ethanol to US, India, Venezuela, Nigeria, China, S. Korea, Europe HK:
X forestry industries/ sizeable agricultural industries
mountainous terrain, limited flat land = X suitable for energy crop plantation development/ limited biomass resources except municipal organic waste The world, HK and Brazil Renewable grow new crops make good use of rubbish relatively little GHG produced
i.e. less harmful to env methane: GHG associated with c.c., stronger than CO2 solve problems of excessive garbage
recycle-> (new life given) burn solid waste-> less buried in landfills (esp. HK: saturated landfills) solve problem brought by landfills/ incinerators completion of carbon cycle increase carbon emissions lv deforestation (for land) soil erosion (for continuous growing) impact on water resources releases harmful chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers/ burning garbage) need to dispose ash after combustion/ burning sustainability X feasible Benefits:
Support energy intensive econ (alternative fuel other than f.f.)
Save fuel bills for drivers who collect/ make their own biofuel (while the car still runs!)
Energy dependent
efficiency: energy balance in converting biomass as energy source
market and price: to high price?
too heavy reliance on gov. subsidies -> if econ. recession, lack of funding human right issue: extracting crops-> tough work= exploitation of labour FOOD CRISIS!! FOOD CRISIS!! food demand > supply
W. farmers growing food for energy (since gov. provide subsidies+ protective tariff policies+ support and protection to farmers)*
land and water resources
Other reasons:
demand: increase population/ rising living standards
supply: natural disasters (droughts)
gov. control export of food-> increase price in international market

(study estimate:) forced global food prices up by 75%/ vs. (US:) biofuels account for only 2-3% of food price increase
+40% food price -> developing countries may not afford price -> protest

reference: FAO (=food and agricultural organisation) director/ Oxfam's spokesperson/ UN food adviser

*Oxfam urges developed countries to scrap biofuel targets (EU: 10% of transport fuel from biofuel by 2020) Cartoon Interpretation! common values/ positions human-oriented (e.g. FOOD CRISIS!!)
human rights and well-beings as imperative
humanitarian concern
money/ profit-oriented (e.g. power company)
overrides other values (health protection, env conservation, upholding fairness)
technology- oriented (e.g. finding new tech sources)
string faith in science (and tech: help solve all problems)
human can overcome natural limits
health-consciousness (?)
equity (based on some principles!, e.g. CBDR) (vs. Equality) pragmatic/ utilitarian
take side that produce least troubles/ most cost-effective in handling problems -no set stance or values
allow utility to override other values (justice)
altruistic (e.g. household waste charges)
common good> one's own interest -> willing to sacrifice
excessive/exaggerated self-importance sense
motivated/ do what's in one's self-interest
inclusiveness/ pluralistic
open to diff. ppl and cultures, receptive to diversity, tolerance and acceptance/ sympathetic, compassion, empathy, sensitivity/ embracing
Fairness, social justice, righteousness
Integrity common values/ positions HK: bacteria converting food waste to methane -> 2% electricity consumed per year food waste= 40% of solid waste! Biodiesel- 72% less carbon emission for bus benefit farmers by increasing market potential
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