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Mining Assignment

Science assignment

Emma Mercieca

on 19 July 2013

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Transcript of Mining Assignment

Australian Mining

What is Mining?
In its most basic explanation, mining is the process of extracting things like coal, precious stones and minerals from the ground in varies ways.
Why do we Mine?
We mine because we use the natural deposits of fuels, precious stones and minerals.
We use things like coal to power machines and factory's, we also sell it to other country's . Precious stones like diamonds are used for jewelery, decorations and in the case of a diamond, can be used to cut other jewels. Minerals include things like potassium and gold. We use minerals for multiple things, metals are used for decorations, building and even jewelery.
We also mine because it earns an income, people get paid to mine and the extracted products can be sold for more money; it can also affect the economy.

Major Commodities Mined in Australia:
A commodity is a physical substance, such as food, grains, and metals, which is interchangeable with another product of the same type, and which investors buy or sell, usually through futures contracts. The price of the commodity is subject to supply and demand. Iron is a major ore mined in Australia. It is mainly mined in Western Australia as there are many iron rich sedimentary rocks, also called banned iron formations. These rocks are more then 600 million years old! 93% of all iron mined in Australia comes from Western Australia, with 80% of it coming from the Hamersley Province, which is one of the major iron-ore-providing provinces.
Almost all iron mines are open cut mines.
Another major commodity which is mined in Australia is coal. Australia is one of the largest exporters of coal, using only 25-40% of what is mined.
One other major commodity that is mined is gold. Every year, Australia mines nearly 10% of the total gold mined around the world. Gold has be mined since its first finding in 1881. Australia exports about 360 tonne of gold in ores and concentrates and as refined metal. These exports include shipments of gold of non-Australian origin which has been refined in Australia. The major market for Australia’s gold exports is India with significant amounts also exported to the United Kingdom.
What is open cut mining?
Open cut mining is very different to underground mining.
Open cut mining occurs when minerals, ores or precious stones are found close to the surface and are spread out within a large area. The first step is to clear the top layer of dirt and vegetation -that will be used later to help establish the area back to its natural state once mining is completed. Next they get rid of the rock that has no ore in it-called dead rock- and slowly make a pit to reach the layers of minerals, ores or precious stones. They leave a sloped road-like path on the side for machines to carry the unprocessed mineral out of the pit. Soon after, explosives are used to break up the mineral filled rocks so they can be transported on large haul trucks to the processing plant. At the processing plant, the ore is extracted from the rock and the leftover derbies- known as tailings- is put into a tailings dam and is covered with clay, soil and vegetation. Once all mining is completed, the pit can be restored to its state before mining, or used to store water.

Ores that are Commonly Mined in Open Cut Mining and Under Ground Mining:
Open cut mining:
What is Mining | All About Mining . 2013. What is Mining | All About Mining . [ONLINE] Available at: http://wlow.net/2011/04/19/what-is-mining/. [Accessed 01 July 2013].

List of the different minerals (approved by IMA) published on the Fabre Minerals Web site. 2013. List of the different minerals (approved by IMA) published on the Fabre Minerals Web site. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.fabreminerals.com/specimens/navigate_by_IMA.php?LANG=EN. [Accessed 01 July 2013].

Iron Ore - Mineral Fact Sheets - Australian Mines Atlas. 2013. Iron Ore - Mineral Fact Sheets - Australian Mines Atlas. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.australianminesatlas.gov.au/education/fact_sheets/iron.html. [Accessed 01 July 2013].

Open Cut and Underground Mining | iMINCO. 2013. Open Cut and Underground Mining | iMINCO. [ONLINE] Available at: http://iminco.net/open-cut-and-underground-mining/. [Accessed 01 July 2013].

Central Mining Drill- Free Natural Selection 2 Wallpaper Gallery - Best Game Wallpapers. 2013. Central Mining Drill- Free Natural Selection 2 Wallpaper Gallery - Best Game Wallpapers. [ONLINE] Available at: http://games.brothersoft.com/wallpapers/natural-selection-2/central-mining-drill-4770.html. [Accessed 02 July 2013]

Underground Mining. 2013. Underground Mining. [ONLINE] Available at: http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00461/under.htm. [Accessed 02 July 2013].

Drift Mining. 2013. Drift Mining. [ONLINE] Available at: http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00461/drift.htm. [Accessed 02 July 2013]

A Deeper Look At Australia’s Commodity Industry | Commodity HQ. 2013. A Deeper Look At Australia’s Commodity Industry | Commodity HQ. [ONLINE] Available at: http://commodityhq.com/2012/a-deeper-look-at-australias-commodity-industry/. [Accessed 02 July 2013]

Gold - Geoscience Australia. 2013. Gold - Geoscience Australia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ga.gov.au/minerals/mineral-resources/gold.html. [Accessed 03 July 2013].

Shaft Mining. 2013. Shaft Mining. [ONLINE] Available at: http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00461/shaft.htm. [Accessed 11 July 2013].

Australia Mines Atlas. 2013. Australia Mines Atlas. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.australianminesatlas.gov.au/?site=atlas. [Accessed 11 July 2013].
Which Australian State has the Biggest Mining Industry and Which State has the Most Mines?
The state with the largest mining industry is Western Australia. It also has the largest amount of mines, with over 130 mines!
Mines in Australia:
Diamonds In Australia
What is a Diamond and Where can it be found in Australia?
Argyle Diamond Mine.
Where Else Can Diamonds Be Found?
How Are Diamonds Mined?
Which Country is the Major Buyer of Australian Diamonds?
How much Diamond is Left?
Diamonds can cost a lot, but the cost you pay all depends on the type of diamond and how big and pure it is. This means that you can't really put a price on a diamond as so many things affect the price. But, the typical price for a diamond to put in an engagement ring can range from anywhere between a mere $125 to a huge $60,000 +.
But roughly, a one karat diamond is about $20,000 -- $30,000.
How Much Is A Diamond Worth?
What Are Diamonds Used For?
Diamonds - Geoscience Australia. 2013. Diamonds - Geoscience Australia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ga.gov.au/minerals/mineral-resources/diamonds.html. [Accessed 05 July 2013].

Diamonds - Geoscience Australia. 2013. Diamonds - Geoscience Australia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ga.gov.au/minerals/mineral-resources/diamonds.html. [Accessed 05 July 2013]

How are Diamonds Mined. 2013. How are Diamonds Mined. [ONLINE] Available at: http://wanttoknowit.com/how-are-diamonds-mined/. [Accessed 05 July 2013]

How are Diamonds Mined. 2013. How are Diamonds Mined. [ONLINE] Available at: http://wanttoknowit.com/how-are-diamonds-mined/. [Accessed 05 July 2013].

Diamond Price Guide. 2013. Diamond Price Guide. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.adiamondbuyingguide.com/diamondpriceguide.html. [Accessed 05 July 2013]

Top Diamond Producing Countries. 2013. Top Diamond Producing Countries. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.cheap-diamond.com/Countries/. [Accessed 05 July 2013]

Diamond | Gem and Industrial Uses | Mineral Properties. 2013. Diamond | Gem and Industrial Uses | Mineral Properties. [ONLINE] Available at: http://geology.com/minerals/diamond.shtml. [Accessed 10 July 2013].

Rio Tinto. 2013. Argyle Diamond Mine: World class diamonds. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.argylediamonds.com.au/index_whoweare.html. [Accessed 11 July 2013]

Kimbeley Diamonds LTD. 2000. Ellendale Diamond Project- Operations. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.kdc.com.au/ellendale-diamond-operations/ . [Accessed 11 July 2013]

Made by Emma Mercieca
What is Under Ground mining?
Underground mining is used when minerals, ores or precious stones are too far down for open cut mining. Underground mining basically means the mining is preformed under the surface of the earth. There are several different ways underground mining is preformed. Here's a few:
Borehole Mining:
A hole is drilled downwards enough to reach materials, a tube is dropped into the hole, water is blasted out of tube, then after water combines with broken up dirt and rock-called slurry- it is sucked up the tube to be processed.
Drift Mining:
(used when ores are on the side of a mountain ) A tunnel is dug out horizontally , sometimes on a downwards slope to help get the ore out using gravity. Material is normally mined and taken out using longwall mining or room and pillar mining methods and nonstop mining equipment.
Shaft Mining:
Shaft mining is the deepest form of underground mining. The shaft mine has a vertical manshaft, a tunnel where the men travel up and down in an elevator. Equipment is taken into the mine using this shaft, too. Short tunnels to the ore are dug from that manshaft. When the ore is dynamited and broken into chunks, it is taken to the top and loaded into trucks through a second shaft. There is usually an airshaft that gives the mine ventilation.
A diamond is a type of gem stone. The word Diamond comes from the Greek word Adamas, which means indestructible. It is the only gem that is made of a single element-Carbon. Diamonds are completely made of Carbon atoms (Chemical Composition - C) crystallized in a cubic (isometric) arrangement, it is one of the most popular gemstones used. Diamonds can be found all over Australia, but 90% of it is mined in areas that are in Western Australia. There are only 3 diamond mines in Australia, with the biggest producing mine being the Argyle Mine.
Diamond - Rock Files - Australian Mines Atlas. 2013. Diamond - Rock Files - Australian Mines Atlas. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.australianminesatlas.gov.au/education/rock_files/diamond.html. [Accessed 05 July 2013]
There are two ways that diamonds are mined from underground, these are: pipe mining and alluvial mining. Pipe mining is where diamonds are extracted from the earth via volcanic pipes. These pipes are geologically formed by the flow of magma from the earth’s core to the earth’s crust. When a pipe is discovered shanks are driven into the ground around the outside edge. Most diamond pipe mines consist of Kimberlite. This Kimberlite is dug up from the ground. Once the top layer has been mined and the deposits exhausted, tunnels are dug to extract the ore from below the surface. Large pieces of rock containing diamonds are mined and sent to a screening plant where they are sorted and the diamonds separated from the rock.
Alluvial mining is where diamonds are extracted from riverbeds or beaches. Large walls are built around the area to hold back the water so that the ground can be accessed underneath. The sand in the riverbed or on the beach is bulldozed out of the way until the earth where the diamonds can be found is reached. This is usually a gravelly layer found at least 25 meters under the sand. This gravel is then dug out using bulldozers and transported to the screening plant for processing.
Diamonds can be found almost anywhere in the world, but only a few places have an amount of diamond worth mining. These places include: India, Brazil (around the 1720's), Siberia, South Africa and, of course, Australia. This maps shows where the major diamond mines are found.
Welcome to Tradeshop Fine Jewelers. 2013. Welcome to Tradeshop Fine Jewelers. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.tradeshop.com/master/melle.shtml. [Accessed 05 July 2013]
Where does Australia Rank in the production of Diamonds?
Currently, Australia is ranked rank 4 in the world for producing diamonds, with a production percentage of 13.2% of the worlds diamonds being mined here, and rank of 8 for the value of what is produced here being $343 U.S dollars.
Currently, the major buyer of Australia's diamonds is India, with almost all of the diamonds mined here being sold to India. They use these diamonds for they're own jewelery and to cut, polish and sell to other countries.
According to several different sources, diamonds, in theory, can never run out. Because they are a natural occurring resource, plus we can make our own diamonds, they really shouldn't run out if the Earth stays the way it is. Diamonds should be here until the earth is destroyed as there is a huge amount under the surface and there is plenty more being made under the earths crust as you read this. So, there is tons of diamonds left in Australia and even more left in the world. They are just rare because they're so hard to find close to the surface.
Conflict diamonds’ entry to India raises money laundering fear - Times Of India. 2013. Conflict diamonds’ entry to India raises money laundering fear - Times Of India. [ONLINE] Available at: http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-06-26/india/32423440_1_conflict-diamonds-kimberley-process-certification-rough-diamonds. [Accessed 06 July 2013].
Diamonds are used for all sorts of things but what they are used for depends if they are man-made or natural occurring. Natural occurring are they best know for they're clarity and beauty, that is why they are commonly used for jewelery; only if they are too small will they be used for commercial use. Man-made diamonds are used for multiple things too. Diamonds can be crushed into small particles and be embedded in a saw blade, a drill bit or a grinding wheel for the purpose of cutting, drilling or grinding. They might also be ground into a powder and made into a diamond paste that is used for polishing or for very fine grinding.
There is a very large market for industrial diamonds. Demand for them exceeds the supply obtained through mining. Synthetic diamonds are being produced to meet this industrial demand. They can be produced at a low cost per carat and perform well in industrial use.
Other unusual uses for diamonds:
Diamond windows
are made from thin diamond membranes and used to cover openings in lasers, x-ray machines and vacuum chambers. They are transparent, very durable and resistant to heat and abrasion.
Diamond speaker domes
enhance the performance of high quality speakers. Diamond is a very stiff material and when made into a thin dome it can vibrate rapidly without the deformation that would degrade sound quality.
Heat sinks
are materials that absorb or transmit excess heat. Diamond has the highest thermal conductivity of any material. It is used to conduct heat away from the heat sensitive-parts of high performance microelectronics.
Low friction microbearings
are needed in tiny mechanical devices. Just as some watches have jewel bearings in their movements diamonds are used where extreme abrasion resistance and durability are needed.
Wear-resistant parts
can be produced by coating surfaces with a thin coating of diamond. In this process, diamond is converted into a vapor that deposits on the surface of parts prone to wear.
Ellendale Diamond Mine.
Argyle diamond mine is one of the worlds largest diamond producing mines and the largest producer of natural coloured diamonds in the world. This mine is wholly owned and operated by Rio Tinted Limited. It was approved in 1985 and has produced over 791 million carats of diamonds. It is located in Western Australia in the east Kimberly regions. When first opened and for the following 26 years, the mine was open cut, but with the diamonds now getting harder to reach, there are plans for the mine to turn underground in order to operate until 2020.
The majority of the diamonds mined at Argyle mine are sold as rough diamonds- usually directed to an Indian customer base comprised of diamond traders and manufactures.
All rare pink diamonds mined at Argyle are cut and polished and sold to an international customer base.
The mine has multiple things they look out for all the time, they include: keeping all employes safe at all times, the preservation of the environment and having a strong, long-lasting relationship with the community.
Argyle also funds charities, educational, cultural and community based programs and special projects.
Ellendale diamond mine is one of three diamond mines in Australia. It is located in west Kimberly in Western Australia. It is owned by Gem Diamonds LTD's Wholly-owned subsidiary, the Kimberley Diamond Company. The mine produced over 766,000 carats during its first five years of operations. Production reached 378,000 carats following the expansion of diamond production facilities at Ellendale Pipe 9.
Pipe 9 has been in production since 2002.
Ellendale has resources of more than 1.6 million carats.
What is a diamond? Diamond Source of Virginia Loose Diamonds Education. 2013. What is a diamond? Diamond Source of Virginia Loose Diamonds Education. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.diamondsourceva.com/Education/diamonds-what-is-a-diamond.asp. [Accessed 11 July 2013].
Ellendale Diamond Mine
Argyle Diamond Mine
Merlin Diamond Mine
Underground Mining:
- Alexandrite - Magnetite
- Amethyst - Muscovit
- Biotite - Nickel
- Calcite - Olivine/Peridot
- Chalcopyrite - Platinum
- Copper - Pyrite
- Diamond - Ruby
- Emerald - Silver
- Galena/Lead- Sphalerite
- Gold - Sulfur
- Graphite - Turquoise
- Gypsum - Uraninite
- Halite/Salt - Zinc
- Hematite
Gold Mines
Silver Mines
Iron Mines
Coal Mines
Bauxite Mines
Copper Mines
Manganese Mines
Nickel Mines
Tin and Tungsten Mines
Uranium Mines
Zinc Mines
Mineral Sand Mines
PGE Mines
REE Mines
Australia Mines Atlas. 2013. Australia Mines Atlas. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.australianminesatlas.gov.au/?site=atlas. [Accessed 11 July 2013].
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