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Energy Systems Copy Mixed Units

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by

Martin Wren

on 12 March 2015

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Transcript of Energy Systems Copy Mixed Units

The Energy Systems
Energy Systems
Aerobic System
All movement requires energy. The methods by which the body generates energy is determined by the intensity and duration of the activity.
Activities that require short bursts of effort like sprinting or jumping requires the body to produce large amounts of energy over a short period of time. Whereas marathon running or cycling require the body to provide continued energy production over a longer period and at a slower rate
We get energy from the food we eat. This is known as chemical energy. This chemical energy is stored in the body until needed. The body is constantly using and remaking (resynthesising) energy.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the usable form of chemical energy for muscular activity. It is stored in most cells, particularly in muscle cells.
Chemical energy is converted into kinetic energy (movement energy) when ATP is broken down (chemical reaction).
ATP - PCr System
PC → P + C + Energy AND Energy + P + ADP = ATP

For every molecule of PC broken down, one molecule of ATP can be resynthesised.
No oxygen is required.
Energy is released very rapidly and there are no waste products.
Stores only last for 5-8s of high intensity exercise.
It is therefore excellent for very high intensity short activities (e.g. 100m sprint, golf swing or power lifting) but not for anything longer
ATP needs to be resynthesised for the body to continue to work
ATP is resynthesised by the breakdown of Creatine Phosphate (PCr). This energy resynthesises ADP to ATP
Lactic Acid System
The Lactic Acid system supplies energy for exercises lasting less than 2 minutes. An example of an activity of the intensity and duration that this system works under would be a 400 m sprint.
By-product
Lactic acid is a by-product of this process. Lactic acid accumulates if not removed by the circulatory system and causes fatigue. This feels like a burning sensation in the muscles.
What are the features of the following three cars?

Starter
Energy is released from ATP by breaking the bonds that hold the molecules together.
Compounds

are broken down by
enzymes
The enzyme that breaks down ATP into ADP + Pi is ATPase
Pi
represents a free
phosphate
molecule
This type of reaction is an
exothermic
reaction, because energy is released

A reaction that requires energy to work is called an
endothermic
reaction.

Regenerating ATP from ADP +Pi is an
endothermic
reaction.
Intensity

Duration

Practical
Burpee!
Enzyme Creatine Kinase
Advantages & Disadvantages of the ATP - CP System
Advantages
- ATP can be regenerated rapidly using the ATP - CP system
- Phosphocreatine stores can be regenerated quickly (after 30 secs = 50% replenishment and 4 minutes = Full replenishment with the presence of oxygen.
- There are no fatiguing by-products
- It is possible to extend the time the ATP - CP system can be utilised through the use of creatine supplements.

Disadvantages

- There is only a limited supply of Phosphocreatine in the muscle cells i.e. It can only last for 10 secs.
- Only one molecule of ATP can be regenerated for every molecule of PC.
- PC regeneration can only take place in the presence of oxygen (i.e. when the intensity of exercise is reduced).
The Lactic Acid System / Anaerobic Glycolysis
The energy needed at this stage comes from the food we eat. This process involves the partial breakdown of glucose (glucose can only be fully broken down in the presence of Oxygen).
Glycolysis
Put in its simplest terms means the breakdown of glucose.
So Anaerobic Glycolysis is simply the break down of glucose without the presence of Oxygen.
Carbohydrate in the diet is digested to glucose, enters the bloodstream and travels to the muscles and the liver as 'Glycogen'
'Glycogen is a much more complex compound than phosphocreatine and therefore stores more energy.
Glucose is broken down anaerobically by the enzyme
phosphofructokinase
, which is ativated by a drop in the level of phosphocreatine.
The glucose molecules are broken down into two molecules of 'Pyruvic acid'. Then because of the absence of Oxygen, lactic acid is formed from the 'Pyruvic acid'
Breakdown of the bonds in glucose releases energy, which is used to synthesise ATP (2 molecules of ATP of each molecule of glucose).
The aerobic system has 3 Stages in which glucose is broken down by a process of oxidation to carbon dioxide and water.
Stage 1:
Aerobic Glycolysis
Stage 2:
The Kreb Cycle
Stage 3:
The Electron Transport Chain/System
Stage 1:
Aerobic Glycolysis

Aerobic Glycolysis is the same as anaerobic glycolysis: glucose is broken down to pyruvic acid. However, as Oxygen is now present the reaction can proceed through the energy systems as Lactic Acid is not produced.

The reaction takes place in the 'Sarcoplasm' of the muscle site and the energy yield is sufficient to synthesise 2 molescules of ATP

Stage 2:
The Kreb Cycle


The pyruvic acid produced in the first stage diffuses into the matrix of mitochondria where it is broken down
This combines with
Coenzyme A (CoA)
to form
Acetyl CoA.
Acetyl CoA
combines with
oxaloacetric acid
to form
citric acid
.
This is changed into a number of different compounds in a series of reactions that produces more energy resulting in the regeneration of
oxaloacetric acid

The whole cycle can then repeat itself and is known as the
Kreb Cycle.
The Kreb Cycle

During this cycle three important things happen:
1.
Carbon Dioxide is formed
2.
Oxidation takes place - hydrogen is removed from the compound
3.
Sufficient energy is released to synthesis two molecules of ATP
Acetyl CoA
Citric Acid
Carbon Dioxide Formed

Hydrogen Removed
ATP x 2
Oxaloacetic Acid
Stage 3 -
The Electron Transport Chain

At this stage the hydrogen atoms removed during stage 2 enter the 'Electron Transport Chain'

Simplification of a very complex system
1.
At this point high energy carbon-hydrogen bonds are being broken (Glucose) to form low energy carbon-oxygen bonds (Carbon Dioxide) and hydrogen-oxygen bonds (Water)
2.
Thus releasing energy to combine ADP and Phosphate to form ATP
3.
Energy yield =
34 ATP
Stage 1
= 2 ATP
Stage 2
= 2 ATP
Stage 3
= 34 ATP
Total Yield
= 38 ATP
Energy from Fats
Fat is stored in adipose tissue in the form of triglycerides
Fat enters the Kreb Cycle in the same manner as the by products of glycogen breakdown
The amount of ATP synthesised by the breakdown of fat is much higher than the amount obtained by the breakdown of carbohydrate, which makes it a much more economical fuel in terms of energy yield.
However, the breakdown of triglycerides requires roughly 15% more oxygen
Protein


Although it is possible to use protein as an energy source for ATP synthesis we very rarely do so.

Protein is oxidised only when the body is in a state of starvation or near exhaustion.
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