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Bottlenose Dolphin

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Jessica Campestrini

on 9 April 2015

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Transcript of Bottlenose Dolphin

II.
Methods of Intraspecific communication

III.
Habitat selection

IV.
Feeding behavior

Piscivorous
Bottlenose Dolphin
I.
Sensory Sytems/ Specializations

A. Common in all sea/oceans; except Arctic & Subartic Regions
B. Not found in fresh water or land bound water sources
C. Limited to surface water tempteratures ranging 10-32°C

1. Vocalizations
A) Burst Pulse Sounds
Tursiops Truncatus; Aduncus
V. Intraspecific & Antipredator Defense Behavior
VI.
Social Organization

VII. Direct/ Indirect Observations
In spite of their very broad range, bottlenose dolphins seem to prefer to stay along the coastlines of continents and islands, where the waters are shallower and the populations of the fish they prey upon are larger.

2. Echolocation
3. Visual Displays
B) Whistles
a) "Sonar" echo listening
Produce clicking sound
Frequency ranges
Small openings under jaw-> ear
a) Courtship

b) Parental Bonding

Start 0:56
Start: o:23
End : 2:46
Start: 1:27
a) The Coastal Ecotype
b) The Offshore Ecotype
Adapted for warm, shallow waters. Its smaller body and larger flippers suggest increased maneuverability and heat dissipation. These dolphins frequent harbors, bays, lagoons, and estuaries.
Adapted for cooler, deeper waters. Certain characteristics of its blood indicate that this form may be better suited for deep diving. Its larger body helps to conserve heat and defend itself against predators.
Humpback Whale
Parental Investments:
Mating Systems:
Social Behaviors
a) Females provide bulk of parental care
1.
Gestation
(12 m) & Lactation (18-20 m)
2. Females swim with calves in nursery pods
3.
Midwife
(another female; part of nursery pod) will assist in birth

b) Bond between mother & calf
1. Mothers have been observed holding on to stillborn calves at the surface of the water
2. Calves remain with mother from 3-6 years after weaning to aquire survival skills and protction from predators
a)
Polygynandrous
(promiscuous)
1. Both males and females have multiple partners. Males tend to persue a female.
2.
Iteroparous
- ability to prodice more than one offspring during a lifetime

a) Cooperative Behavior
1. Allomatenal- All females in same nursery pod help care for eachothers' offspring
2.
b) Breeding Season
1. Breeding spikes in warmer months
2. Ovulation is typically stimulated by loss of cald or presence of a male
3. Males peak testosterone production when females ovulate
c) Sexual Maturity
1. Females reach maurity between 5-10 years of age
2. Males reach maturity between 8-13 years of age
3. Breeding starts at around 20 years of age
4. Breed for both reproduction & pleasure
5. Males may show aggresive behavior towards females & other males (nonconsentual)
Echo Location allows these aquatic creatures to navigate though darkness or poor visibility condition
Hearing range: 75 hz to 150000 hz compared to human hearing (15 hz to 20000 hz)
Hearing
Vision
Excellent vision both in and our of water
Posess "mirror neurons" that are capable of mimicing an observed behavior (http://www.cs.umd.edu/class/fall2012/cmsc828d/reportfiles/bhargava3.pdf) and (http://scienceandreason.blogspot.com/2006/02/mirror-neurons.html)
Pair of eyes act independently from one another allowing them to chase prey and watch other dolphin in their pod or community
Taste
Taste receptors include salty, biter, sweet, and sour
Tongue is able to sense chemicals released by specific fish when they are hunting prey
Touch
Sensitivity around the eyes, snout, blow hole, and jaw allow them to eat prey in front of their face when eyes cannot see. Blubber under skin doesnt allow for much sensation or nerve activity.
Touch between dophins is a form of non-verbal communication
Sounds vary in volume, wavelength, frequency, & pattern
Complexity and variations in sounds are used to avoid physical agressive or competitive behavior amongst community
Enforce dominance in social comminities
Similar sounds to squeaks, grunts, moans, etc.
Lacking vocal chords sounds produced in 6 air sacs near blow hole
Unique frequency per Dolphin "signature whistle"
Useful for social communication ex. mother& offspring
Tonal Whistle allow for coontinual contact within traveling members of the community. Also, allow for coordinating hunting strategies.
Olfactory
Poor sense of smell; absent olfactory lobes and cranial nerves indicating no sense of smell
Feed on fish & Invertebrates found near shorline (inshore bottlenose dolphins) and squid & pelagic fish (deep water dolphins) at surface of water
Fish diet varies per geographic location; typically
Example: South Africa vs. US Atlantic
Consume 10-35 lbs food daily; prey ~30cm
Short, sharp pointed teeth on both upper/lower jaw
1. Adaptations &
Mechanisms
Echolocation
Helps to stun prey
Provides specific size/location of object or animal
Blubber
Serves as energy (fat deposits) storage as food may become scarce; replaced as food becomes more available
Passive Listening
Listening mechanism to rush in after prey when detected; may alert others of prey's presence
Anatomical Structures
Sharp teeth allow for secure grasp of prey; tongue maneuvers prey down throat; swallowed whole, not used to chew
Tail may be used to break prey; "fish-whacking"
2. Cooperative Hunting & Individual Feeding
Cooperative Hunting
Groups of 3-6 dolphins, one acts as "driver" others as "barrier"
Driver dolphin herds fish in circles towards barrier dolphins; group effort within their pod
Driver performs fluke-slaps to force fish to leap into air where barrier dolphins catch fish with their mouths
Corraling; chase fish to shore
Individual Feeding
Shake or rub prey on the ocean floor until suitible sized pieces break off; can consume whole fish.
May also strip meat from spiny fish to reduce chance of injury from sharp spines
Intraspecific Defense
Vocalization: Burst-pulsed, barks, whistling
Physical; head butting, tail slapping, open mouth posture
Can burst speed up to 17 miles per hour and jump out of water
Antipredator Defense
Swimming in pods (social structure 6-12 )
Charging predators; Mobbing behaviors; speed and agility to strongly hit predators
Natural enemies include killer whales (orcas), tiger & bull sharks
Bottlenose dolphins developed traits to enhance their ability to catch prey. These mechanisms include:
Echolocation Diagram
Fish Catching
Cooperative Hunting
Blubber
Seaworld Dolphin Feeding;
Observe Oral Anatomy
Group Member Contributions
II. Methods of Intraspective Communication
III. Habitat Selection/ Choice
VII. Direct/ Indirect Observations & Prezi
Jessica Campestrini
I. Sensory Systems/ Specialization
VI. Feeding Selection
V. Intraspecific & Antipredator Defense Behavior
VI. Social Organization
Abby Zenz & Amelia Cephas
Citations
II. Methods of Intraspective Communication
III. Habitat Selection
VII. Observational
I. Sensory Systems
VI. Feeding Selection
V. Defense Behavior
VI. Social Organization
Rene Zurita
Krystal Branker
Reina Valdez
Whitney Winslow
Juliette Aldras
"Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus)." Bottlenose Dolphin. Web. 17 Mar. 2015
Herzing, Denise. "Aquatic Mammals." Vocalization and Associated Underwater Behavior of Free-ranging Atlantic Spotted Dolphins and Bottle Nose Dolphins 22.2 (1996): 61-79. Web. 17 Mar. 2015. <http://aquaticmammalsjournal.org/share/ AquaticMammalsIssueArchives/1996/AquaticMammals_22-02/22-02_Herzing.pdf>.
"How Do Dolphins Protect Themselves?" Dolphin Facts and Information. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.
Hogan, Michael C. "Common Bottlenose Dolphin." Common Bottlenose Dolphin. N.p., 31 Mar. 2011. Web. 20 Mar. 2015.
Jenkins, Jessica. "Animal Diversity Web." ADW: Tursiops: CLASSIFICATION. University of Michigan, 12 July 2009. Web. 20 Mar. 2015.
Thayer, Victoria G. "Life History Parameters and Social Assocoations of Female Bottle NOsed Dolphins off North Carolina." Diss. Duke U, 2008. Google Books. Web. 20 Mar. 2015.
Use of Home Ranges by Resident Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in a South Carolina Estuary.Cara Gubbins. Journal of Mammalogy .Vol. 83, No. 1 (Feb., 2002) , pp. 178-187. Published by: Oxford University Press
"Bottlenose Dolphin." Dolphin Facts and Information. N.p., 2014. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.
Leatherwood, Stephen, and Randall R. Reeves. "Distribution, Movements and Abundance." The Bottlenose Dolphin. San Diego: Academic, 1990. 369+. Print.
Bottlenose dolphins are trainable and doscile to swim with (see video) Not a danger to humans

Can be observed, played with, swam with at several locations in FL such as SeaWorld Orlando, DolphinSwim, & the FL keys;

Bottlenose Dolphins exhibit a playful attitude. Even though they are usually very mild tempered, dolphins can be aggressive.
Bottlenose Dolphin Birth
SeaWorld Show
Basic Anatomy
Human Interaction
Natural Habitat
Byrum, Jody and Nuzzolo, Deborah. Bottlenose Dolphins. Third Edition. SeaWorld Education Department, 1996.
Jefferson, T.J. Leatherwood, S. and M.A. Webber. FAO Species identification Guide. Marine Mammals of the World. Rome. FAO, 1993.
Leatherwood, Stephen, and Reeves, Randall R. The Sierra Club Handbook of Whales and Dolphins. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1983.b
Coastal Bottlenose
8.2-8.9ft
Offshore Ecotype
11.5-12ft
Not Endangered
Northern Gulf of Mexico: 35,000-45,000
Indirectly affected due to commercial tuna fishing
Breathe through blowhole
Bottlenose Dolphin Pod
c) Dominance
Full transcript