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Animation

Basics for beginners
by

Adam Pocius

on 8 October 2012

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Transcript of Animation

Animation This is a special pose that occurs before the main action.The character moves back before they move forward. Anticipation should be used in most of a characters actions; the larger the movement the larger the antic. A smaller movement calls for a more subtle antic. Anticipation Arcs The default Path of Action for any motion. It poses define the shape of a motion’s curve. For example, a characters body movements will be in a swinging/arcing motion rather than a linear, point A to point B movement. Exaggeration In animation we often exaggerate the actions so that they ‘read’ well. It means that the acting of a character is made as obvious as possible for the audience by pushing poses farther than you would see in real life; to achieve this we exaggerate the timing and poses to a certain degree; enough to give the performance charm and appeal. When the main action of a character stops or slows down, any kind of dangling part or extremity of a character lags behind or continues to swing after the main action and eventually settles. Follow through and Overlapping Action Overshoot Overshooting a pose means to go past the pose and come back to it. For example, if a character was to through their arms up in the air… You would first create an anticipation pose – then create pose with arms up – but stretch the body and arms so that the hands go higher than the original pose – then snap back to the main pose of the arms being raised. So the order of the poses would be as follows. Antic – Overshoot – then snap back to Main Pose(with arms up). Straight Ahead & Posing Secondary Action The follow through, overlapping action, bobbing, swinging, etc. Motion that will occur on a dangling part, or extremity of a character. It’s secondary to the main actions. Appeal A rule used when setting key poses of a character. It’s making sure that the pose has some negative spacing and that they ‘read’ well. When setting poses, animators will consider if the pose would look appealing as a silhouette. Squash and Stretch Timing This is the number of frames needed for an action to occur, or the number of frames between poses. Good timing in animation feels right, looks energized, lively and has appeal. Weight and Balance Sometimes the character your animating may have to lift or carry a heavy object, or stretch to reach something. Even in more common actions we have to keep this principle in mind. To make it look believable we need to have an understanding of weight and balance. 1900-1910 1920-1930 1940-1950 1900 - J. Stuart Blackton did an animation called The Enchanted Drawing in which was his inspiration for the film Humorous Phases of Funny Faces; the first major, popular stop action animation. 1902 - Thomas A. Edison Inc. releases a short called Fun in a Bakery Shop. The studio used stop motion photography to animate live pictures and objects becoming the first to use live animation principles. 1914 - Henry McCay creates Gertie The Dinosaur. McCay would stand on stage in front of a projection screen, dressed in a tuxedo and wielding a whip. He would call Gertie, who appeared from behind some rocks. 1910-1920 For the finale, McCay disappeared behind the screen just as a cartoon version of him climbed onto Gertie's head and rode off. This was the first major hit animation that included a makeshift interactivity. At one point, McCay would scold Gertie for misbehaving, at which she would begin to cry. McCay then instructed her to perform various tricks, similar to a circus act. He would appear to toss a prop apple to her — McCay palmed the apple while Gertie caught an animated copy of it. Gertie was also seen to swallow a large rock, play with a Mastodon, and drink an entire lake dry. 1928 - Animated features began incorporating music and minor dialogue. One of the most renown early animations in history, Steamboat Willie, was produced. This sparked the flood of gutsy animation experiments by Walt Disney that would revolutionize the industry. 1932 - Color arrives on the big screen. Disney's Flowers and Trees becomes the first Cartoon to be produced in three strip Technicolor. 1930-1940 1934 - A mandatory censorship system that banned Sex, Drugs and Jazz in animation is instated and lasts until 1968, stifling many creative minds 1937 - During this time, Walt was very busy making Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. However, in order to create special effects in Snow White in the way Walt envisioned them, the animators had to run tests. They had to see if these effects were even possible and they wanted to see the audiences reactions. This Old Mill is a testing ground for effect tests. 1940 – Disney’s Fantasia introduces a multi-channel stereo sound system called Fantasound. One of the first to have stereo sound 1941 – Otto Messmer creates first animated commercials. 1946 – Song of the South, created by Disney sparks controversy since a black man is the star of the animation. Political correctness takes hold of the animation business. The History of Animation 1950 - The first computer animation (that we know of) was created. It was an animated "Bouncing Ball" done by MIT. 1950 -1960 1950 - Hanna-Barbera introduces "The Flintstones," the first prime time animated TV series. 1960 - 1970 1961 - Walt Disney releases "One Hundred and One Dalmatians" the first Disney feature to use Xeroxed Cells 1968 - 2001: A Space Odyssey, by Stanley Kubrick is released. This film contained the first major use of motion control animation (which John Whitney invented and first used it commercially in Hitchcock's Vertigo). 1970 - 1980 1971 - The first computer generated animation is used in the feature film "The Andromeda Strain" as a special effect. Special effect animation during this period played a mojor role in the amount of animation produced. 1980 - 1990 1982 - "Tron," a Disney feature has 15 minutes of computer animation for 253 scenes at a cost of $1,200 per second. 1990 - 2000 1995 - Disney - Pixar's "Toy Story" becomes the first entirely computer animated feature and it takes in more revanue at the box office than any other film that year. 2003 - 3D animation and video, though having been around for several years, takes new strides (such as the use of circularly polarized light) and becomes a highly popular style for mainstream cinema. 2009 - James Cameron redefines animation with his film, Avatar. A number of revolutionary visual effects techniques were used in the production of Avatar. According to Cameron, work on the film had been delayed since the 1990s to allow the techniques to reach the necessary degree of advancement to adequately portray his vision of the film. 2D Animation Cell Animation is a traditional form of animation where each cell is drawn by hand. Cell animation movies often take millions of drawings to create. Stop Motion Animation Stop motion animation is a
technique where puppets or clay models are appeared to be moving although they are only taking photos or filming them 3D Animation 3D Animation involves using computer programs, clay and puppets to create three dimensional characters and scenery that allow the audience to become more involved Rotoscoping Rotoscoping is where animators trace over live action film movement frame by frame. It has been used in such films as snow white and the seven dwarfs The term "2D" refers to animation that is created using two dimensional drawings. Experimental Motion Graphics You really can animate practically anything.
It's usually students who have the time, hunger, curiosity and most importantly - facilities, to play around and invent a new type of animation.

These works rarely reach the cinema; most of them are short films of no more than a few minutes. The places to see them are Animation Festivals and on Youtube and Vimeo. Motion graphics are graphics that use video footage and/or animation technology to create the illusion of motion or rotation, graphics are usually combined with audio for use in multimedia projects. Motion graphics are usually displayed via electronic media technology Follow though/Overlapping Action: as the horse runs, its mane and tail follow the movement of the body. Animated sequence of a race horse galloping. Photos taken by Eadweard Muybridge. The horse's body demonstrates squash and stretch in natural musculature. Slow In, Slow Out Also called Ease In, Ease Out. This is a technique used to slow the animation when going into a pose or coming out of a pose. It’s achieved by adding more in-betweens that favor the pose that you want to "cushion". Often used to avoid any sudden stops. Staging Its purpose is to direct the audience's attention, and make it clear what is of greatest importance in a scene; what is happening, and what is about to happen Straight ahead and pose to pose are animation techniques that refer directly to the animation drawing process. In order to capture fast, dynamic action with unusual movement, animators will use the straight ahead technique and draw every single frame of an animation.

The pose to pose drawing technique employs the use of keyframes (the important frames of a sequence) and inbetweens (the intermediate frames that express movement between the keyframes). S lid Drawing The principle of solid drawing means taking into account forms in three-dimensional space, giving them volume and weight Silhouette The deforming of an object or character, usually when it comes in contact with the ground. The degree of stretch and squash used on an object communicates it’s physical make up and degree of flexibility. This technique is heavily used in a more ‘cartoony’ or exaggerated style of animation, but it should be considered in all animation. How much squash and stretch used depends on the style to the animation. The important thing about secondary actions is that they emphasize, rather than take attention away from the main action. 12 Principles
of Animation The important thing is that the viewer feels the character is real and interesting. There are several tricks for making a character connect better with the audience; for likable characters a symmetrical or particularly baby-like face tends to be effective. A complicated or hard to read face will lack appeal Polarization glasses to create the illusion of three -dimensional images by restricting the light that reaches each eye
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