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Female Genital Mutilation

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Brittney Wolf

on 1 May 2013

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Transcript of Female Genital Mutilation

Sharifa's Three Wishes Why FGM Continues As stated before- FGM Precedes Islam and Christianity- it is not a religious practice- it is a cultural practice. Contrary to previous notions- men are not the primary catalyst- the female elders of the community perpetuate the practices of FGM. 4 Main Types of Mutilation Background Intro What Action Has Been Taken? History of Action Against FGM Conclusion Female Genital Mutilation Clitoridectomy Involves partial or total removal of the clitoris
(a small, sensitive and erectile part of the female genitals)

Other, more rare cases involve just the removal of the prepuce (the fold of skin surrounding the clitoris) Excision Involves the partial or total removal of the clitoris and labia minora with or without the excision of the labia majora, or the "lips" that surround the vaginal opening. Infibulation The narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal. This seal is formed by the process of cutting and repositioning of the inner or outer labia with or without removal of the clitoris Other Types of Mutilation The World Health Organization defines genital mutilation as: Harmful procedures for non-medical purposes to the female genitalia. This includes any of the following: Pricking
Piercing
Incising
Scraping
Cauterizing Physical Side Effects of Female Genital Mutilation Women and girls that have been subjected to mutilation procedures can experience ANY of the following: Recurrent Bladder and Urinary Tract Infections Cysts Infertility The Need for Further Surgeries Other Effects of Female Genital Mutilation Psychological Damage Deep-Rooted Cultural Inequality Between the Sexes Violations of the Human Rights of Women and Girls Female Genital Mutilation female circumcision Why it Happens Where it Continues clitorectomy What is Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Tam, Brittney, Katie, Michele and Jennell Moolaade Tonight's screening (2004) Not Religious, But Cultural Directed by Ousamane Semebene There are many reasons for the practice of FGM, the most predominant being

1) Ensuring fidelity during marriage and chastity before marriage by decreased sexual desire.

2) Female genitalia are considered dirty and unsightly in these cultures and removal ensures benefits of hygiene and cleanliness.

3) It is a cultural tradition and an important ritual in the initiation of girls from childhood into womanhood.

4) Because culturally it is still viewed as the core prerequisite to matrimony, status and acceptance. - Predominant in northeast Africa and regions where large populations of Africans have settled. (Even here in the United States) - Female circumcision dates back to ancient times. existing for over 4,000-5,000 years.

- The practice began in Egypt and was frequently performed by the ancient cultures of the Phoenicians and Hittites. History Action Today Towards Global Ban -Predates the religion of islam that it is mistakenly closely associated with.

-FGM is a practice that is performed across cultures with predominant religions spanning from Christianity to Judaism and Islam. - procedures which partially or completely remove the external female genitalia. - Includes any other injury to a woman's or girl's genitalia for reasons other than medical ones. 1867- Great Britain bans clitoridectomy 1996- US Federal Government bans FGM by law 1981-82: European NGO's AIDOS and GAMS begin addressing female circumcision issue as female human rights violation 1991: Term female circumcision changed to female genital mutilation by United Nations Other cultural productions... Fire Eyes (1994) Desert Flower (2009) A Cruel Ritual (1991) Another Form of Abuse (1992) FGM in Egypt (1994) Dabla! Excison (2003) On Their Own (Reham's Story) (2001) Pourquoi Donc L'Excision (1995) Rights of Passage (1994) Handful of Ash (2001) 1991-2000- Over 20 NGO's established in fight against FGM February 6th, 2007: "International Day of Zero Tolerance of Female Genital Mutilation" December 20, 2012: United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution to Ban FGM worldwide March 2013: The UK Department for International Development will provide 35 million British Pounds (~54 million dollars) to help eliminate FGM in Africa. African Countries With FGM Ban Why FGM Continues Culturally FGM is Believed to: Burkina Faso (1997)
Central African Republic (1996)
Chad (2001)
Cote d'Ivoire (1998)
Djibouti (1995)
Egypt (2007)
Eritrea (2007)
Guinea (2003)
Guinea-Bissau (2011)
Kenya (2011)
Senegal (1999)
Somalia (1999)
Tanzania (1998)
Togo (1998)
Uganda (2010) Ensure that the female remains chaste before marriage.
Ensure that she stay faithful during marriage. 164 Secure fertility.
Secure a marital future. 120 Increase male Sexual Pleasure While attenuating hers... 93% 1,116 Even with the UN and the World crying out for this practice to stop- FGM still continues- and the World is asking, "Why?" (2000 ) Sharifa's Three Wishes is a 45 minute documentary about the Kunama people Grandmother and Granddaughter of the Kunama people. The Kunama people make up 80% of the population in Eritrea in Eastern Africa Sharifa's Three Wishes The Story Daughter -Agid Grandmother- Sharifa Granddaughter- Geneth Shafira's dying wish is for her granddaughter, Geneth to undergo a clioridectomy. The grandmother threatens that her ghost, as well as those of other female elders will haunt the community if her granddaughter doesn't undergo the operation. Shafira's daughter, Agid, protests. She argues that the community doesn't do this anymore. flimed in Senegal In this film six young girls are scheduled to be cut. When the magical Moolaade comes to their aid- it tears the village apart.
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