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Chapter 5 - PPT - Biology in Focus

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Christopher Luther

on 10 November 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 5 - PPT - Biology in Focus

Receptor mediated Endocytosis
Plasmolysis
Chloroplasts carry out photosynthesis
Using solar energy to produce glucose and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water
Mitochondria consume oxygen in cellular respiration
Using the energy stored in glucose to make ATP
5.21 Chloroplasts and mitochondria make energy available for cellular work
Enzymes are central to the processes that make energy available to the cell
Cholesterol
Vesicle
Plasma membrane
Receptor protein
Cytoplasm
Phospholipid outer layer
Protein
LDL particle
Figure 5.20 A cell using receptor-mediated endocytosis to take up an LDL
Receptor Proteins
5.20 Faulty membranes can overload the blood with cholesterol
Harmful levels of cholesterol
Can accumulate in the blood if membranes lack cholesterol receptors
CONNECTION
LM 230
TEM 96,500
TEM 54,000
Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
PIT
Material bound to receptor proteins
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
Pinocytosis
Phagocytosis
Food being ingested
Pseudopodium of amoeba
Figure 5.19C Three kinds of endocytosis
Pinocytosis
Phagocytosis
Endocytosis
Endocytosis can occur in three ways
Phagocytosis
Pinocytosis
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
Vesicle forming
Figure 5.19B Endocytosis
Vesicle
Protein
Cytoplasm
Fluid outside cell
Figure 5.19A Exocytosis
5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules
To move large molecules or particles through a membrane
A vesicle may fuse with the membrane and expel its contents (exocytosis)
Intro to Endocytosis & Exocytosis
Active Transport
5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport
Transport proteins can move solutes against a concentration gradient
Through active transport, which requires ATP
The control of water balance
Is called osmoregulation

5.17 Turgid Elodea
5.17 Water balance between cells and their surroundings is crucial to organisms
Osmosis causes cells to shrink in hypertonic solutions
And swell in hypotonic solutions
In isotonic solutions
Animal cells are normal, but plant cells are limp

Net flow of water
Solute molecule with
cluster of water molecules
Water molecule
Selectively permeable membrane
Solute molecule
H2O
Equal concentration of solute
Higher concentration of solute
Lower concentration of solute
Figure 5.16 Osmosis
5.16 Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane
In osmosis
Water travels from a solution of lower solute concentration to one of higher solute concentration
Transport protein
Solute molecule
Figure 5.15 Transport protein providing a pore for solute passage
5.15 Transport proteins may facilitate diffusion across membranes
Many kinds of molecules
Do not diffuse freely across membranes
For these molecules, transport proteins
Provide passage across membranes through a process called facilitated diffusion
Small nonpolar molecules such as O2 and CO2
Diffuse easily across the phospholipid bilayer of a membrane

Molecules of dye
Membrane
Equilibrium
Figure 5.14A Passive transport of one type of molecule
5.14 Passive transport is diffusion across a membrane
In passive transport, substances diffuse through membranes without work by the cell
Spreading from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
Membrane proteins also function in transport
Moving substances across the membrane
Activated molecule
Receptor
Messenger molecule
Figure 5.13B
Other membrane proteins
Function as receptors for chemical messages from other cells
5.13 Proteins make the membrane a mosaic of function
Many membrane proteins
Function as enzymes
Figure 5.12 The plasma membrane and extracellular matrix of an animal cell
Cytoplasm
Glycolipid
Plasma membrane
Proteins
Cholesterol
Phospholipid
Microfilaments of cytoskeleton
Glycoprotein
Carbohydrate (of glycoprotein)
Fibers of the extracellular matrix
5.12 The membrane is a fluid mosaic of phospholipids and proteins
A membrane is a fluid mosaic
With proteins and other molecules embedded in a phospholipid bilayer
TEM 200,000 
Outside of cell
Cytoplasm
Figure 5.10
The plasma membrane of the cell is selectively permeable
Controlling the flow of substances into or out of the cell
0
The Working Cell
Chapter 5
Energy from exergonic reactions
P
ADP 
Energy for endergonic reactions
ATP
ATP cycle
Unnumbered Figure page 86
Hypertonic solution
Hypotonic solution
Isotonic solution
(6) Shriveled (plasmolyzed)
(5) Turgid
(4) Flaccid
(3) Shriveled
(2) Lysed
(1) Normal
Plasma membrane
H2O
H2O
H2O
H2O
H2O
H2O
H2O
H2O
Plant cell
Animal cell
Figure 5.17 How animal and plant cells behave in different solutions
Equilibrium
Figure 5.14B Passive transport of two types of molecules
Hydrophobic tails
Hydrophilic heads
Water
Water
Figure 5.11B Phospholipid bilayer
Membranes organize the chemical activities of cells
Membranes
Provide structural order for metabolism
MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Vesicle forming
Figure 5.19B
Membranes may fold inward
Enclosing material from the outside (endocytosis)
Transport protein
Solute
ADP
ATP
Phosphate detaches
Protein changes shape
P
P
P
4
3
2
1
Protein reversion
Transport
Phosphorylation
Solute binding
Figure 5.18 Active transport of a solute across a membrane
Figure 5.11A Phospholipid molecule
Full transcript