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Social Sciences Timeline

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Matthew Morin

on 19 September 2014

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Transcript of Social Sciences Timeline

Social Sciences
The Canadian Psychological Associated is basically just like the American Psychological Association, but it is much smaller and only focuses in Canada. Even though the CPA was originally founded in 1938, it wasn’t formally organized until 1938. It was founded in a University of Ottawa psychology lab and its initial purpose was to help contribute to World War II. The CPA holds annually conventions that vary from location to location across Canada. Its headquarters are in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada and has 7,000 members. The current president is Wolfgang Linden and the CEO is Karen Cohen.
Initials Here
JJR Psychology/ Practitioner
Sigmund Freud was born May 6, 1856. He died September 23, 1939. Regardless of the perception of Sigmund Freud’s theories, there is no question that he had an enormous impact on the field of psychology. His work supported the belief that not all mental illnesses have physiological causes and he also offered evidence that cultural differences have an impact on psychology and behavior. His work and writings contributed to our understanding of personality, human development, and clinical psychology.
Sigmund Freud
JJR Psychology/ Practitioner
Carl Rogers was Born January 8, 1902 and died February 4,1987. Graduated from University of Wisconsin and enrolled at Union Theological Seminary. He Earned a Ph.D. from Columbia. He Published Client-centered Therapy in 1951. In 1961 he Published On Becoming A Person. In 1987 he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. After receiving his Ph.D., Rogers spent a number of years working in academia, holding positions at Ohio State University, the University of Chicago, and the University of Wisconsin. It was during this time that Rogers developed his approach to therapy, which he initially termed "nondirective therapy." This approach, which involves the therapist acting as a facilitator rather than a director of the therapy session, eventually came to be known as client-centered therapy.
Carl Rogers
1879- First psychology laboratory
Wilhelm Wundt opens first experimental laboratory in psychology at the University of Leipzig, Germany. Credited with establishing psychology as an academic discipline, Wundt's students include Emil Kraepelin, James McKeen Cattell, and G. Stanley Hall.

JJR Psychology/ Event
JJR Psychology/ Event
APA Ethical Standards
1953-APA Ethical Standards
The American Psychological Association publishes the first edition of Ethical Standards of Psychologists. The document undergoes continuous review and is now known as APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.

JJR Psychology/ Publication
The American Journal of Psychology has been published quarterly since 1887. The Journal is currently published by The University of Illinois Press. The American Journal of Psychology was founded be a psychologist from Johns Hopkins University by the name of Granville Stanley Hall. It was also known for being the first journal that is primarily focused towards experimental psychology. The AJP’s aim is to explore the mind and its characteristics including behavior. Over the years the AJP has played a monumental part in the field of psychology by publishing many revolutionary papers and presentations.
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

The Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience has been published quarterly since 1989 by the MIT Press. This Peer- reviewed journal’s main focus in on scientific research that relates to the interactions of the brain and its behaviors. The approach of this journal is one of a cross discipline approach. This journal draws from such disciplines as neuroscience, computer science, philosophy, neurobiology and Linguistics. The current editor and chief is a professor in psychology at UC Berkeley in California by the name of Mark D’ Esposito.
JJR Psychology/ Publication
American Psychiatry Association
The American Psychiatry Association was founded in 1844. The American Psychiatry Association is the world’s largest psychiatric association. Its membership includes over 33,000 psychiatric physicians from all over the world. They are committed to making sure a certain level of care is carried out while implementing effective treatment for mental disorders, substance abuse and other disabilities. Other goals they strive for are to promote education and research as well as advancement in the field of psychiatry.
JJR Psychology/ Association
The Association for Youth, Children, and Natural Psychology began as a non-profit entity back in August of 2006. However, in 2008 it was incorporated as a New Jersey non-profit corporation. The AYCNP takes the view that mental health and the role of spirituality are correlated, although the organization claims no religious affiliation or support. This association was originally created by a group of teachers, psychologists, and doctors. The focus of the AYCNP is to educate about mental disorders and their effects on the person and the family. They aim to educate about alternative treatment methods besides traditional medicine.
JJR Psychology/ Association
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders- the DSM was created in 1952 and has been compiled by collecting censuses, as well as data collected from psychiatric hospitals. Also included in the original DSM was parts of the United States Army manual. The DSM is published by the American Psychiatry Association and contains a standard criteria for classifying mental disorders. Revisions to this publication are done from time to time. Sometimes revisions include adding information and other times taking away inaccurate information. Although the DSM has attracted its fair share of criticism over the years, it has also become to be praised for its value in diagnostic ability. It also brings in over 5 million a year for the American Psychiatry Association. The DSM is similar to a dictionary in the way that it defines all of the different mental disorders and their characteristics.
JJR Psychology/Something else
FM Thinker Business
Steve Jobs was born February 24 1955 and passed away October 5, 2011. He is a American entrepreneur, marketer, and inventor. He is also the co-founder, chairman, and CEO of Apple Inc. He is widely known for being a pioneer for personal computer revolution.
FM Thinker Business

Donald Trump was born June 14, 1946. He is an American business magnate investor, television personality, he also is an author. He is the chairman of The Trump Organization and founder of the Trump Entertainment Resorts. He also has the television show The Apprentice.
FM Event Business

August 4, 1930. The first ever U.S. supermarket is opened. Piggly Wiggly a popular chain in the South and King Kullen brought the high volume of product to the mix which created our now supermarkets
FM Event Business
The Jungle is Published in 1906. This is a novel that changed how business were investigated and how they would later treat there employees.
FM Something Else Business

Tiffany & Co. is an American multinational luxury jewelry and specialty retailer. Tiffany sells jewelry, sterling silver, china, crystal, stationery, personal accessories, fragrances, and leather goods. They are also the makers of the Vince Lombardi Trophy, World Series rings, Goelet Cups, MLS championship trophy, the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series. Founded by Charles Lewis Tiffany and John B. Young, it was originally a “stationery and fancy goods emporium”. Tiffany & Co. is also promoted a lot in popular culture with Break at Tiffany’s, Ladies of the Chorus, and the song “Diamonds Are A Girl’s Best Friend”. The Tiffany Setting is a legend when talking about ring settings. Tiffany is also known for their outstanding customer service.
FM Journal Business

Bloomberg Businessweek is printed weekly magazine that is published by Bloomberg L.P.. Its headquarters are located in New York. It was founded in 1929. It provides information and opinions on what is going on in the business world. It originally was for business management.
FM Journal Business
Annals of Finance is to provide an outlet for original research in all areas of finance. Takes a look at the application of finance towards other disciplines and having a clear and substantive link to the general theme of finance. There is a small section that is entitled finance notes, this is devoted solely to short articles of ten pages. There are 9 volumes 33 issues 240 articles available from 2005-2013.
Carl Jung
Carl Jung (1875-1961) developed analytical psychology, also known as Jungian Psychology, which is a theory of psychoanalysis. Jung believed that the psyche yearned for a balanced state of consciousness and unconsciousness simultaneously and that each person strives to attain harmony within consciousness and unconsciousness. Jung made several contributions to psychology, but the concept that has probably gained the widest general use is his concept of introversion and extraversion. Another major contribution that Jung has made to psychology is his theory of type. Through his research, Jung discovered that people think, feel, and experience the world in fundamentally different ways and this theory is an effective tool in helping us understand how people function. Jung’s theory of type has even influenced the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator, which has become one of the most popular psychology tests in the world
ASL Psychology/Practitioner
FM association Business

Google Inc. is an American multinational corporation. Google Inc. specializes in Internet Related services and products. It was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were students at Stanford University. Google is known for a informal corporate culture. In Fortune magazine Google made the best company to work for in 2007, 2008, and 2012. Google’s philosophy includes principles such as “You can make money without doing evil,” “you can be serious without a suit”, “work should be challenging and the challenges should be fun” and “it’s best to do one thing really, really well.” In there Our Culture Company page they say they hire people at are smart and determined. They want to reflect the global audience.
Wilhelm Wundt
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) established the first formal psychology laboratory as the University of Leipzig which marked the beginning of the study of human emotions, behavior, and cognitions. With the creation of that lab, Wundt established psychology as a separate field of study and was the first person to be called a psychologist. Many considered him the founder of experimental psychology. Wundt also wrote the Principles of Physiological Psychology in 1874 which helped establish experimental procedures in psychological research. Another publication the Wundt established is the psychology journal Philosophical Studies. Besides his creation of the laboratory, Wundt also influenced the school of thought known as structuralism.
FM association business

Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation. Apple Inc. headquarters are located in Cupertino, California. They design, develop and sell consumer electronics, computer software and personal computers. It is known for it Mac line, ipod music player, iphone smartphone, and there tablet computer the Ipad. Apple Inc. was founded on April 1, 1976. It is the second largest information technology company by revenue. In May 2013 Apple maintains 408 retail stores in 14 countries as well as their online Apple Store. Apple Inc.was also called the most admired company in the United States by Fortune magazine in 2008
ASL Psychology/Practitioner
Considered by many to be the father of what is now known to be the field of Communication theory, Aristotle was one of the most famous of the ancient Greek Philosophers. Born in 384 B.C. in what was believed to be Stalgiria, Chalcidice; Aristotle was the epitome of the idealistic philosophizing Greek. He was the student of the famed Plato, and as such was brought up as a student of many different disciplines. Some of these aforementioned disciplines which were studied by and even founded by Aristotle include: physics, metaphysics, poetry, music, theatre, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, and other sciences. Many say that the way to measure a man is to measure those who follow in their footsteps; a prime example of Aristotle’s greatness, (applying this way of thinking,) is his student, Alexander the Great, the man who, in his time conquered most of the known world! Aristotle is sometimes called the founder of Comm. Theory due to his theories and writings on the topic of rhetoric, sometimes referred to as Aristotilian Argumentation. Aristotle is thought to have died around the age of 61 in 322 B.C. in Euboea.

384 B.C.
-Karl Marx
Born 5 May, 1818, this Prussian citizen, who later resided in the United Kingdom, has been described by many as being among the most influential of men in the history of mankind. Founder of what is now known in today’s world as Communism; Marx’s ideas and philosophies have influenced powerful nation rulers, been the determining factor of life or death of many, and have definitely influenced the history of the world as a whole. Among Marx’s most famous works are “The Communist Manifesto,” and “Das Kapital.” Marx is not only known for his communistic ideas, however, but also for his creation of “Critical Theory,” (a theory that focuses on interpretation and explanation of certain communications given from person to person.)

ASL Psychology/Event
In 1890, New York State passed the State Care Act, ordering indigent mentally ill patients out of poor-houses and into state hospitals for treatment and developing the first institution in the U.S. for psychiatric research. It was the first time that the state assumed full responsibility of all mentally ill people. It was believed that state hospitals, which were formally known as lunatic asylums, could care more economical and individualized care. It was also believed that the state hospitals could better identify the classification of patients.
-Development of written/consistent language
Around 3000 B.C., ancient civilizations such as Egypt were among the first in recorded history to invent, utilize, and preserve in writing a consistent language among a large group of people. The invention of written languages such as that which was utilized by the Egyptians around 3000 B.C. shows that the people of these early civilizations began to recognize the utter import of correct and efficient communication, and the preservation of their languages. The fact that these languages were now written gave them the ability to send and receive messages, creating a much more efficient and proficient society in general.

Around 3000 B.C.
-Lasswell’s Model of Communication
This model of communication is arguably the first to espouse actual communication theory. Following Aristotle’s ideas and outlines given in “Rhetoric,” Lasswell designed a model which clearly demonstrates and depicts the “flow” of a conversation, or the natural process which a message must undergo in order to be effectively communicated. His model is separated into five simple, yet definitive steps: “Who,” (the speaker,) “What,” (the message,) “Channel,” (the medium of communication,) “Whom,” (the audience receiving the message,) and “Effect,” (or what the message’s effect is.) With these five simple, defined steps, communication theorists and professionals were now able to more effectively see the most productive ways in which messages should be sent, intended, and received. The field of communication now had a hard, well-set-out system in which to analyze the effectiveness of its theories!

In1905, Alfred Binet's Intelligence Test was published in France. Binet created this test with the help of his college Theodore Simon because the French government asked him to help decide which students would require more help. It became known as the Binet-Simon Scale and is the basis for the intelligence test used today. Binet developed the concept of mental age, which is still used today in William Stern’s Intelligence Quotient formula.
-The International Journal of Communication ”is an online, multi-media, academic journal that adheres to the highest standards of peer review and engages established and emerging scholars from anywhere in the world.” (http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc). The founding editors are Manuel Castells and Larry Gross. While this journal focuses on the discipline of Communication, it also welcomes applicable contributions from other types of disciplines; making this a great journal for students of interdisciplinary studies!
-The Journal of Applied Communication Research is also published on behalf of the National Communication Association and allows for free readings of certain sponsored articles and issues. It is published monthly, and focuses on research done in the field of communication as it applies to everyday life occurrences, organizations, businesses, and entertainment genres.
-Western States Communication Association is an organization that focuses on the furthering of the study of communication in the western states in general. Their mission statement is best stated by themselves: “The Western States Communication Association WSCA is a non-profit 501 c (3) organization. The Association's purpose is to unite people in the Western States who have an academic, lay or professional interest in communication and who want to promote their mutual educational interests. WSCA includes members from Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, California, Alaska, and Hawaii as well as from the other 37 states and other countries” (http://www.westcomm.org/aboutus/index.asp).
-The Eastern Communication Association was established in 1910 and is oldest communication association in the United States. It includes professors, researchers, as well as students of the field of communication. This particular association has won many awards for excellence in research and for furthering information on the field of communication theory. Becoming a member of this organization is simple, all one needs to do is send in an online registration form along with a check.
Communication-Something Else
-Mind Tools, (Excellent skills for an excellent career,) is an online site dedicated to assisting people in becoming their best professional selves. One of the areas of focus includes communication skills. In this section, various aspects of communication theory are taught as well as the application of these several skills for success in everyday life endeavors. This project was launched in 1996 and is available to join and receive more in-depth information predicated on subscription.
Professional Psychology: Research and Practice is published by the American Psychological association six times a year. It was founded in 1970 under the name Professional Psychology, and in 1983 it was renamed to Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. It is a peer-reviewed journal and is edited by Ronald T. Brown of Wayne State University. This journal publishes articles on health psychology, community psychology, forensic psychology, and clinical neuropsychology. It is still published today.
ASL Psychology/Journals
The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied was originally published by Heldref Publication, but they sold the rights to Taylor & Francis. The Journal of Psychology, which it is more popularly known as, was founded in 1935 by Carl Murchison and is still published today. The article is also abbreviated as JRL, is published bimonthly, and headquartered in Philadelphia. . This journal publishes empirical research and theoretical articles. Some of the applied areas psychology that this journal focuses on includes education, industrial, counseling, and personal psychology. Other areas that this journal focuses on include areas of interdisciplinary research such as law and consumer behavior.
ASL Psychology/ Journal
ASL Psychology/Association
International Psychoanalytical Association was created because every week in 1902, Sigmund Freud and some of his colleagues would meet to talk about work so they called their group the Psychological Wednesday Society. However, it took several years for the association to formally found. It was eventually officially founded by Sigmund Freud in 1910 and now has 12,000 psychoanalysts as members. Carl Jung was its first President and Otto Rank was its first Secretary. You are qualified for membership if you are a member of a constituent organization. The IPA has International Congresses all over the world and each one has a specific theme. However, the first twenty-three Congresses did not.
ASL Psychology/Association
The American Counseling Association is the world’s largest associations for professional counselors. It was founded in 1952, its current President is Bradley T. Erford, and its headquarters are in Alexandria, Virginia. It was originally founded as the American Personnel and Guidance Association and underwent several name changes as it merged with other organizations or associations. It finally adopted its current name in 1992. The ACA’s goal is to promote trust in the counseling profession and has nearly 54,000 members. In order to become a member of the ACA, you must be a counselor, a retired counselor, or a student trying to become a counselor.
The Stanford prison experiment was conducted in August 1971 at Stanford University. Twenty-four students were randomly selected to become prisoners and prison guards. The experiment was created to study the psychological effects that those roles had on the students. The experiment was led by a Philip Zimbardo and the US Office of Naval Research funded it. Unfortunately, the students adapted to their roles a little too well. The students who were playing the role of guards became very controlling and using psychological torture on the prisoners. The students who were prisoners even started to believe that they really belonged in there. Even though the experiment was scheduled for two weeks, it ended after only six days.
ASL Psychology/
Something Else

Psych CA Person
Noam Chomsky (1928) is a cognitive scientist. His theories include Chomsky hierarchy, Universal Grammar Theory and Chomsky-Schutzenberger theorem. The Chomsky hierarchy explored various formal languages to define and link properties within human language. He also challenged traditional behaviorist views by arguing that the research (done on animals) could not transcend into humans. His research has propelled him to become a leader in his field especially that of linguistics and interestingly enough his theories can be applied to computers and in mathematics equations. This makes him a great candidate for interdisciplinary studies.
Psych CA Person
William James (1842-1910) not only was he a psychologist but he was a physician. He was the first to offer a class on psychology and is considered the father of American psychology. He founded what is known as functional psychology. Functionalism is the foundation of modern psychology and evaluates behaviors and mental life in adapting to a person's environment. They reject the structuralism and their introspective view. The theories of functionalism have been criticized because they are not based on experiments.
Psych CA Event
1994 – The DSM_IV is published! This is huge for clinical psychologist because they were able to reference symptoms and properly diagnosis their patients. This also allowed for a more consistent spectrum of mental illness.
Psych CA Event
2000 – Genetic researchers map human genes. This is the bridge to psychology and biology; the natural science to the social. By studying the genes and also hormones, neurons and by taking scans of the brain psychologists are able to pin point more accurately the cause of a mental disorder.
Psych CA Journal
I choose to include the Developmental Psychology journal because I am mostly interested in developmental psychology as a research field. It is a peer-reviewed journal published through the American Psychological Association. It accepts research articles, reviews and theoretical or methodological articles. The first editor and chief was Boyd R. McCandless in 1969 and the current one is Jacquelynne Eccles. It is published bimonthly, its content focusing on development. Some statistics include is ranking of 13 out of 65 developmental journals in 2012 by Journal of Citation Reports. Fascinatingly, the journal also accepts publications concerning other species if the findings can be applied to humans.
Psych CA Association
I decided to do a paragraph on the Psychology of Addictive Behaviors because personally find this to be an intriguing an understudied field in this discipline. It is released quarterly through the American Psychological Association and is peer reviewed. It was published in 1987 accepting research on articles designed around topics of addiction. These topics consisted of alcohol addictions, drug use, eating disorders, smoking, nicotine, and excessive behaviors. It is high ranked by the Journal of Citation Reports in 2012, 4th out of 30 journals in Substance Abuse and the 21st out of 126 in Psychology Multidisciplinary.

Psych CA Association
The Anxiety and Depression Association of America mission is to increase awareness and improve treatment and advocate for a cure for anxiety disorders in children and adults. It is a nonprofit. Founded by Jerilyn Ross, Robert Dupont, Arthur Hardy and Manuel Zane in 1980 under the name Phobia Society America which was later changed in 1990. They fund research via grants and awards which focus on anxiety. They operate out of Silver Spring, MD. They have launched several national campaigns for various disorders such as OCD and social anxiety. In 2008 they joined HealthCentral in hopes of promoting further information. They operate under a board of directors.
Psych CA Journal
The International Society for Intelligence Research is not specifically for psychology degrees but is a scientific society for human intelligence. It is fairly recent, and was founded in 2000 by Douglas Detterman. There is an annual conference for people to network and present their research. The current president is Linda Gottfredson. The ISIR also awards a lifetime achievement award to members who have advanced the field of intelligence, only a handful of people have received it.
Psych CA Something else
Since I am an intergrated studies I though t this article was interesting on how psychology technology is being used to develop sports trading. This particular software, made by Clare Flynn Levy, is designed to impute lifestyle factors including dies and the amount of exercise. This technology will be used to analyze and align performance with skill and calculate in luck to receive information concerning the best or worst trades. This technology will help fund managers eliminate emotions in player trades and allow for a more logical trade.
Psychology is an importance factor in any discipline because it provides insight to human action and motivation. When it comes to sports trade I think the technology will benefit teams because it does not give room for the inner voice or feelings in the choice.

Psych CA Something Else
I choose this current article and study because I am interested in developmental psychology. This study was designed by John Hewitt a neuroscientist surrounded around the teenage cognitive ability. He at first assessed that intelligence depends largely on biology but the findings actually showed a stronger link between intelligence and environment versus biological factors. He found that adversary may be a determinant in it as well. Because of children’s ability to make connections and syntax the information they are more equipped for learning and adolescents with higher IQS tend to continue this hyperdrive learning for a longer period of time. This period can be supported through the evolvement of learning new things such as music or language.
DSP-Association 1914
The National Communication Association studies all forms and modes in communication. This organization helps professors and scholars and much more with research and teaching. The National Communication Association is a non profit group that wants to better lives. What they mean by that is they want to improve communication in a humans life and relationships. This organization is ran out of Washington, DC and was found in 1914. The organization is ran by a president which is usually a scholar or teacher and there has been 11 women presidents so far today.
DSP- Association 1970
The International Association of Business Communicators was founded in 1970. This organization is a professional network that has 15,000 professionals in 80 countries. The vast spread is amazing that they cover like public relations, corporate communications, public affairs, investor relations and many more. They even have resources to help people do better with their job, help find jobs, and then to strengthen your skills in the work force. The International Association of Business is mainly a corporation around 39 percent, but also can be a non profit organization at about 12 percent. It is a widely spread organization helping people out with multiple communication areas.

DSP- Something else
Do you want to communicate with aliens. It started in the 1800s. People over the years have been crazy about wanting to know if there is another life form. People have actually tried different tactics to try to communicate with the aliens. The first one is burning canals and making crop circles. The reason is because they want the aliens to be able to see the message from above. The next one was using concentrated lights because Charles Cros thought that he saw other worldly cities. With the light he tried to communicate to other planets by using Morse code.

DSP-Journal 1937
The Western Journal of Communications was published quarterly since the year 1937. There has been studies that the WSCA enhances our understanding of human communication. Methodological along with diverse theoretical perspectives are welcome. There are multiple approaches, issue’s and perspectives that are reflected by all the history and research that has been published across rhetorical and media studies, intercultural communication and interpersonal studies, cultural and critical studies, small group, organizational communication and language behavior not to mention family behavior. The WSCA strongly encourages not only the scholarly audiences but the learned public to take advantage of the research that is available.

DSP- Journal 2013
It is said to be that The Journal of Communication is an essential publication for all communications specialists, policy makers along with the flagship journal in the whole field. The Journal of Communication try’s to concentrate its focus on communications research, policy, theory and practice. The journal wants it’s readers to have nothing but it’s best; including the latest, broadest and most important findings. The Journal of Communications has the symposia of selected studies on the current issues along with the most extensive book review selection. This journal is publishes four times yearly and publishes articles and book reviews that focus on a broad range of issues in research, policy, practice and communication theory.

Adam Ferguson (20 June 1723 – 22 February 1816) is considered to be a great historian but is also one of the prominent practitioners of sociology. He was one of the first sociologist to try to put himself in one shoes and see how he would react in a similar situation. Most people of this era didn’t empathize with people and because of this didn’t understand why people made certain decisions they would never seem to make. This allowed a greater insight into the minds of people. He then relayed this into reading and putting himself within an authors’ shoes as well.

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (3 May 1748 – 20 June 1836) he was the first to actually name the term ("sociologie"). He was French but took the Latin word socius which meant “companion” and the Greek word “ology” which means the study of. He was also a prime figure in the French Revolution and is one of the main reasons Louis the XVI was executed. He was also one of the first members of what turned into the Academy of Moral and Political Science of the Institute of France. This academy is divided into five sections and for its main purposes in political economy and statistics, law and jurisprudence general and philosophical history, politics, administration, and finance the discussion of mental philosophy

French Revolution (1789—1799) in this revolution, it was basically a cause of Marx perspective about how the lower class was being treated compared to the upper class. This revolution is the foundation that really shows what sociology evolved into. Through the theories of Marx people started to realize why they accepted such a poor government. People started to wonder why the upper class lived in luxury meanwhile they barely had food to eat. This shaped the beginning and showed the important of the social effects that the economy can have on people and was predicted by Marx exactly.

Russian Revolution (1892—1917) One of the longer revolutions that took place was an important benefactor of sociology. Just as the French Revolution started, lower workers feeling oppressed started to challenge the upper hierarchy. The Russians beforehand made the lower class workers really feel like peasants and with the introduction of sociologist they started to want change. Sociologist in that era predicted that this would turn into a war because the lower class has become overcrowded and unsuitable to live a normal life. This point in history changed how the Russian government viewed the social society.

American Journal of Sociology is the number one journal in the world. It goes more into the aspect of each kind of sociological theory there is and base it off the different standpoints. Whether it’s quantitative or qualitative data being observed, it correctly classifies each article and essay. It is the number 70 overall book in the world, just shows how much this book is deemed to be important in any field of study. The majority of people that have made articles in this book have gone on to be successful in life and are some of the more well recognized sociologist that are or have been a part of this world.

American Sociology Review. Rated the 80th most important book in the world and the second best sociology book that a sociologist has. This book is one of the more important key books to have as a review source. This book primarily focuses on reviews from different people from across the world. Its and open-ended journal review meaning that it is a highly debatable book. It is a book where you can freely express your opinions, nonetheless, you are open for attack if another sociologist deems that your finds are wrong or not valid. This is what makes this book
different from other journals in the world.

Aeryus H

American Sociological Association is a non-profit group primarily based in Washington, DC. It is the most notable group that will be on this list. This group primarily focuses on gathering as much data about sociology as possible. They want to study people and tries their best to advance the world in the field of sociology. Their goal is to create more jobs and make sociology a wider known discipline than it is today. In a short time they have made sociology more recognizable across the globe and because of them sociology has become a more talked about discipline than in past years.

International Sociological Association is a non-profit organization who primarily focuses on the sociology outside of the United States. This organization was founded in 1905 and has helped many people that don’t have access to the information that most American have understand what sociology is. Understanding sociology is key because it helps people understand each other, furthermore, helps us understand why we think differently and make different decisions. In knowing this it allows people with different ethnic and racial backgrounds try to understand each other which in turn will make the world a better place because everyone has different cultural backgrounds.

Evolution. I believe that evolution plays a very big part in how we see sociology. If we didn’t evolve we probably wouldn’t see sociology as we do today. The way we communicate changes sociology daily. I believe as the more we evolve and gain knowledge about the world because we have barely scrapped the surface, the more advance our sociology will become. All in all, sociology is directly related to evolution
AH - Thinker - Psych.
Joseph Jastrow (1863-1944) was an American psychologist, noted for inventions in experimental psychology, design of experiments, and psycho-physics. Jastrow was one of the first scientists to study the evolution of language, publishing an article on the topic in 1886. The first doctorate in psychology was given to Joseph Jastrow, a student of G. Stanley Hall at Johns Hopkins University. Jastrow later becomes professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin and served as president of the American Psychological Association in 1900.
AH - Thinker - Psych
James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944) an American psychologist, was the first professor of psychology in the United States at the University of Pennsylvania and long-time editor and publisher of scientific journals and publications, most notably the journal Science. Cattell helped establish psychology as a legitimate science, worthy of study at the highest levels of the academy. Cattell’s research on individual differences played a significant role in introducing and emphasizing the experimental technique and importance of methodology in experimentation in America.

AH - Event - Psych.
In 1904 Mary Calkins is elected president of the APA. Calkins, a professor and researcher at Wellesley College, studied with William James at Harvard University, but Harvard denied her a Ph.D. because of her gender. One of her contributions to psychology was her system of self-psychology. In a time where there were several schools of thoughts, Calkins established the school of the 'self-psychologist.' Self-psychology was influenced by the works of William James and Josiah Royce, two people who influenced her during her studies at Harvard. Calkins self-psychology explains that the self is an active agent acting consciously and purposefully.
AH - Event - Psych
In 1892 G. Stanley Hall founded the American Psychological Association (APA) and served as its first president. Later on he established two key journals in the field: American Journal of Psychology (1887) and Journal of Applied Psychology (1917). The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States and Canada. It is the world's largest association of psychologists with around 137,000 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants and students.
AH - Journal/Book - Psych.
The Interpretation of Dreams” by Sigmund Freud was a journal published in German first on November 4, 1899 and was then published in English in the year of 1913. In this book Freud talks about how dreams from his point of view are all forms of “wishful fulfillment”. He talks about how images in our dreams are often not what they appear to be and need deeper interpretation.
AH - Journal - Psych
“The Asch Conformity Experiment” journal was written by Solomon Asch and published in 1951. This journal talks about how he conducted a series of lab experiments that at the end were supposes to demonstrate the degree to which an individual’s own opinions are influenced by those of a majority group. Since he conducted this experiment this methodology has been used by many researchers and is still used in today’s social psychology.
AH - Association - Psych
Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) – SPSSI was founded in 1936 and is a group of over 3000 scientists from psychology and other fields who share a common interest in research on the psychological aspects of important social issues. The SPSSI fosters and funds research on social issues through annual awards. It is an independent society and is also Division 9 of the APA. You can join the SPSSI as a regular member, a graduate member, and an undergraduate member. The dues for an undergraduate member are $25.
DSP- Thinker
Irving Janis- Irving Janis was born in 1918 and was a professor over at University of California Berkely. He was very well known for the theory he came up with called group think. Group think is the study of how groups work together. The communication in group think is very key because if one think goes wrong the group falls apart. He also talks about stereotyping and group dynamics. The way these are important are important was without them group work might have never been so organized. If people didn’t realize what was the problem and couldn’t fix it that group would struggle and it would turn into individual work instead.

AH - Association - Psych
Association for Psychological Sciences (APS) – The APS is a non-profit organization that is dedicated to the advancement of scientific psychology and how it is represented at not only a national level but also at an international level. The mission of the APS is to promote, protect, and advance the interests of scientifically oriented psychology in everything we do. The APS was founded in 1988 by a group of scientifically oriented psychologists interested in advancing scientific psychology and its representation at a national level. The APS has approximately 25,000 members. In order to joining APS you must apply online for a membership.
AH - Something Else - Psych
In 1892 the APA was founded by G. Stanley Hall and served as its first president. He also wrote two key journals in the field of psychology: American Journal of Psychology (1887) and Journal of Applied Psychology (1917). In 1904 Mary Calkins was elected as the first woman president of the APA. In the year of 1905 Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed IQ tests, a scale of general intelligence on the basis of mental age.
DSP- Thinker
Wilbur Lang Schramm- William Lang Schramm was born in 1907. He was very well known in the communication world as the father of communication studies. With that name he brought the development of communication to the United States. In 1947 Wilbur Schramm was the founding director of communications at the University of Illinois. If that wasn’t good enough for him he became the founding director of communication of the international communication. If all these accomplishments weren’t enough he published a book in 1964. It is a famous communication book called Mass Media and National Development.

DSP- Event
Groupthink- Group think was created by William Thyte in 1952. This theory talks mainly about any type of group and how they think. This throws all the theories into one. This is where organization and group cooperation is very important. It also deals with how to deal with group dilemma. Groupthink is a way to express themselves to the group. Without groupthink people wouldn’t be able to express their ideas they have toward a certain topic. Groupthink is important because without conversation the group would be stuck with know where to go.

BF Skinner (PSY)
Born as Burrhus Frederic Skinner, March 20, 1904. Skinner was an American Psychologist, Behaviorist, Author, Inventor, and Social Philosopher. Skinner was a professor at Harvard University. He is most famous for his findings in the operant conditioning chamber which is also known as the skinner box. ~BB

Albert Ellis (Cognitive Behavior Therapy)(PSY): Sept 27 1913-July 24 2007. Ellis was an American psychologist. In 1955 coined Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. He was the founder of and president of the New York City Albert Ellis Institute. As of 1982 Ellis is the second most influential psychotherapist in history. His studies of CBT focused on the thought processes along with belief systems that still hold strong today.~BB
Founding father Carl Rogers was honored for his research with the Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award from the American Psychological Association in 1956, because of his Psychotherapy Research. ~BB (PSY)
Fritz Perls and his wife Laura Pearls coined one of the most influential psychology terms, the Gestalt Therapy identity. ~ BB (PSY)
Psychological Review: is an American Journal published by the American Psychological Association Inc, introduced in 1894. most of the papers within this journal are devoted to literature, empirical, systematic evaluations, and advanced theories. ~BB (PSY)
Brain and Language: an American journal originally introduced in 1974, by academic press Inc. This journal publishes studies on neurobiological mechanisms that underlie human language. they cover modern techniques studied in the cognitive neurosciences such as electrophysiology, genetics, cellular and molecular neurobiology, brain imaging, and computational modeling. ~BB (PSY)
American Psychoanalytic Association: was founded in 1911 and is the oldest national psychoanalytic organization in the US. Their main focus is on membership development, education and research. they have biannual meetings in Jan and June where they discuss present research, training and exchange ideas. ~BB (PSY)
Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA): is an American non-profit organization thats main focus is to improve awareness, treatment, diagnosis, and cure anxiety disorders in adults and children. ADAA was founded in 1980 by Jerilyn Ross, Dr. Robert Dupont, Arthur Hardy, and Manual Zane originally called The Phobia Society of America later changed to ADAA in 1990. ~BB (PSY)
Possession, Exorcism and Psychotherapy: since even the ancient times people believed that mental illness was brought on by evil spirits that needed to be casted out. even the Greek word "psyche" means mind and soul, and is the root word for psychology. ~BB (PSY)
Thomas F Byrnes- was an American gas fitter, firefighter and police officer. he was known for his brutal questioning where the term "the third degree" became popular from his psychological and physical torture for the NY police department. the movie "The Bone Collector" was based on him and his extreme knowledge of crime. ~BB (CJ)
Roger Nash Baldwin: was the founder of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). he spend 1 year in jail for not submitting to the draft of World War 1 and was labeled a conscientious objector, so he created a legal division that protected the rights of conscientious objectors that followed him. ~BB (CJ)
In 1901 Ben Lindsey established the Juvenile Court System. He also was fighting around the same time against child labor not just in the US but foreign as well. ~BB (CJ)
In 1965, President Johnson declared a "War on Crime" aimed at stemming the drastic rise in crime rate4s. as a result, substantial resources were added to the criminal justice system and federal government passed the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968. these resources included federal tax dollars being filtered to local police agencies and new training programs for police to curb the incidents of abuse and violence. ~BB (CJ)
American Journal of Police Science- Started in 1941 edited by Mr. Ordway Hilton of the Chicago Police department where he was also the Examiner of questioned documents. The Naval intelligence department called on Hilton to do his reserve duties so he had to resign from being the editor, but Dr. David G Monroe was able to replace him. Monroe came from the Northwestern traffic Institute. When Monroe decided to retire Hilton came back as the editor until his death. ~BB (CJ)
Criminal Justice and behavior- was started in 1974 -2013. This journal is a peer reviewed journal and is published monthly. This journal goes over all the different aspects of criminal justice. Topics from prevention to intervention and assessments. Everything that is published needs to be sound information that has informative theoretical and research criteria. ~BB (CJ)
Federal Bureau of Investigation- the FBI is national security organization that is driven by intelligence. The FBI protects the US from terrorism and major crime federally, state, municipal, and international. The FBI is a national security organization and also law enforcement. They FBI was established in 1908 ~BB (CJ)
Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences- the ACJS is an international association that was formed in 1963. The ACJS promotes policy analysis, research, and education. ACJS doesn’t just publish scholarly journals they have tons of professional sectors and promote education with students that want to explore the field of criminal justice. ~BB (CJ)
The first ever mug shot-mug shots were created because there wasn’t another way to identify a criminal. They needed to record a crime and sketching a face was unreliable so they took a photo. At Bedford Prison in Britain the first ever mug shot was taken a 150 years ago. Because cameras were a rarity it was important to have your nicest clothes on and that was no different when the first criminals took their vintage photo. ~BB (CJ)

CMR-Psych Thinker-Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a developmental psychologist from Switzerland. He was big on studying epistemology and the development of children. Piaget created the theory of cognitive development, which explained the stages children pass through during their cognitive and physical development. Piaget created the International Center for Genetic Epistomology. He was a huge advocate for education of societies being imperative to success. He wrote many works including The Psychology of Intelligence, The Construction of Reality in the Child, and The Moral Judgement of the Child.
CMR- Psych Thinker
Anna Freud (1895-1982) was the youngest child of Sigmund Freud. She helped develop psychoanalysis alongside her father. Anna Freud concentrated more on analysis of children and the ability to train the ego socially. She wrote The Writings of Anna Freud, which included eight volumes of text on psychoanalysis, child analysis, and child development.
In 1886 Sigmund Freud starts providing therapy to patients in Austria. Known as perhaps the most famous and influential psychological thinkers, Freud had a long and influential career. Many of his early theories and procedures are still in place today. Modern science has found many of his theories hold scientific evidence supporting them.
In 1906 Ivan Pavlov wrote his first works on classical conditioning. Pavlov’s creation of conditioned stimulus, which would be a catalyst for a second stimulus, brought about a completely new theory in psychology. Conditioned stimulus remains a huge part of psychology today.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology: The Journal of Abnormal Psychology is published by the American Psychological Association. The journal began publication in 1906 and has been printed for 125 years. Articles on research and theory in abnormal psychology are the main focus of this publication. Psychopathology, etiology, abnormal development, and symptoms are regularly written about. Other focuses are thinking processes in disorders, atypical features of individuals, and experimental findings in abnormal psychology.
Trends in Cognitive Science: Trends in Cognitive Science was first published relatively recently, in 1997. The trends series originally started in Europe, but has since also opened a branch in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Trends in Cognitive Science is a collection of peer reviewed articles with an emphasis in cognitive functioning. Trends reviews experiments, theories, and new ideas and publishes the findings. The trends publication in cognition had one of the larger impacts on the field of psychology compared to other publications of the trends series.
Association for Psychological Science: APS is a not for profit organization located in Washington DC. The organization was formed relatively recently in 1988, and has about 25,000 members worldwide. The founders became disenchanted with the APA and decided to form their own organization. APS reaches out to the psychological community in hopes of advancing knowledge and applications of psychological techniques. The Association for Psychological Science publishes journals, conducts research, and has annual meetings to spread the field of psychology. Membership can be obtained through a fee. Members can read APS published journals and attend annual meetings.
Association for Research in Personality: Founded in 2001. ARP is focused on understanding personality; the development, structure, and change. ARP attempts to bring psychologists in all aspects of psychology to help advance the field of personality. All types of psychologists are members of ARP. Through the forums and meetings new information and research is disseminated. Members also can access publications from ARP, which include Journal of Research in Personality and Social Psychology and Personality.
387 BC
CMR-Psych-Something Else
Plato made a claim in 387 BC stating the mind was the center for emotion and cognitive processes. Previously many people thought the heart was the main influence on mental processing. This was a huge advancement without the help of modern technology and science. Plato’s student Aristotle claimed the heart was still the main hub in mental processes. Plato’s theory remained until modern science was able to prove the mind controlled cognition and emotion. Plato’s developments in ancient psychology and philosophy remain today and have made a huge influence on the modern science of psychology.
387 BC
CMR-Rec Management-Practitioner
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (1858-1919)- He was the 26th president of the United States and an avid outdoorsman. Roosevelt took many adventures into Africa, Europe, and South America. He eventually became a huge catalyst for further conservation of land, and established 5 national parks, 18 national monuments, over 50 bird sanctuaries, national game refuges, and over 100 million acres of national forests. Theodore Roosevelt National Park, located in North Dakota, is named after perhaps the greatest influence on outdoor conservation. Roosevelt camped, fished, and hunted across America, where his love of the outdoors developed.
CMR-Rec Management-Practitioner
Joseph Lee (1862-1937)- Known as “the father of the playground movement.”. Lee was a social worker in the Boston area, and advocated strongly that communities could be strengthened by play. Joseph began to work towards organizing areas within the city to function as playgrounds. He believed violence and anger in a community could be remedied through mutual recreation and play. Joseph Lee was named as president of the National Recreation Association in 1910 until his death in 1937. Lee also participated in the Boy Scouts of America organization.
776 BC
CMR-Rec Management-Event
The Olympic games were started in ancient Greece sometime around 776 BC. The Greeks devoted the games to the Greek gods. The first Olympics were help in Olympia, Greece. Eventually the games became prestigious, with warring city-states even allowing truces and safe passage of athletes from enemy areas. High levels of status and respect were given to competing athletes. Thousands of people flocked to watch the public displays of recreation.
CMR Rec Management-Event
In 1872, Yellowstone National Park became the first national park in the United States. The vast amounts of wildlife and beautiful terrain will be protected and maintained by the US Government. The establishment of this park began a movement to federally protect and conserve lands for public use. Yellowstone remains a popular destination, with approximately 2.5 million tourists visiting the park during the year.
CMR-Rec Management-Journal
Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism: JORT is an interdisciplinary and international publication. JORT has peer reviewed articles on a wide range of topics including outdoor recreation, administration activities, management operations, and methods and theory. The publication also discusses new findings and products used in recreation, tourism, and management. JORT is a new publication, beginning in September 2013. The publication aims to educate on a wide array of topics in the recreation field.
CMR-Rec Management-Journal
Therapeutic Recreation Journal: The Therapeutic Recreation Journal began publication in 1968. It is published 4 times a year. TRJ is published by the National Recreation and Park Association, with help from Sagamore Publishing. TRJ has research and discussions about individuals with disabilities, issues within the recreation profession, services provided, and how individuals can receive therapeutic recreation benefits. TRJ covers the recreation field, as well as blending psychology because of the nature of the journal. Therapeutic recreation combines psychology into the recreational field.
CMR-Rec Management-Association
National Parks and Recreation Association: The NRPA was formed in August 1965, and is headquartered in Ashburn, Virginia. The association aims to advance public recreation areas and conservation of the same areas for public use. The NRPA has over 40,000 members at this point. They work with the government, the public, and private companies to advance conservation of public recreation areas. NRPA lobbies for protection of national parks, monuments, and other public recreation areas. They try to set more land aside for recreation and protect what is currently in existence. To join NRPA you must be working at least part time in the recreation and leisure field and pay a small yearly fee. The NRPA offers discounts for students, retired, and young professionals.
CMR-Rec Management-Association
Utah Parks and Recreation Association: The URPA was established in 1951. They hold an annual conference in Salt Lake City, Utah. URPA also publishes a periodical magazine and distribute it throughout the state of Utah. URPA aims to conserve land for recreational use, including parks, monuments, and designated leisure areas within the state. URPA currently has around 450 members. URPA pays for 3 graduate school scholarships and 3 undergraduate scholarships each year for students in the recreation field. URPA is open to the public for membership, but most members work in the recreation field, are students, or volunteers within the recreational areas in Utah. Membership costs 45 dollars per year for professionals and 10 dollars per year for students and volunteers.
CMR-REC Management-Something Else
Recreation Management Resources: RRM contracts with the government to manage public use areas into revenue producing businesses. RRM takes care of management, employees, maintenance, insurance, and utilities of the recreation area. Recreation Resource Management usually pays a yearly percentage of revenue to the government. RRM conducted a study comparing a state-run park to a similar RRM-run area. The state-run park ran a monetary deficit while RRM made a 6 figure profit. The organization claims to efficiently operate recreation and leisure areas across the United States.
PVD ( Communication- Thinker)

Immanuel Kant was born in April 22, 1724 in Konigsberg, Germany. He was a German philosopher who is widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that human concepts and categories structure our perspectives of the world and its regulations, and that reason is the source of morality.
PVD (Communication - Thinker)

John Durham Peters (1958) is an American academic and the A. Craig Baird professor of Communication Studies at the University of Iowa. He is best known for his first book Speaking into the Air: A history of the Idea of Communication. He received his Ph.D in Communication Theory and Research from Stanford University in 1986.
PVD (Communication- Event)

William Holmes McGuffey (1800-1873) was an American professor and college president who is best known for writing the McGuffey Readers, one of the nation's first and most widely used series of textbooks.
PVD ( Communication- Event)

Thomas Alva Edison who was born in Malan, OH in February 11, 1847 was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb.
PVD ( Communication- Association)

The National Communication Association (NCA) was structured in 1914 as the National Association of Academic Teachers of Public Speaking. Scholars, practitioners and teachers are more than welcome to join this website to advance their communication skills. The NCA office is located in Washington, DC and their main focus in their organization is to help improve the quality of human life and relationships.
PVD ( Communication- Association)

The organization of American Historians was founded in 1907 at Indiana University. The organization’s “mission is to promote excellence in the scholarship, teaching, and presentation of American history and to encourage wide discussion of historical questions and the equitable treatment of all practitioners of history.” This organization is also available online for anyone to participate or use as a guide to their research.

PVD (Communication- Journal)
The Journal of Communication was published online in 2006 by Robert M. Entman. The article’s aim is to increase awareness of lack of communication between disciplines. Interdisciplinary collaborations can have a profound effect on both students and teachers.

PVD ( Communication- Journal)

An article in Language in India which addresses the importance of effective communication skills was published in 2012 by Dr. Samata. Samata shared some of her own personal experiences as a teacher to demonstrate the need for change in the way the English language is spoken because verbal style often portrays education or social status. This can often work to the speaker’s disadvantage.
PVD ( Communication - Something Else )

Technology such as cellphones, laptops, the radio and television plays a huge role in communication. Communication through media has inspired many lives and has made communication easy. Although there may be some disadvantages or stereotypes in media through communication, people are still convinced to buy these technologies to make communication simple and fun.

TH- Edwin Sutherland considered to be one of the most influencial criminologist of the 20th century. Best known for defining collar crime and differential association. His theory was the development of habitatual patterns are more conclusive to people who commit crime. He explains this in his book, Principles of criminology.
TH- Travis Hirschi best known for his social bond theory, which states that people do not commit crime because it interferes with their belief, attatchments, commitments and involvments. He explains this in his book Causes of Delinquency
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