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Chapter 1 Section 2 Native American Societies Around 1492
Transcript of Chapter 1 Section 2 Native American Societies Around 1492
division of labor LEARN ABOUT Native American societies, trade, and culture
TO UNDERSTAND the diversity of Native American peoples and
how they how they interacted with one another. ONE AMERICAN'S STORY Parrish is the last of four spiritual leaders believed sent to guide the Pomos, Born Essie Pinola, she was 6 years old when her people, the Kashaya Pomo who live at Stewart's Point in northwestern Sonoma County, acknowledged her as their ''dreamer.'' The term can best be translated to mean ''visionary'' but also includes ''doctor'' or ''healer,'' as well as ''priest'' and ''prophet.'' she raised 13 children
managed an apple cannery
was an accomplished basket weaver
for 70 years, provided spiritual focus for her people. She was the religious, political and cultural leader of her tribe.
from 1943 until her death in 1979, she worked with anthropologists to ensure that the way of her people were recorded.
by the time of her death the Kashaya Pomo numbered less than 100. Native Americans Live in Diverse Societies California
• Kashaya Pomo hunt waterfowl along northwest coast
• Yurok, Hupa gather acorns in forests, fish in mountain streams Northwest Coast
• Large communities live along streams, seashore, and in forests
• Kwakiutl, Nootka, Haida gather shellfish, hunt whales, otters, seals• Place totems, symbols of ancestral spirits, on masks, boats, poles
• Potlatches—families give away possessions in special ceremonies Southwest
• By 1300, Pueblo settle near waterways, build multistory houses
• Hopi, Acoma live near cliffs, develop irrigation systems
• Grow corn, beans, squash; build kivas, underground ceremonial rooms Eastern Woodlands
• Tribes like Iroquois build villages in forests; farm, hunt, gather
• People develop woodworking tools, craft objects from wood
• Northeast rely on animals for food, clothing; Southeast, on farming Native Americans Share Cultural Patterns Trading Networks
• Trade one of biggest factors in bringing tribes into contact
• Groups specialize in processing or making different products
• Traders on transcontinental network trade items from far-off places Land Use
• Native Americans consider land the source of life, not to be sold
• Disturb it only for important reasons, like food gathering, farming Religious Beliefs
• People believe nature is filled with spirits; ancestors guide people
• Some cultures believe in one supreme being Social Organization
• Bonds of kinship, ties among relatives, ensure customs are passed on
• Division of labor—tasks by gender, age, status—creates social order
• Groups organized by families; some in clans with common ancestors Their name for themselves means "People From the Top of the Land," while "Kashaya" means "expert gamblers." The Pomos lived there until 1920, when the federal government bought the 42-acre Nobles Ranch, five miles west on Skaggs Springs Road, and established the Kashaya Reservation.
Throughout her life, Parrish used her powers to unify her people. She was the acknowledged center of the community, recognized as the last of four promised leaders sent by the spirits to guide the Kashaya Pomo.
It became her mission to educate the Kashaya children in the Indian language, culture and laws. She not only taught in the reservation school, but compiled a Kashaya Pomo dictionary, working with Robert Oswalt, a Berkeley scholar well-known in the field of Indian linguistics. Pomo Yurok means "downriver" The Yuroks are original people of Northern California. Most Yurok people still live there today. Plank houses are made of long, flat planks of cedar wood lashed to a wooden frame. Native American plank houses look rather similar to old European houses, but the Indians didn't learn to build them from Europeans-- this style of house was used on the Northwest Coast long before Europeans arrived. Hupa Hupa tradition suggests that they have lived in Hoopa Valley for over 4,000 years. Some Hupa people also speak Yurok. Hupa are Native Americans whose traditional land is Hoopa Valley, California. Kwakiutl Nootka Haida The Kwakwaka'wakw ; (also known - though incorrectly - as the Kwakiutl) are an Indigenous group of First Nations peoples, numbering about 5,500, who live in British Columbia on northern Vancouver Island and the adjoining mainland and islands. Kwakwaka'wakw translates as "Those who speak Kwak'wala", describing the collective nations within the area that speak the language. Kwagu'ł girl, Margaret Frank (née Wilson) wearing abalone shell earrings. Abalone shell earrings were a sign of nobility and only worn by members of this class. also known as the Nuu-chah-nulth, were North American Indians who lived along the seaward coast of Vancouver Island, Canada, and the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. Nuu-Chah-Nulth houses were gargantuan. Ranging from 40 to 100 feet in length and 30 to 40 feet in width, they each sheltered several patrilineally related families. These massive houses were built broadside to the beach and out of cedar beams and hand-split boards. The Haida, were known for their seamanship, their martial inclination and their practice of slaver credited with the introduction of the totem pole Haida defended themselves with fortifications, including palisades, trapdoors and platforms. They took to water in large ocean-going canoes, large enough to accommodate as many as 60 paddlers, each created from a single Western Red cedar tree. The Haida have strong values and beliefs in their position as "original guardians" of their homeland that was given to them by the "Creator" as a blessing to be cared for and not wasted. Pueblo The Pueblo people are a Native American people in the Southwestern United States. Their traditional economy is based on agriculture and trade. When first encountered by the Spanish in the 16th century, they were living in villages that the Spanish called pueblos, meaning "villages". Of the 21 pueblos that exist today, Taos, Acoma, Zuni, and Hopi are the best-known. The main Pueblos are located primarily in Arizona, and New Mexico and also in Texas and formerly in Colorado. Hopi The name 'Hopi' is a shortened form of their autonym, Hopituh Shi-nu-mu ("The Peaceful People" or "Peaceful Little Ones" Hopi is a concept deeply rooted in the culture's religion, spirituality, and its view of morality and ethics. To be Hopi is to strive toward this concept, which involves a state of total reverence and respect for all things, to be at peace with these things, and to live in accordance with the instructions of Maasaw, the Creator or Caretaker of Earth. The Hopi are natives of northwestern Arizona, where they and their ancestors have been living for thousands of years. Acoma Acoma Pueblo Within the matriarchal tradition, women are responsible for the family and the home.
They are not permitted in sacred kivas where men practice in religious ceremonies.
An Acoma woman is considered head of the household, has possession of the house, and hands down the sole ownership of the house to her youngest daughter.
The youngest daughter is responsible for taking care of family members. Iroquoi the "People of the Longhouse", are an association of several tribes of indigenous people of North America. The original Iroquois League was often known as the Five Nations, as it was composed of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca nations After the Tuscarora nation joined the League in 1722, the Iroquois became known as the Six Nations. The Iroquois Confederacy, also known as the Iroquois League, was governed by the Iroquois Great Council. Each Iroquois nation sent between eight and fourteen leaders to the Great Council, where they agreed on political decisions through discussion and voting. Although these politicians were called "chiefs," they were actually elected officials, chosen by the clan mothers (or matriarchs) of each tribe. Each individual nation also had its own tribal council to make local decisions. This is similar to how American states each have their own government, but all are subject to the greater US government. In fact, the Iroquois Confederacy was one of the examples of representative democracy used as a model by America's founding fathers.