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Transcript of 1750-1900 Timeline
TimeLine Qing China Sovereignty By: Nishant Sinha, Luke Kruze, Jimmy Song, Salah Dagulas
Zach Mefrakis , Abdul El-Darrat The authority to rule Islamic Heartland Latin America Russia Japan 1795 Egypt elites seized
compains failed 1808 The beginning of sultan Mahmud II's tenure. During his rule, he massacred the jonnesary core and established a European-structured army. 1831 Egypt and the ottamans enter war with each other. Egypt wins and gains syria 1839 Sultan Mahmud II instigated the Tanzimat, or a series of reforms to modernize the ottomans 1868 Egypt creates the suez canal 1876 The formation of the young tuks, who advanced for universal sufferage, rights, and a secular, state. Called for a turkish hegemony 1882 Egypt goes under Britsh protection 1913-1922 Amernian Genocide: Initiated by Ottaman Empire, which eradicated 1.0-1.5 million people. The reason for this was to opress the Armenia popultion, which sought to acheive equal rights as their muslin counterparts. The Young Turks were responsible for the purpose of creating on exclusive turkish state. Young Turks Turkish national reformist party that coiled for universal rights and secular goverment. They demanded on a new consitution once HomidII abolishedthe old one. Additionally they took to power as they instiguted a revolt to dispose of the sultan in 1908. From there most notacible actions included the Amernian Genocide and the 1055 at the second Balkan war Muhammed ALI Lost Egypt, Muhnmmed Ali took power. Impressed by the French and their ways of governence, this leader took western style reforms. This included a remodeled army and the emergence of Europe advisors. Additionally he decided to mationalize the land in order to create a stable flow of income to Egypt. High taxes alsobecame prevelant duting his rule, especially with the farmers. Moreover, Muhammed Ali, impose insustrialization of weapons. Mahmud II Originally forgeted for an assassination attempt, Mahumad II was kept safe by his mother from the current sultan. Mustafa N. However as mustafa was abdicted by brebels, Mahmud was placed as Sultan. During his rule, he recaptured the holy cities of Mecca and Medina from Muhammed IBN Wahhab. Despite this he lost to the British, French and Russia in the battle of Navario. Subsquently, the Ottomans were forced to reconize Greece as a indepentent state. This marked the breakdown of the Ottaman Empire. As a result,he took a series of reforms called the Taonzimat. 1750 1910 1850 1844 1770-1820 By the end of the 1700s and the early 1800s, several protests began to break out against the Tokugawa Bakufu due to crop failure, high taxes, and increased rice prices European ships visit Japan seeking foreign relations Upon rejection by the Japanese, the Europeans open up several trading ports by force in Tokyo Bay leading to several unfair treaties with them and the Japanese 1853 1866-1869 The Meiji Restoration 1890 Beginning of Imperial Japan The Korean War 1894 By the middle of the nineteenth century, Japan's ruling Shogunate was a weak, feudal order, unable to control all its own domains, much less defend the nation against a threat from the Western powers. This threat materialized in 1853 with the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry and a squadron of the U.S. Navy demanding that Japan open commerce with the West. The result was a series of "unequal" treaties in which Japan was forced to concede special economic and legal privileges to the Western powers. Beside Japan lay China--weak and humiliated, an example of what could befall a great Asian nation unable to defend itself against Western imperialism. Determined that Japan should not share China's fate, and convinced that modernization depended on abolishing the feudal order, a group of middle-ranking samurai overthrew the military government of the Shôgun in 1868 and set Japan peaceably on a course of radical modernization perhaps unparalleled in history. Carried out in the name of restoring rule to the emperor, who then took the reign name "Meiji" meaning "enlightened rule," the Meiji Restoration was in many ways a profound revolution.
The new leaders studied the political, economic, and social institutions of the Western powers and selectively adopted those suited to their purpose. In 1889 a constitution was promulgated which established a parliamentary government but left it accountable to the emperor rather than to the people. Administrative power was centralized in a national bureaucracy which also ruled in the name of the emperor. The classes were declared equal, so that samurai and their lords lost their feudal privileges, while the role of merchants--formerly despised as profit hungry--began to be respected.
The enthusiastic adoption of new Western technologies caused an explosion of industrial productivity and diversification. A national military and universal conscription were established. Compulsory public education was introduced both to teach the skills needed for the new nation and to inculcate values of citizenship in all Japanese.
Itō Hirobumi studied constitutions and goverments in Europe and based the Japanese government off of it. The First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) was fought between Japan and China, and its subject was control of Korea. The Li-Ito Convention, an agreement forged in 1885, allowed both China and Japan to put their own troops in Korea. Nine years later, some Koreans revolted against the incumbent government and so both China and Japan sent troops to help quell the rebellion. However, after the job was done, Japan refused to withdraw its troops from the then Chinese-controlled Korea, and the war began as a result.
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought in both naval and land battles. On land, several Japanese victories forced the Chinese army to retreat northward away from Pyongyang and Seoul. Another Japanese victory in Liaoning allowed the Japanese Army to invade the surrounding areas of China. At sea, the Chinese Navy lost several important naval battles to the Japanese.
China's losses in the First Sino-Japanese War were surprising because China had more resources, a much larger population, a larger army, better battleships, and had spent much effort on modernizing its military. Despite all this, the military fell apart, soldiers pillaged their fellow citizens' villages, and soldiers repeatedly abandoned the battlefields. The organizational side of things was also in disarray, as officials were often corrupt and more interested in fighting each other than in trying to win the war.
In 1895, the countries finally tried diplomacy, and both Japan and China signed the Treaty of Simonoseki to end the First Sino-Japanese War. This treaty made Korea a nominally independent country (it was actually a Japanese protectorate), gave control of Taiwan, the Liaodong peninsula, and the Pescadores islands to Japan, opened some Chinese ports to trade with Japan and Westerners, and stipulated that China must pay Japan 200 million taels. Very soon after the treaty was signed, however, international intervention forced the Japanese government to give the Liaodong peninsula back to China, but China had to pay an extra 30 million taels. A second treaty a year later allowed Japanese and Westerners to run factories in select Chinese trading ports.
This image depicts the victory of small Japan over their giant neighbor, China
This period was a time of social and economic change within the constitutional monarchy established in 1890. As the creators of the Restoration died so did their ideas and the various branches of the government began competing for power. An oligarchy bound closely by its members' shared conception of national purpose was replaced by a collection of interest groups--the Parliament, civil bureaucracy, military, and Imperial Household--all competing for the ear of the Emperor in whose name they administered the government.
Japanese industry expanded, both in light export industries like textiles, which were necessary to pay for the raw materials needed from abroad, and also in heavy industries like steel and shipbuilding. Cities grew, as more Japanese moved from farming into jobs in factories and offices. In the countryside larger landlords came to own more and more land, and the number of poor tenants increased. Always dependent on foreign trade, Japan was hard hit by the world depression that began in 1929. The farmers who had grown the silk that was exported to the United States found no market for their product once the roaring twenties and the craze for silk stockings collapsed with the stock market crash. Japan's dramatic economic growth slowed, and social problems increased, especially in the countryside.
At the same time that the leaders of imperial Japan pursued modernization and economic growth, they continued to address the issue of Japan's unequal status in the international order. In 1894, more than forty years after Commodore Perry pried Japan open to the outside world, Japan finally succeeded in revising the unequal treaties so that it regained its legal parity with the Western powers. Japan fought a war against China in 1894-95 over the control of Korea and gained Taiwan, Japan's first colony. In 1902, Japan signed an alliance with Great Britain, which signified a dramatic increase in international status, and in 1904-5, Japan won a war against Russia, one of the major Western powers. In the process Japan expanded its empire, annexing Korea in 1910. Japan was allied with the United States and Britain in World War I, and expected territorial gains at the Versailles peace conference in 1919. Instead Japan met with strong opposition from the United States, and again learned the lesson that the West regarded imperialism very differently if it was the imperialism of an Asian rather than a European power. The failure of the Japanese to get a clause on racial equality inserted into the covenant of the League of Nations was an insult that was compounded in 1924 when the United States barred all Japanese from immigration.
1801-1825 During the reign of Alexander, Napoleon's attempt to invade Russia was unsuccessful and his troops defeated in 1812, and new territory was gained, including Finland (1809) and Bessarabia (1812). Alexander originated the Holy Alliance, which for a time crushed Europe's rising liberal movement. This eventually led to the Russia revolution. 1825 In the Decembrist revolt, a group of young, reformist military officers attempted to force the adoption of a constitutional monarchy in Russia by preventing the accession of Nicholas I. They failed utterly, and Nicholas became the most reactionary leader in Europe. 1853 The Crimean war was a conflict between Russia and European powers such as the French, Ottoman, British empires as well as the kingdom of Sardonia. 1855-1881 Alexander II pushed Russia's borders to the Pacific and into central Asia. Serfdom was abolished in 1861, but heavy restrictions were imposed on the emancipated class. 1881 Alexander II faced great threats of terrorism and was even assassinated by the Land and Freedom Party who actively sought to assassinate tsarist officials 1894-1917 Revolutionary strikes, following Russia's defeat in the war with Japan, forced Nicholas II to grant a representative national body (Duma), elected by narrowly limited suffrage. It met for the first time in 1906, little influencing Nicholas in his reactionary course. The Zemstvo was a form of local government that was instituted during the great liberal reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia. The idea of the zemstvo was elaborated by Nikolay Milyutin, and the first zemstvo laws were put into effect in 1864.
In addition with the Zemstvo, the witte system emerged as a major economic tool used to help protect infant industries, secure foreign loans, and remodel the state bank. It was largely succesful for the point in which witte (the financial executive) was in office. It was also the first mention of capitalism in modern Russia.
The purpose of the zemsto was to be essentially a local centralized government that also acted similarly to a police force. After the October Revolution of 1917, the zemstvo system was shut down in most of Russia only remaining where the Bolsheviks failed to take power. This was because of civil unrest with political corruption of the zemstvo’s.
“The first great war of the 20th Century” the Russo-Japanese war, occurred in 1905 and was a dispute between Russia and Japan for the Manchuria and Korean territories. Being the two major Asian civilizations who could compete against eachother, lead to a massive conflict that resulted in the destruction of the russian navy, bloody Sunday massacre, peasant soldiers, and further conflict that weakened Russia. The conflict also lead to the Russian revolution.
1791- slaves under Toussaint L’Ouverture had overthrown the colonial government of St. Domingue and established their own country, Haiti. The more radical aspects of the French Revolution and the possibility of massive slave revolts frightened the creole elites of Latin America.